Articles
Pages
Products
Research Papers
Search - Easy Blog Comment
Blogs
Search Engines
Events
Webinar, Seminar, Live Classes
Association Admin

Association Admin

[Source: This article was Published in pcmag.com By Max Eddy - Uploaded by the Association Member: Logan Hochstetler]

Once Incognito Mode is engaged in Maps, 'you can search and navigate without linking this activity with your Google account,' says CEO Sundar Pichai

Google first introduced Incognito Mode years ago with the release of the Chrome browser. Now, as part of a larger push to enhance consumer privacy, the search giant is adding Incognito Mode to both Google Search and Google Maps.

When Incognito Mode is engaged in Chrome, your activities aren't stored in your browser history. It also disables cookies, which are used to identify and sometimes track individuals around the web, and turns off browser extensions. It doesn't hide your online activity, as a VPN would.

Google Maps

Google first introduced Incognito Mode years ago with the release of the Chrome browser. Now, as part of a larger push to enhance consumer privacy, the search giant is adding Incognito Mode to both Google Search and Google Maps.

When Incognito Mode is engaged in Chrome, your activities aren't stored in your browser history. It also disables cookies, which are used to identify and sometimes track individuals around the web, and turns off browser extensions. It doesn't hide your online activity, as a VPN would.

Incognito mode for Google Maps will be similar, Google CEO Sundar Pichai explained in a blog post. Once Incognito Mode is engaged in Maps, "you can search and navigate without linking this activity with your Google account," he wrote.

Google Maps Incognito Mode

You may have noticed that when you search in Google, meanwhile, your old searches sometimes pop up again. Google uses your activity to tailor the results for you, but not so with Incognito Mode for Search.

Incognito for Google Maps and Search are coming later this year. Google has already rolled out an Incognito Mode for YouTube. "We strongly believe that privacy and security is for everyone, not just a few," said Pichai.

While this is an important move for Google, it's not yet clear what information will be saved when these new Incognito modes are engaged, and what the limitations will be. We have to assume that, like Incognito for Chrome, you won't be totally invisible.

[Source: This article was Published in msn.com By JR Raphael - Uploaded by the Association Member: Edna Thomas]

Google Maps is great for helping you find your way — or even helping you find your car— but the app can also help other people find you.

Maps have an easily overlooked feature for sharing your real-time whereabouts with someone so they can see exactly where you are, even if you’re moving, and then navigate to your location. You can use the same feature to let a trusted person keep tabs on your travel progress to a particular place and know precisely when you’re set to arrive.

The best part? It’s all incredibly simple to do. The trick is knowing where to look.

Share your real-time location

When you want someone to be able to track your location:

  • Open the Maps app on your iOS or Android device
  • Tap the blue dot, which represents your current location, then select “Share location” from the menu that appears. (If it’s your first time using Maps for such a purpose, your phone may prompt you to authorize the app to access your contacts before continuing.)
  • If you want to share your location for a specific amount of time, select the “1-hour” option, and then use the blue plus and minus buttons to increase or decrease the time as needed
  • If you want to share your location indefinitely — until you manually turn it off — select the “Until you turn this off” option
  • On Android, select the person with whom you want to share your location from the list of suggested contacts or select an app (like Gmail or Messages) to send a private link. You can also opt to copy the link to your system clipboard and then paste it wherever you like.
  • On an iPhone, tap “Select People” to choose a person from your contacts, select “Message” to send a private link to someone in your messaging app, or select “More” to send a private link via another communication service. Your phone may prompt you to give Maps ongoing access to your location before it moves forward.
  • If you share your location within Maps itself — by selecting a contact as opposed to sending a link via an external app — the person with whom you are sharing your location will get a notification on their phone. In addition, when you select “Location sharing” in Maps’ side menu, you will see an icon on top for both you and the person you’re sharing with. Select the person’s icon, and a bar at the bottom of the screen will let you stop sharing, share your location again, or request that the person share their location with you.

To manually stop Maps from sharing your location:

  • Open the Maps app, and look for the “Sharing your location” bar at the bottom of the screen
  • Tap the “x” next to the line that says how and for how long your location is being shared

Share your trip’s progress

When you want someone to be able to see your location and estimated arrival time while you’re en route to a particular destination:

  • Open the Maps app, and start navigating to your destination
  • Swipe up on the bar at the bottom of the screen (where your remaining travel time is shown), then select “Share trip progress” from the menu that appears
  • Select the name of the person with whom you want to share your progress or select an app you want to use for sharing

If you want to stop sharing your progress before your trip is complete:

  • Swipe up again on the bar at the bottom of the screen
  • Select “Stop sharing” from the menu that appears

Tuesday, 08 January 2019 20:33

Premium Web Directory

Premium-Web-Directory.com is a general web directory that offers topic-based and region-based categories.

After decades of unbridled enthusiasm — bordering on addiction — about all things digital, the public may be losing trust in technologyOnline information isn’t reliable, whether it appears in the form of news, search results or user reviews. Social media, in particular, is vulnerable to manipulation by hackers or foreign powers. Personal data isn’t necessarily private. And people are increasingly worried about automation and artificial intelligence taking humans’ jobs.

Yet, around the world, people are both increasingly dependent on, and distrustful of, digital technology. They don’t behave as if they mistrust technology. Instead, people are using technological tools more intensively in all aspects of daily life. In recent research on digital trust in 42 countries (a collaboration between Tufts University’s Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, where I work, and Mastercard), my colleagues and I found that this paradox is a global phenomenon.

If today’s technology giants don’t do anything to address this unease in an environment of growing dependence, people might start looking for more trustworthy companies and systems to use. Then Silicon Valley’s powerhouses could see their business boom go bust.

Economic power

Some of the concerns have to do with how big a role the technology companies and their products play in people’s lives. U.S. residents already spend 10 hours a day in front of a screen of some kind. One in 5 Americans says they are online “almost constantly.” The tech companies have enormous reach and power. More than 2 billion people use Facebook every month.

Ninety percent of search queries worldwide go through Google. Chinese e-retailer, Alibaba, organizes the biggest shopping event worldwide every year on Nov. 11, which this year brought in US$25.3 billion in revenue, more than twice what U.S. retailers sold between Thanksgiving and Cyber Monday last year.

This results in enormous wealth. All six companies in the world worth more than $500 billion are tech firms. The top six most sought-after companies to work for are also in tech. Tech stocks are booming, in ways reminiscent of the giddy days of the dot-com bubble of 1997 to 2001. With emerging technologies, including the “internet of things,” self-driving carsblockchain systems and artificial intelligence, tempting investors and entrepreneurs, the reach and power of the industry is only likely to grow.

This is particularly true because half the world’s population is still not online. But networking giant Cisco projects that 58 percent of the world will be online by 2021, and the volume of internet traffic per month per user will grow 150 percent from 2016 to 2021.

All these users will be deciding on how much to trust digital technologies.

Data, democracy, and the day job

Even now, the reasons for collective unease about technology are piling up. Consumers are learning to be worried about the security of their personal information: News about a data breach involving 57 million Uber accounts follows on top of reports of a breach of the 145.5 million consumer data records on Equifax and every Yahoo account — 3 billion in all.

Russia was able to meddle with Facebook, Google, and Twitter during the 2016 election campaign. That has raised concerns about whether the openness and reach of digital media is a threat to the functioning of democracies.

Another technological threat to society comes from workplace automation. The management consulting firm, McKinsey, estimates that it could displace one-third of the U.S. workforce by 2030, even if a different set of technologies create new “gig” opportunities.

The challenge for tech companies is that they operate in global markets and the extent to which these concerns affect behaviors online varies significantly around the world.

Mature markets differ from emerging ones

Our research uncovers some interesting differences in behaviors across geographies. In areas of the world with smaller digital economies and where technology use is still growing rapidly, users tend to exhibit more trusting behaviors online. These users are more likely to stick with a website even if it loads slowly, is hard to use or requires many steps for making an online purchase. This could be because the experience is still novel and there are fewer convenient alternatives either online or offline.

In the mature digital markets of Western Europe, North America, Japan and South Korea, however, people have been using the internet, mobile phones, social media and smartphone apps for many years. Users in those locations are less trusting, prone to switching away from sites that don’t load rapidly or are hard to use, and abandoning online shopping carts if the purchase process is too complex.

Because people in more mature markets have less trust, I would expect tech companies to invest in trust-building in more mature digital markets. For instance, they might speed up and streamline the processing of e-commerce transactions and payments, or more clearly label the sources of information presented on social media sites, as the Trust Project is doing, helping to identify authenticated and reliable news sources.

Consider Facebook’s situation. In response to criticism for allowing fake Russian accounts to distribute fake news on its site, CEO Mark Zuckerberg boldly declared that “Protecting our community is more important than maximizing our profits.” However, according to the company’s chief financial officer, Facebook’s 2018 operating expenses could increase by 45 to 60 percent if it were to invest significantly in building trust, such as hiring more humans to review posts and developing artificial intelligence systems to help them. Those costs would lower Facebook’s profits.

To strike a balance between profitability and trustworthiness, Facebook will have to set priorities and deploy advanced trust-building technologies (e.g. vetting locally generated news and ads) in only some geographic markets.

The future of digital distrust

As the boundaries of the digital world expand, and more people become familiar with internet technologies and systems, their distrust will grow. As a result, companies seeking to enjoy consumer trust will need to invest in becoming more trustworthy more widely around the globe. Those that do will likely see a competitive advantage, winning more loyalty from customers.

This risks creating a new type of digital divide. Even as one global inequality disappears — more people have an opportunity to go online — some countries or regions may have significantly more trustworthy online communities than others. Especially in the less-trustworthy regions, users will need governments to enact strong digital policies to protect people from fake news and fraudulent scams, as well as regulatory oversight to protect consumers’ data privacy and human rights.

All consumers will need to remain on guard against overreach by heavy-handed authorities or autocratic governments, particularly in parts of the world where consumers are new to using technology and, therefore, more trusting. And they’ll need to keep an eye on companies, to make sure they invest in trust-building more evenly around the world, even in less mature markets. Fortunately, digital technology makes watchdogs’ work easier, and also can serve as a megaphone — such as on social media — to issue alerts, warnings or praise.

Bhaskar Chakravorti, Senior Associate Dean, International Business & Finance, Tufts University

Source: This article was published salon.com By BHASKAR CHAKRAVORTI,

Find freelancers and freelance jobs on Upwork - the world's largest online workplace where savvy businesses and professional freelancers go to work!

The internet is humongous. Finding what you need means that you should select from amongst millions and sometimes trillions of search results. However, no one can claim for sure that you have found the right information. Is the information reliable and accurate? Or would you have to shop for another set of information that is even better? Or say, relevant to the query – While the Internet keeps growing every single minute, the clutter makes it even harder to catch up with, and perhaps, a more valuable information keeps getting buried underneath it. Unfortunately, the larger the internet grows, it gets harder to find what you need.

Think of search engines and its browsers to be a set of information search tools that will fetch what you need from the Internet. But, a tool is as good as the job it gets done. While, Google, Bing, Yahoo and the like are considered a more generic tool for Internet search, they perform a “fit all search types job”. The search results throw tons of web pages at you and thus, much harder selections and surely less accuracy. 


A simple solution to deal with too much information on the Internet is out there, but only if you care to pay attention – here is a List of Over 1500 Search Engines and Directories to cut your research time in half.


There exists a whole new world of Internet search tools that are job specific and finds that information you need through filtered and precision search. They subscribe to the same world wide web and look through the same web pages as the main search engines, but only better. These search tools are split up into Specialized Search Engines and Online Directories.

The Specialized Search Engines are built to drill down into a more accurate type of information. They can collect a filtered and less cluttered search results when compared to the leading search engines such as Google, Bing, Yahoo. What makes them unique is their built-in ability to use powerful customized filters, and sometimes it has its database to deliver the type of information you need in specific file formats.

Advanced Research Method

We will classify Specialized Search Engines into Meta-crawlers (or Meta-SearchEngine) and the Specialized

Content SearchEngine

Unlike conventional search engines, the Meta-crawlers don’t crawl the web themselves, and they do not build their own web page indexes; instead, they allow search snippets to be collected (aggregated) from several mainstream search engines (Google, Bing, Yahoo and similar) all at once. They don't have their proprietary search technology or the large and expensive infrastructure as the main search engines do. The Meta-crawler aggregates the results and displays these on their proprietary search result pages. In short, they usually concentrate on front-end technologies such as user interface experience and novel ways of displaying the information. They generate revenues by displaying ads and provide the user option to search for images, audio, video, news and even more options, simulating a typical search browsing experience.

Some of the well-known Meta-Crawlers to explore.

  • Ixquick  -  A meta-search engine with options for choosing what the results should be based on? - It respects the information privacy, and the results get opened in Ixquick proxy window.
  • Google - Considered the first stop by many Web searchers. Has a large index and results are known for their high relevancy. Includes ability to search for images, and products, among other features.
  • Bing- General web search engine from Microsoft.
  • Google Scholar - One of Google's specialized search tools, Google Scholar focuses primarily on information from scholarly and peer-reviewed sources. By using the Scholar Preferences page, you can link back to URI's subscriptions for access to many otherwise fee-based articles.
  • DuckDuckGoA general search engine with a focus on user privacy.
  • Yahoo!A combination search engine and human-compiled directory, Yahoo also allows you to search for images, Yellow Page listings, and products.
  • Internet Public LibraryA collection of carefully selected and arranged Internet reference sources, online texts, online periodicals, and library-related links. Includes IPL original resources such as Associations on the Net, the Online Literary Criticism Collection, POTUS: Presidents of the United States, and Stately Knowledge (facts about the states).
  • URI Libraries' Internet ResourcesThis is a collection of links collected and maintained by the URI librarians. It is arranged by subject, like our online databases, and provides access to free internet resources to enhance your learning and research options.
  • Carrot Search   A meta-search engine based on a variety of search engines. Has clickable topic links and diagrams to narrow down search results.
  • iBoogie  -  A meta-search engine with customizable search type tabs. Search rankings have an emphasis on clusters.
  • iSeek  – The meta-search results are from a compilation of authoritative resources from university, government, and established non-commercial providers.
  • PDF Search Engine  – Searches for documents with the following extensions such as, .doc, .pdf, .chm, rtf, .txt.

The Specialized Content Search Engine focuses on a specific segment of online content; that is why they are also called a Topical (Subject Specific) Search Engines. The content area may is based on topicality, media, and content type or genre of content – further to this, the source of material and the original function it performs in transforming it, is what defines their specialty.

We can go a bit further and split these into three groups.

Information Contribution – The information source can be data collected from a Public Contribution Resource Engines as social media contributions and from reference platform such as Wikis. Examples are YouTube, Vimeo, Linked-in, Facebook, Reddit. The other types are a Private Contribution Resource Engines of the searchable database. These are created internally by the efforts of the search engine vendors; examples are Netflix (movies), Reuters (news content), Tineye(image repository), LexisNexis (legal information).

Specialized Function - These are the search engines that are programmed to perform a type of service that is proprietary and unique. They execute tasks that involve collecting web content as information and work on it with algorithms of their own, adding value to the result it produces.

An example of such types of search engines are websites such as the Wayback Machine Organization that provides and maintain records of website pages that are no longer available online as a historical record. Alexa Analytics that performs web analytics and measures traffic on websites and provide performance metrics and Alpha Wolfram who is more than a search engine. It gives you access to the world's facts and data and calculates answers across a range of topics.

Information Category (Subject Specific material) - This is where the search is subject specific and based on the information it retrieves. It does this by a special arrangement with outside sources on a consistent basis. Some of their examples are found under the broader headings.

  • Yellow Pages and phone directories
  • PeopleSearch
  • Government Database and archives
  • Public libraries
  • News Bureaus, Online Journals, and magazines
  • international organizations

web directory or Link Directory is a well-organized catalog on the World Wide Web. A collection of data organized into categories and subcategories. This directory specializes in linking to other web sites and categorizing those links. The web directory is not a search engine, and it does not show numerous web pages from the keyword search. Instead, it exhibits a list of website links according to category and subcategory. Most web directory entries are not commonly found by web crawlers. Instead, they are searched by humans. This categorization encompasses the whole website instead of a single page or a set of keywords; here the websites are often limited to inclusion in only a few categories. Web directories often allow site owners to submit their site for listing and have editors review submissions for its fitness.

The directories are distinguished into two broad categories.

Public Directories that do not require user registration or fee; and the Private Directories with an online registration that may or may not be subject to a fee for inclusions in its listings. Examples of Paid Commercial Versions.

The Public Directories is for General Topics, or it can be Subject Based or Domain-Specific Public Directories.

The General Topics Directory carry popular reference subjects, interests, content domains and their subcategories. Their examples are, DMOZ  (The largest directory of the Web. The open content is mirrored at many sites, including the Google Directory (until July 20, 2011). The A1 Web Directory Organization (This is a general web directory that lists various quality sites under traditional categories and relevant subcategories). The PHPLink Directory  ( A Free Directory Script phpLD is released to the public as a free directory script in 2006, and they continue to offer this as the free download).

The Subject Based or Domain-Specific Public Directories are subject and topic focused. A more famous of these are Hot Frog (a commercial web directory providing websites categorized topically and regionally). The Librarians Index to Internet (directory listing program from the Library of California) and OpenDOAR  (This is an authoritative directory of academic open access repositories).

The PrivateDirectories requires online registration and may be subject to a fee for inclusions in its listings.

Examples of Paid Commercial Versions.

  • Starting Point Directory - $99/Yr
  • Yelp Business Directory - $100/Yr
  • Manta.com - $299/Yr

The Directories that require registration as a member, employee, student or a subscriber.  Examples of these types are found in.

  • Government Employees Websites (Government Secure Portals)
  • Library Networks (Private, Public and Local Libraries)
  • Bureaus, Public Records Access, Legal Documents, Courts Data, Medical Records

The Association of Internet Research Specialists (AIRS) have compiled a comprehensive list they call an "Internet Information Resources." There you will find an extensive collection of Search Engines and interesting information resources for avid Internet research enthusiasts; especially, those that seek serious information without the hassle of sifting through the many pages of the unfiltered Internet. Alternatively, one can search through Phil Bradley’s website or The Search Engine’s List that has some interesting links for the many alternatives to typical search engines out there. 

 Author: Naveed Manzoor [Toronto, Ontario] 

Monday, 02 October 2017 16:11

Vip7Star Directory

Welcome to Our Vip7Star Directory, sponsored by The Brenmark Insurance Group located in the Charlotte, North Carolina area and servicing clients throughout ...

Wednesday, 30 August 2017 12:32

THE NEW CHROME AND SAFARI WILL RESHAPE THE WEB

APPLE AND GOOGLE are cracking down on obnoxious online ads. And they just might change the way the web works in the process.

Last week Google confirmed that Chrome—the most widely used web browser in the world—will block all ads on sites that include particularly egregious ads, including those that autoplay videos, hog too much of the screen, or make you wait to see the content you just clicked on.

Apple meanwhile announced yesterday that Safari will soon stop websites from automatically playing audio or video without your permission. The company's next browser update will even give users the option to load pages in "Reader" mode by default, which will strip not only ads but many other layout elements. The next version will also step up features to block third parties from tracking what you do online.

But the two companies' plans don't just mean a cleaner web experience. They represent a shift in the way web browsers work. Instead of passively downloading and running whatever code and content a website delivers, these browsers will take an active role shaping your web experience. That means publishers will have to rethink not just their ads but their assumptions about what readers do and don't see when they visit their pages.

For years, browsers have simply served as portals to the web, not tools for shaping the web itself. They take the code they're given and obediently render a page as instructed. Sure, browsers have long blocked pop-up ads and warned users who tried to visit potentially malicious websites. But beyond letting you change the font size, browsers don't typically let you do much to change the content of a page.

"Browsers have always been about standards and making sure that all browsers show the same content," says Firefox vice president of product Nick Nguyen. "It's been a neutral view of the web."

The problem is that this complacency has led to a crappier web. Publishers plaster their sites with ads that automatically play video and audio without your permission. Advertisers collect data about the pages you visit. And criminals sometimes use bad ads to deliver malware.

Many people have taken the matter into their own hands by installing plugins to block ads or trackers. About 26 percent of internet users have ad blockers on their computers, according to a survey conducted by the Interactive Advertising Bureau. Some 10 percent have ad blockers on their phones.

Now browser-makers are starting to build these types of features right into their products. Firefox added tracker-blocking to its private browser mode in 2015, and Opera added an optional ad-blocking feature last year. Meanwhile, newer companies like Brave and Cliqz have launched privacy-centric browsers of their own.

Now, thanks to Apple and Google, this trend is going mainstream. About 54 percent of all web surfers used Chrome last month, according to StatCounter, and about 14 percent used Safari. In other words, nearly all browsers will at the very least let users curb the worst ads on the sites they visit. And websites will have to adjust.

The Business of Blocking

It might seem weird for Google, one of the world's largest advertising companies, to build an ad-blocking tool right into one of its core products. But the search giant may be engaging in a bit of online judo. Google only plans to block ads on pages that feature types of ads identified by an ad-industry trade group as the most annoying. Google may be hoping that stripping out the worst ads will eliminate the impetus to download much stronger third-party ad blockers that also block its own ads and tracking.

Apple, which doesn't depend on advertising revenue, is taking a more radical approach. In addition to blocking cookies that could be used to track people across sites, the company will also give users the choice to display only the main content of a page, throwing out not just ads but extras like lists of "related stories" and other enticements to stay on a particular site. The page's prescribed fonts and color scheme get thrown out as well.

Safari has offered the reader view as an option since 2010, but traditionally you've had to load a page before you can turn the option on. Letting people turn it on by default means they could visit pages and never see the original versions. That's a big change that goes well beyond ad-blocking. It means that a page's code could soon act more as a set of suggestions for how browsers should present its content, not a blueprint to be followed as closely as possible.

That doesn't just change the way companies have to think about ads. It changes the relationship between reader and publisher—and between publishers and browser makers. For example, Brave—the privacy-centric browsing company founded by Firefox creator Brendan Eich—hopes to essentially invert the advertising business model by having the browser, not the webpage, serve up ads, then share the revenue with publishers. That's just one new model that this new paradigm makes possible, whether publishers like it or not.

Source: This article was published wired.com By KLINT FINLEY

An artist's rendering of the NASA probe approaching 16 Psyche

NASA has set the date for a trip to an asteroid that could be worth “quadrillions” of dollars.

The Discovery Mission will launch in summer 2022, with a planned arrival at the main asteroid belt where the space rock is located expected in 2026 — four years earlier than the agency’s initial plans.

The asteroid, called 16 Psyche, is a massive hunk of precious metals including platinum and gold as well as iron and nickel.

It orbits the sun between Mars and Jupiter and is of great scientific interest because it holds clues to one of the earliest eras in the history of our solar system — less than 10 million years after the birth of our sun.

But now it’s grabbed the attention of money-hungry entrepreneurs and investors thanks to its stratospheric price tag.

Valued at $10,000 quadrillion, according to Lindy Elkins-Tanton, the lead scientist on the NASA mission, it is definitely worth more than its weight in gold.

But bringing back an asteroid of this value could completely wipe out our global economy.

Artist’s rendering of 16 Psyche - Arizona State University

Luckily, the space agency is taking the trip for scientific purposes and isn’t planning on conducting any mining — yet.

It reckons 16 Psyche is a survivor of violent hit-and-run collisions between planets that were common when the solar system was forming.

That means it could tell us how Earth’s core and the cores of the other terrestrial planets were formed.

“We challenged the mission design team to explore if an earlier launch date could provide a more efficient trajectory to the asteroid Psyche, and they came through in a big way,” said Jim Green, director of the Planetary Science Division at NASA headquarters in Washington.

“This will enable us to fulfill our science objectives sooner and at a reduced cost.”

Two space mining companies — backed by big-name celebs — are gearing up for a gold rush after asteroid ownership was made legal in 2015.

Deep Space Industries and Planetary Resources each have their eyes on the 2011 UW158 asteroid, which is twice the size of the Tower of London and worth up to $5 trillion.

Source: This article was published on nypost.com By Margi Murphy, The Sun


Nearly three centuries ago, Benjamin Franklin made a profound statement that every entrepreneur should live by: “When you’re finished changing, you’re finished.”

This value in this quote didn’t pass with the late genius. In the 21st Century, his advice is more relevant than ever.

Change is an inevitable part of entrepreneurship. New demographic trends, technology and other changes are constantly shaping the future of your business.

Unfortunately, most companies fail to implement change. According to Tor Benrick, nearly three quarters of these efforts are unsuccessful.

A number of factors contribute to these failures. Fortunately, you can execute change more effectively by choosing the right change management models.

Overview of Top Change Management Models

Many change management models have emerged over the years. They include:

  • The Unfreeze-Change-Refreeze Model. This model focuses on the fact that certain customs and processes are built into the organization. Before change can take place, the organization must open itself up to the concept of change.
  • Kotter’s 8-Step Model of Change. This model focuses on setting short-term goals and creating a sense of urgency to every member of the team.
  • Bridge’s Transitional Model. The Bridge’s Transitional Model focuses on the impact change and complacency have on the organization and individuals within it. While this model can’t be implemented on its own, it is a great complement to other change management models.
  • Prosci ADKAR Model. This is an incremental, individualized process that all employees must embrace. Each individual sets their own objectives to make change more flexible.
  • Virginia Satir Change Process. The Virginia Satir Change Process is a more holistic change management model that focuses on the impact on individuals and helps them welcome new change.

Each of these models has its own benefits and drawbacks. Organizations should be aware of all of them and use them to their fullest advantage.

Which Is Best for Your Company?

Several change management models have gained acceptance over the past century. While these models all serve important purposes, some are better suited for specific business goals.

It is important to understand the merits of different change management models and know when to apply them. Here is an overview of some of the most widely used.

1. Unfreeze-Change-Refreeze Model: Break Resistance

In the 1940s, German-American psychologist Kurt Lewin developed the Unfreeze-Change-Refreeze model,2 which remains one of the most widely used change management models to this day.

Lewin recognized that humans are ambivalent about change. They may recognize the benefits change brings, but fear of the unknown can halt efforts to execute change.

 

When is it most effective?

The Unfreeze-Change-Refreeze model focuses on breaking their resistance to change. In order to accomplish this, leaders must provide a motivation to venture out of their comfort zones. Tai Lopez 3 states that motivation can come in different forms: higher compensation, better working conditions and promise of future praise are all commonly used.

Once employees are given the motivation to embrace change, the process can begin. After it is completed, the change is permanently accepted as part of the company structure.

When is it less effective?

Negative motivators are less effective, such as threats of termination for failing to accept change. However, there may be instances where fear needs to be used, such as dealing with particularly stubborn employees during a crisis. As a rule of thumb, positive motivational strategies should be used whenever possible.

While the Unfreeze-Change-Refreeze model is undoubtedly effective, it has one key downside: it takes a long time to execute. Leaders need to gradually encourage employees to come around to the inevitable.

2. Kotter’s 8-Step Model of Change: A Collaborative Effort

John Paul Kotter, the Konosuke Matsushita Professor of Leadership, Emeritus, for the Harvard Business School, has been one of the leading organizational change researchers for 45 years. One of his most ground-breaking accomplishments was the development of Kotter’s 8-Step Model of Change.

This model is more detailed than Lewin’s. It relies on the following steps:

  • Communicating the urgent need for change
  • Developing the coalition to guide change
  • Formulating the vision
  • Communicating the vision
  • Empowering employees and delegating duties to execute change
  • Setting short-term goals
  • Consolidating gains and setting longer-term goals
  • Ingraining new changes into the company culture

When is it most effective?

For many organizations, the advantage this model has over the Unfreeze-Change-Refreeze model is that it makes change a collaborative process. For companies that strive to foster a sense of inclusiveness and mutual accountability, this is a better model.

Alberto Irace, CEO of Acea, has heavily praised Kotter’s system.

 
 

These results and initiatives have an extraordinary and immense value, because it contributes not only to the spirit of the participants, but it also shows with evidence and tangible clarity that this dual system is for us reachable and doable and is dependent on the desire, curiosity, interest and passion that each of us can bring to his or her daily work.

When is it less effective?

However, it is still one of the top-down change management models, so it may not be participative enough for smaller companies. The nature of small companies which employees tend to take multiple responsibilities and are more familiar with the entire operation of the business renders the process of communicating the change and vision quite nonsense.

3. Bridge’s Transitional Model: Let go, comply and accept

Bridge’s Transitional Model focuses more heavily on the impact change and complacency have on the individuals within the company. While it isn’t a stand-alone model for driving change, it is a great tool to be used in conjunction with other models. The model is 3-stage which can be summarized by the diagram below:

The first phase involves ending, losing and letting go. These happen when people are forced to experience a change unwillingly and to let go of something they have been comfortable with.

The second phase involves the neutral emotion. People at this stage are trying hard to cope with the change and cause some emotional ups and downs.

The third phase involves a new beginning. At this stage, people have fully adapted to the changes and start developing skills around the change.

When is it most effective?

It requires entrepreneurs to get input from their employees through every stage of the process, thereby getting them to buy into it, so this model is ideal for smaller companies with more participative leadership styles.

When is it less effective?

As the focus of the model is on transition and how to cope with it smoothly, this model alone is ineffective in change management. Most usually, it is best employed with another change management to ensure the harmonious transition.

4. Prosci ADKAR Model: Incremental steps-oriented

The Prosci ADKAR Model is a goal-oriented approach to change-management. It requires businesses and individuals to setup incremental steps.

One of the unique things about the Prosci ADKAR Model is the focus on individual change and organizational change. By helping individuals set their own goals, they can often foster change better. However, individual goals need to be sync with the direction of the company.

When is it most effective?

The feature that it magnifies the potential pros and cons can be a confidence boost for employees to work harder for the change. While most companies fail their attempts to change due to their focus on the method employed, this model shifts the focus to maximize the contribution of employees.

When is it less effective?

While the model emphasizes the emotional aspect of human involvement in change, it actually doesn’t give a very concrete explanation on how to implement it. Also it mentions quite less about the actual management method.

5. Virginia Satir Change Process: Embrace negativity

Developed by a leading family therapy researcher, the Virginia Satir Change Process focuses on four stages:

  • Coming to terms with the problems of the status-quo
  • Recognizing the need to address new change into the process
  • Embracing chaos
  • Using chaos to inspire new ideas
 

When is it most effective?

The good thing about this model is that it forces people to embrace the stressfulness of change, rather than resisting it. Learning to properly handle the negativity can facilitate the change process.

When is it less effective?

Despite encouragement on the acceptance of the potential negative emotions arisen from changes, the model does not provide actual solution on how to deal with the problem.

Review Your Business and Choose the One That Fits It Most

Many different change management models have been developed over the years. They all have their benefits, but there are a variety of things you need to keep in mind before choosing one. The size of your company and the level of autonomy in your leadership style are the two biggest factors that need to be taken into consideration.

Source: This article was published on lifehack.org by Ryan kh

Page 1 of 701

Get Exclusive Research Tips in Your Inbox

Receive Great tips via email, enter your email to Subscribe.
Please wait

airs logo

Association of Internet Research Specialists is the world's leading community for the Internet Research Specialist and provide a Unified Platform that delivers, Education, Training and Certification for Online Research.

Subscribe to Our Newsletter

Receive Great tips via email, enter your email to Subscribe.
Please wait

Follow Us on Social Media