A Boolean search, in the context of a search engine, is a type of search where you can use special words or symbols to limit, widen, or define your search.

This is possible through Boolean operators such as ANDORNOT, and NEAR, as well as the symbols + (add) and - (subtract).

When you include an operator in a Boolean search, you're either introducing flexibility to get a wider range of results, or you're defining limitations to reduce the number of unrelated results.

Most popular search engines support Boolean operators, but the simple search tool you'll find on a website probably doesn't.

Boolean Meaning

George Boole, an English mathematician from the 19th century, developed an algebraic method that he first described in his 1847 book, The Mathematical Analysis of Logic and expounded upon in his An Investigation of the Laws of Thought (1854).

Boolean algebra is fundamental to modern computing, and all major programming languages include it. It also figures heavily in statistical methods and set theory.

Today's database searches are largely based on Boolean logic, which allows us to specify parameters in detail—for example, combining terms to include while excluding others. Given that the internet is akin to a vast collection of information databases, Boolean concepts apply here as well.

Boolean Search Operators

For the purposes of a Boolean web search, these are the terms and symbols you need to know:

Boolean Operator Symbol Explanation Example
AND + All words must be present in the results football AND nfl
OR Results can include any of the words paleo OR primal
NOT - Results include everything but the term that follows the operator  diet NOT vegan
NEAR The search terms must appear within a certain number of words of each other swedish NEAR minister

Note: Most search engines default to using the OR Boolean operator, meaning that you can type a bunch of words and it will search for any of them, but not necessarily all of them.

Tips: Not all search engines support these Boolean operators. For example, Google understands - but doesn't support NOT. Learn more about Boolean searches on Google for help.

Why Boolean Searches Are Helpful

When you perform a regular search, such as dog if you're looking for pictures of dogs, you'll get a massive number of results. A Boolean search would be beneficial here if you're looking for a specific dog breed or if you're not interested in seeing pictures for a specific type of dog.

Instead of just sifting through all the dog pictures, you could use the NOT operator to exclude pictures of poodles or boxers.

A Boolean search is particularly helpful after running an initial search. For instance, if you run a search that returns lots of results that pertain to the words you entered but don't actually reflect what you were looking for, you can start introducing Boolean operators to remove some of those results and explicitly add specific words.

To return to the dog example, consider this: you see lots of random dog pictures, so you add +park to see dogs in parks. But then you want to remove the results that have water, so you add -water. Immediately, you've cut down likely millions of results.

More Boolean Search Examples

Below are some more examples of Boolean operators. Remember that you can combine them and utilize other advanced search options such as quotes to define phrases.

AND

free AND games

Helps find free games by including both words.

"video chat app" iOS AND Windows

Searches for video chat apps that can run on both Windows and iOS devices.

OR

"open houses" saturday OR sunday

Locate open houses that are open either day.

"best web browser" macOS OR Mac

If you're not sure how the article might be worded, you can try a search like this to cover both words.

NOT

2019 movies -horror

Finds movies mentioning 2019, but excludes all pages that have the word horror.

"paleo recipes" -sugar

Locates web pages about paleo recipes but ensures that none of them include the word sugar.

Note: Boolean operators need to be in all uppercase letters for the search engine to understand them as an operator and not a regular word.

[Source: This article was published in lifewire.com By Tim Fisher - Uploaded by the Association Member: Jason bourne] 

Categorized in Research Methods

Boolean searches make it easy to find what you're looking for in a Google search. The two basic Boolean search commands AND and OR are supported in Google. Boolean searches specify what you want to find and whether to make it more specific (using AND) or less specific (using OR).

A Boolean operator must be in uppercase letters because that's how Google understands it's a search operator and not a regular word. Be careful when typing the search operator; it makes a difference in the search results.

AND Boolean Operator

Use the AND operator in Google to search for all the search terms you specify. Using AND ensures that the topic you're researching is the topic you get in the search results.

For example, a search for Amazon on Google is likely to yield results relating to Amazon.com, such as the site's homepage, its Twitter account, Amazon Prime information, and items available for purchase on Amazon.com.

If you want information on the Amazon rainforest, a search for Amazon rainforest might yield results about Amazon.com or the word Amazon in general. To make sure each search result includes both Amazon and rainforest, use the AND operator.

amazon

Examples of the AND operator include:

  • Amazon AND rainforest
  • sausage AND biscuits
  • best AND college AND towns

In each of these examples, search results include web pages with all the terms connected by the Boolean operator AND.

OR Boolean Operator

Google uses the OR operator to search for one term or another term. An article can contain either word but doesn't have to include both. This usually works well when using two similar words or subjects you want to learn about.

For example, in a search for how to draw OR paint, the OR operator tells Google it doesn't matter which word is used since you'd like information on both.

Screenshot 2

To see the differences between the OR and AND operators, compare the results of how to draw OR paint versus how to draw AND paint. Since OR gives Google the freedom to show more content (since either word can be used), there are more results than if AND is used to restrict the search to include both words.

The break character (|) can be used in place of OR. The break character is the one attached to the backslash key (\).

Examples of the OR operator include:

  • how to draw OR paint
  • how to draw | paint
  • primal OR paleo recipes
  • red OR yellow triangle

Combine Boolean Searches and Use Exact Phrases

When searching for a phrase rather than a single word, group the words with quotation marks. For example, search for "sausage biscuits" (with the quotes included) to show only results for phrases that include the words together, without anything between them. It ignores phrases such as sausage and cheese biscuits.

However, a search for "sausage biscuits" | "cheese sauce" gives results for either exact phrase, so you'll find articles about cheese sauce and articles about sausage biscuits.

When searching for a phrase or more than one keyword, in addition to using a Boolean operator, use parentheses. Type recipes gravy (sausage | biscuit) to search for gravy recipes for either sausages or biscuits. To search for sausage biscuit recipes or reviews, combine the exact phrase with quotations and search for "sausage biscuit" (recipe | review).

If you want paleo sausage recipes that include cheese, type (with quotes) "paleo recipe" (sausage AND cheese).

Screenshot 3

Boolean Operators Are Case Sensitive

Google may not care about uppercase or lowercase letters in search terms, but Boolean searches are case sensitive. For a Boolean operator to work, it must be in all capital letters.

For example, a search for freeware for Windows OR Mac gives different results than a search for freeware for Windows or Mac.

Screenshot 4

[Source: This article was published in lifewire.com By Marziah Karch - Uploaded by the Association Member: Olivia Russell] 

Categorized in Search Engine

Contents

How to Use the Advanced Search Form

The Advanced Search form lets you focus your search, giving you more precise results.

You can access the Advanced Search in several ways:

  • Clicking on the Advanced Search link found in the Search box on the home page
  • Clicking on Advanced Search in the Modify Search box on the Search Results page.
  • Choosing Advanced Search from the Find Studies menu

    To use the Advanced Search form, enter search terms in one or more fields and then click on Search.

  • A list of search results will be displayed. The total number of studies found is shown below the search box, along with your search terms.
  • The first column of the search results list, Row, indicates the order in which the studies are listed. Studies that most closely match your search terms are listed first. The Status column shows which studies are recruiting new volunteers and which studies are not recruiting new volunteers. (For more details on search results, see How to Use Search Results.)

Search Tips

  • You do not need to use all the search fields. Fill in only the fields that are needed for your search.
  • Click on a field label, such as Study Type, to learn more about it.
  • Try using operators such as OR and NOT to broaden or narrow your search.
  • If your search results do not include enough studies, consider clearing one or more search fields on the form and trying the search again.

Search Term Highlighting

The words you type in the Advanced Search form fields will be highlighted in the text of the study record. Search words and synonyms for search words will be highlighted. For example, if your search words are heart attack, the words "heart" and "attack" as well as synonyms for heart attack, such as myocardial infarction, will be highlighted.

Searches Using the Operators OR, NOT, and AND

Words such as OR, NOT, and AND (in uppercase letters), are known as search operators. You can use these words to tell the ClinicalTrials.gov search function to broaden or narrow your search. Here are some ways you can use search operators:

  • Use OR to find study records that contain any of the words connected by OR.

    Example: aspirin OR ibuprofen

    This search finds study records containing either the word "aspirin" or the word "ibuprofen." Using OR broadens your search.

  • Use NOT to find study records that do not contain the word following NOT.

    Example: immunodeficiency NOT AIDS

    This search finds study records containing the word "immunodeficiency" but excludes records containing the word "AIDS" from the search results. Using NOT narrows your search.

  • AND is not necessary because the search function will automatically find study records that contain all the words specified in the search. However, you may use AND to separate distinct concepts. 

  • Use ORNOTAND, and parentheses to create more complicated search expressions.

    Use parentheses in searches that contain more than one operator (OR, NOT, AND). This means that the words that are together in parentheses will be treated as a unit.

    Example: (heart disease OR heart attack) AND (stroke OR clot)

    This search finds study records containing either the phrase "heart disease" or the phrase "heart attack" as well as records containing either the word "stroke" or the word "clot."

  • Using AND and OR as operators can sometimes be confusing.

    The correct way to search for a phrase such as:

    "ear, nose, and throat conditions"

    is to enter:

    (Ear OR Nose OR Throat) AND Conditions

    However, if you want to find studies with exactly the phrase "ear, nose, and throat" then you should enclose the phrase in quotes.

 Source: This article was published clinicaltrials.gov

Categorized in How to

What are your most effective sources for finding talent? Do you leverage job postings? Ask for employee referrals?

These are both successful ways to fill a position. In fact, each one can play an integral role in your recruiting.

The only downside is that they’re reactive. You have to wait for the talent to come to you, in hopes that the right candidate is among them.

What you need is the ability to aggressively seek and go after ideal candidates. You need to build an active pipeline to fill today’s requisitions, make connections for hard-to-fill roles, and prepare for future needs.

You need to be proactive.

Luckily, there are several sourcing techniques you can start leveraging right now:

Boolean Sourcing for Google

Boolean sourcing allows recruiters to search for candidate information from all over the web.

You can find resumes and cover letters that are stored within personal websites, job boards and social platforms by using a unique set of search commands.

These commands tell search engines exactly what you’re looking for, and help drill down your search results to reveal the candidates who truly align with your requisition.

Getting started with boolean sourcing is as simple as learning some basic commands. The following operators work best when used within Google.

OR The command OR will return results containing at least one of your specified keywords or phrases. For example, entering programmer OR developer OR engineer would produce results containing any of these terms but not necessarily all of them.
"" Use quotations to return sites containing the exact phrase you’re searching for. For example, the senior manager would return pages containing either of these keywords, but "senior manager" would only return pages containing that exact phrase.
- Use the minus or dash command "-" before a keyword to return pages that exclude that word. For example, if you searched "marketing -manager" your results would exclude any pages that contain the word manager.
* Use the asterisk (*) within your query to identify a placeholder or wildcard terms. For example "Master's degree in *" would return pages containing the phrase "Master's degree in Marketing," "Master's degree in Computer Science, " etc.
() Brackets are for grouping Boolean phrases, and are generally used in more complex search strings. For example, if you searched for (Engineer or "Software Developer")(CISCO OR Microsoft OR HP), your results would show pages containing any of your job title keywords that also contain one of the company keywords. This is a great combination for finding talent who has worked for one of your target competitors.
site: Use the command site: to search pages within a specific website. For example, search for Facebook profiles by entering site:facebook.com. Searching for site:facebook.com "web designers" Phoenix would return Facebook profiles containing both keywords Web Designer and Phoenix.


Use these basic commands to create more elaborate search strings and effectively find candidates through Google. By adding more criteria to your search queries, you can produce more relevant results and ultimately find the best candidates who align with your job.

Job Board Sourcing

You can also leverage most online job boards to proactively source your candidates. Look for the option to search or source the job board's resume database by using common keywords your prospects would use.

Social Sourcing

Leverage the social platforms where your prospects already spend a lot of their time. Sites like LinkedIn, Twitter and Facebook offer unique tools to proactively find your next great hire.

In March 2013, Facebook released Graph Search. It’s a free tool that allows anyone to use specific queries to search for individuals. Find people who work for a specific industry, near a special location or for a particular company.

Here is an example of a common Facebook Graph query:
Facebook Graph

Twitter is also a great tool for sourcing candidates. Use its search engine to identify professionals by specific keywords, phrases, and locations. The best part is that Twitter is an open network, so you’re free to connect with anyone.

You can also find candidates on LinkedIn by using the Boolean logic you’ve already learned. After you replace the italicized words with your keywords, enter this powerful search string into Google to return precise LinkedIn profiles:
site:linkedin.com "web designer" "location * Greater Phoenix Area"

Go After Your Talent

Identifying qualified candidates is the most critical part of the recruiting process. It can also be the most difficult—especially if you're waiting around for the right job seekers to apply. Instead, set yourself up for success by proactively finding them yourself.

But before you get started with methods like Boolean, job board, and social sourcing, make sure you have a clear understanding of the job you’re recruiting for and the keywords your prospects may use during their job search.

Knowing how your candidates describe themselves and which terms resonate with them will give you a head start on your proactive search for talent.

Initiate Conversation

When you finally find the candidates you’re looking for, connect with them! Send them a message about your available position and ask if they would be interested in the opportunity. For more tips on reaching out to candidates, read Candidate Sourcing: Get More Replies to Your Contact Emails.

Categorized in Research Methods

Dive Brief:

  • CareerBuilder has released a special guide for sourcing professionals who use Boolean searches to find candidates based on keyword strings. CareerBuilder says their "cheat sheet" can make anyone efficient at finding candidates fast using their methods. 
  • Helpful tips inside the CareerBuilder guide include the use of database search words like 'and', 'or', and 'not' as well as grouping search phrases with quotation marks, parenthesis, and more, when searching for candidates. 
  • The guide can be accessed for free by sharing some brief information on a web form, available in a .PDF format or for your computer or mobile device. 

Dive Insight:

All recruiters are tasked with conducting searches for candidates, whether they are accessing their own databases or large career boards like CareerBuilder. Knowing how to search for candidates can make all the difference.

Quick history lesson: George Boole, a 19th century mathematician invented Boolean logic. It has become the foundation of all database and search engine platforms. Recruiters should be familiar with how to use certain keywords and characters to become proficient in this area. The guide offered by CareerBuilder could be used for training new recruiters on Boolean search concepts and is a handy resource for more experienced candidate sourcing professionals. 

Source : http://www.hrdive.com/

Categorized in Others

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