Source: This article was published cyberblogindia.in By Abhay Singh Sengar - Contributed by Member: Bridget Miller

When we talk about “ethics” we refer to attitude, values, beliefs, and habits possessed by a person or a group. The sense of the word is directly related to the term “morality” as Ethics is the study of morality.

Meaning of Computer Ethics

It is not a very old term. Until 1960s there was nothing known as “computer ethics”. Walter Manerin the mid-70s introduced the term ‘computer ethics’ which means “ethical problems aggravated, transformed or created by computer technology”. Wiener and Moor have also discussed about this in their book, “computer ethics identifies and analyses the impacts of information technology upon human values like health, wealth, opportunity, freedom, democracy, knowledge, privacy, security, self-fulfillment, and so on…“. Since the 1990s the importance of this term has increased. In simple words, Computer ethics is a set of moral principles that govern the usage of Computers.

Issues

As we all know, that Computer is an effective technology and it raises ethical issues like Personal Intrusion, Deception, Breach of Privacy, Cyber-bullying, Cyber-stalking, Defamation, Evasion Technology or social responsibility and Intellectual Property Rights i.e. copyrighted electronic content. In a Computer or Internet (Cyberspace) domain of Information security, understanding and maintaining ethics is very important at this stage. A typical problem related to ethics arises mainly because of the absence of policies or rules about how computer technology should be used. It is high time, there is some strict legislation regarding the same in the country.

Internet Ethics for everyone

  1. Acceptance- We should accept that the Internet is a primary component of our society only and not something apart from it.
  2. We should understand the sensitivity of Information before writing it on the Internet as there are no national or cultural barriers.
  3. As we do not provide our personal information to any stranger, similarly it should not be uploaded to a public network because it might be misused.
  4. Avoid the use of rude or bad language while using e-mail, chatting, blogging, social networking. Respect the person on another side.
  5. No copyrighted material should be copied, downloaded or shared with others.

Computer Ethics

Following are the 10 commandments as created by The Computer Ethics Institute which is a nonprofit working in this area:

  1. Thou shall not use a computer to harm other people;
  2. Thou shall not interfere with other people’s computer work;
  3. Thou shall not snoop around in other people’s computer files;
  4. Thou shall not use a computer to steal;
  5. Thou shall not use a computer to bear false witness;
  6. Thou shall not copy or use proprietary software for which you have not paid;
  7. Thou shall not use other people’s computer resources without authorization or proper compensation;
  8. Thou shall not appropriate other people’s intellectual output;
  9. Thou shall think about the social consequences of the program you are writing or the system you are designing;
  10. Thou shall always use a computer in ways that insure consideration and respect for your fellow humans.

Computer and Internet both are time-efficient tools for everyone. It can enlarge the possibilities for your curriculum growth. There is a lot of information on the Internet that can help you in learning. Explore that Information instead of exploiting others.

Computer Internet Ethics

Categorized in Internet Ethics

The last time I bought an iPad was 2012. It was a good iPad. But increasingly — especially when the iPhone 6 came out with a bigger screen — I found that my iPad started gathering dust.

The bigger iPhone could do all the same things as my iPad, and as my iPad's hardware got older — it still used Apple's old-style charger — I stopped using it.

But Apple's newest iPad reminded me that for iPhone users, a big tablet that does the same things can be a huge luxury. Browsing the web, playing games, and checking social media is all more pleasant with a bigger screen.

So a few weeks ago, I bought Apple's newest iPad. Apple just calls it iPad, but you might have better luck Googling "2017 iPad" or "iPad fifth generation."

Ultimately, it's not that much different than the other iPads sold over the past two years, except for one thing: It's cheap, or at least less expensive than what previous iPads cost. I paid $329 for mine.

But I couldn't be happier with my purchase. It can't do anything new compared with other iPads, but it's a great value, and it's clear Apple has refined the iPad over the past seven years to be a great tablet for most people.

I don't use my new iPad for anything productive. I mostly use it for content consumption, and it almost never leaves my house. And after using it for the past six weeks, I'm confident it's the best couch computer ever.

Here's what I do on my iPad

Crashlands
 
Crashlands

("Crashlands," the iPad game I've been playing recently.Crashlands) 

  • I surf the web. Mobile Safari, the iPad's built-in browser, is awesome, stable, and fast, and there aren't many websites the iPad can't handle.
  • I play games. I've been exploring a large number of games available on Apple's App Store, and there is a surprising amount of deep games you could pour 20 or more hours into. I've been playing "Crashlands" lately.
  • I watch videos. I've been using my iPad to keep up with Nationals games on MLB At Bat while my roommates watch what they want on TV. I've also watched HBO, Netflix, and other streaming services on the iPad's sharp 9.7-inch screen. It's pretty engrossing, especially with headphones.
  • I check social media. If there's one issue I have with Apple's iPad in general, it's that there isn't Instagram or Snapchat for iPad. That said, it's a perfect device to catch up with most of my social feeds, including Facebook and Twitter.
  • I iMessage my friends. Texting from an iPad is difficult, but if your contacts use iMessage, it's easy to send them notes and stuff from the iPad.

Here's what I don't do on my iPad: anything resembling productivity. I set up my various email accounts on the device, but I turned notifications off, and I don't really check or send emails on the iPad. I can handle quick notes from my iPhone, and if I need to do any word processing or work, I'll boot up my Mac.

Design

Apple iPad 3
 
Apple iPad 3

(Hollis Johnson) 

This iPad's design is not going to surprise you. It's a rectangle, centered on a beautiful, dense, high-pixel screen.

I hadn't used a 9.7-inch iPad on a regular basis since 2012, and I immediately noticed two things about this new iPad. First, it's light enough to use for long stretches of time — something I didn't find with my older, heavier iPad.

Second, there's no physical mute switch. You'll have to turn the sound off on the touchscreen or hold the "volume down" rocker until it goes silent.

Finally, all of Apple's new iPads, including the 2017 model, come with a fingerprint sensor. While the sensor is less useful on the iPad than on the iPhone, it can still be handy, especially if you plan to share your tablet with your family — just give everyone a fingerprint password.

Battery life

Apple says this iPad can manage 10 hours of battery life, and I believe it. I haven't timed how long it takes this iPad to run out of battery, but it doesn't seem to lose charge from day to day when I'm not using it, and it can last an entire afternoon gaming. I haven't ever had an issue where the iPad ran out of battery and I needed to charge it.

For my use, the battery life is just good enough — it's unclear whether an improvement would make the iPad significantly better.

Which iPad should I get?

ipad lineup
 
ipad lineup

(Apple/BI) 

I got the $329 model of the new iPad in space gray because I prefer the black border around the tablet's screen. It comes in gold and silver as well, but those come with a white bezel on the front.

The entry-level model has 32 GB of space, which is more than enough for me because I'm not uploading videos or music onto my tablet. So far, it's plenty of storage space for me, and unless you know you use a lot of space, it probably will be for you, too.

After a month of heavy use, I still have over 15 GB available.

I also declined to get the cellular-enabled model. For $459, the iPad comes with a modem so you can get high-speed internet on the iPad without connecting to a Wi-Fi network. Of course, the cell service requires a monthly fee. Since I use my iPad at home, connected to Wi-Fi, I didn't need it — so I saved the money.

Should you buy it?

Apple iPad 2
 
Apple iPad 2

(Hollis Johnson) 
For nearly everybody, Apple's newest iPad is the best value if you know you want an iPad.

You might want to upgrade to the 9.7-inch iPad Pro if you like the size and shape but want to be able to use Apple's stylus, the Pencil. The 9.7-inch Pro also has a slightly better screen, speakers, and camera, but for my usage, it's not a huge upgrade, and since it's $599 from the Apple Store, it's not worth the $270 extra for me. The more expensive Pro also works with Apple's keyboard case, but there are plenty of third-party options for the less expensive model.

The bigger Pro is the most expensive and heaviest iPad model. I used a review unit provided by Apple for a few months before I bought my iPad. My advice is that if you use it for media consumption, as I do, it's not the best option. Not only is it more expensive, the ergonomics as a couch computer don't work that well — it's heavy and feels oversized. Only get this one if you're sure you want to use an iPad as a laptop replacement.

The iPad Mini starts at $400, and its screen is the same resolution as the 9.7-inch iPads. It's more expensive than the latest iPad, and it has a slower chip. I wouldn't recommend it unless you're sure you like the smaller tablet size. It doesn't support the Apple Pencil.

If you don't fit into one of these categories, I'd recommend Apple's latest iPad. Apple's pricing the tablet aggressively, and it's a better value for most people than anything else in Apple's tablet lineup.

Apple iPad 4
 

 Source : This article was published in Business Insider By Kif Leswing

Categorized in Others

A FEW HOURS after dark one evening earlier this month, a small quadcopter drone lifted off from the parking lot of Ben-Gurion University in Beersheba, Israel. It soon trained its built-in camera on its target, a desktop computer’s tiny blinking light inside a third-floor office nearby. The pinpoint flickers, emitting from the LED hard drive indicator that lights up intermittently on practically every modern Windows machine, would hardly arouse the suspicions of anyone working in the office after hours. But in fact, that LED was silently winking out an optical stream of the computer’s secrets to the camera floating outside.

That data-stealing drone, shown in the video below, works as a Mr. Robot-style demonstration of a very real espionage technique. A group of researchers at Ben-Gurion’s cybersecurity lab has devised a method to defeat the security protection known as an “air gap,” the safeguard of separating highly sensitive computer systems from the internet to quarantine them from hackers. If an attacker can plant malware on one of those systems—say, by paying an insider to infect it via USB or SD card—this approach offers a new way to rapidly pull secrets out of that isolated machine. Every blink of its hard drive LED indicator can spill sensitive information to any spy with a line of sight to the target computer, whether from a drone outside the window or a telescopic lens from the next roof over.

“If an attacker has a foothold in your air-gapped system, the malware still can send the data out to the attacker,” says Ben-Gurion researcher Mordechai Guri, who has spent years focusing on finding techniques for ferreting data out of isolated computer systems. “We found that the small hard drive indicator LED can be controlled at up to 6,000 blinks per second. We can transmit data in a very fast way at a very long distance.”

Gap Attack

An air gap, in computer security, is sometimes seen as an impenetrable defense. Hackers can’t compromise a computer that’s not connected to the internet or other internet-connected machines, the logic goes. But malware like Stuxnet and the Agent.btz worm that infected American military systems a decade ago have proven that air gaps can’t entirely keep motivated hackers out of ultra-secret systems—even isolated systems need code updates and new data, opening them to attackers with physical access. And once an air-gapped system is infected, researchers have demonstrated a grab bag of methods for extracting information from them despite their lack of an internet connection, from electromagnetic emanations to acousticand heat signaling techniques—many developed by the same Ben-Gurion researchers who generated the new LED-spying trick.

But exploiting the computer’s hard drive indicator LED has the potential to be a stealthier, higher-bandwidth, and longer-distance form of air-gap-hopping communications. By transmitting data from a computer’s hard drive LED with a kind of morse-code-like patterns of on and off signals, the researchers found they could move data as fast as 4,000 bits a second, or close to a megabyte every half hour. That may not sound like much, but it’s fast enough to steal an encryption key in seconds. And the recipient could record those optical messages to decode them later; the malware could even replay its blinks on a loop, Guri says, to ensure that no part of the transmission goes unseen.

The technique also isn’t as limited in range as other clever systems that transmit electromagnetic signals or ultrasonic noises from speakers or a computer’s fans. And compared to other optical techniques that use the computer’s screen or keyboard light to secretly transmit information, the hard-drive LED indicator—which blinks anytime a program accesses the hard drive—routinely flashes even when a computer is asleep. Any malware that merely gains the ability of a normal user, rather than deeper administrative privileges, can manipulate it. The team used a Linux computer for their testing, but the effects should be the same on a Windows device.

“The LED is always blinking as it’s doing searching and indexing, so no one suspects, even in the night,” says Guri. “It’s very covert, actually.”

Slow and Steady

The researchers found that when their program read less than 4 kilobytes from the computer’s storage at a time, they could cause the hard drive’s LED indicator to blink for less than a fifth of a millisecond. They then tried using those rapid fire blinks to send messages to a variety of cameras and light sensors from an “infected” computer using a binary system of data encoding known as “on-off-keying,” or OOK. They found that a typical smartphone camera can at most receive around 60 bits per second due to its lower frame rate, while a GoPro camera captured as much as 120 bits per second. A Siemens photodiode sensor was far better suited to their high-frequency light sensing needs, though, and allowed them to hit their 4,000 bits per second maximum transmission rate.

The malware could also make the hard drive LED blink so briefly, in fact, that it would be undetectable to human eyes, yet still registered by the light sensor. That means an attacker could even send invisible light signals to a faraway spy, albeit at a slower rate to avoid its covert blinks blurring into a visible signal. “It’s possible for the attacker to do such fast blinking that a human never sees it,” says Guri.

The good news, however, for anyone security-sensitive enough to worry about the researchers’ attack—and anyone who air gaps their computers may be just that sensitive—is that the Ben Gurion researchers point to clear countermeasures to block their hard drive LED exfiltration method. They suggest keeping air-gapped machines in secure rooms away from windows, or placing film over a building’s glass designed to mask light flashes. They also note that protective software on a target machine could randomly access the hard drive to create noise and jam any attempt to send a message from the computer’s LED.

But the simplest countermeasure by far is simply to cover the computer’s LED itself. Once, a piece of tape over a laptop’s webcam was a sign of paranoia. Soon, a piece of tape obscuring a computer’s hard drive LED may be the real hallmark of someone who imagines a spy drone at every window.

This article was published in wired.com by ANDY GREENBERG

Categorized in Internet Privacy

It used to be that Mac users didn’t really have to worry about malware. But we live in a brave new world with easy internet access and a bunch of jerks, so the good ‘ole days are over. A new strain of Mac malware uses a familiar method to gain entry to your computer, but it’s the way it takes over that makes it particularly nasty.

The initial malware package is loaded by a standard phishing attack. The hackers send an email saying that there’s issues with your tax return, with details in a .zip file attached. When you try to open the .zip folder, the malware package instead installs a small executable named AppStore.

That program then runs every time you boot the computer up, until the full malware package has been installed. Once that happens, users will see a fake macOS update page which looks decently close to the real thing. The “update” page sits on top of every other window, and prevents you from using your computer until you hit update.

Once you hit update, you’re prompted to enter your password. That’s where the really nasty stuff starts. Using the administrator privileges just granted, the malware installs dark-web surfing program Tor, and changes your web settings using a developer certificate, so all your web traffic gets routed through a third-party proxy server.

With all that established, the attacker can see and modify all your web browsing behavior, including any data sent over encrypted web links that would normally be secure. With that kind of access and a little time, the attacker will be able to steal most people’s login info for every site, online banking details, and anything else you can really think of.

As per usual, the best defence isn’t antivirus software: it’s strong account security and a healthy skepticism of any email attachments. Not opening attachments unless they’re from a well-trusted source is a good start; using two-factor authentication on all your accounts, particularly important emails and online banking, will mitigate the potential damage from a hack.

This article was  published on bgr.com by Chris Mills

Categorized in Internet Privacy

IBM's question-answering whiz, the Watson computer system, famously beat former winners on Jeopardy in 2011 — and now it's digging into aerospace research and data to help NASA answer questions on the frontier of spaceflight science and make crucial decisions in the moment during air travel.

 

More than 60 years after the first IBM computing machines showed up in the halls of NASA's Langley Research Center, new work at Langley will use IBM tech to help researchers sort through the huge volumes of data that is generated by aerospace research.

 

"There's so much data out there that consists of unstructured text that usually only humans can make sense of, but the challenge is that there's too much of it for any human being to read," Chris Codella, an IBM Distinguised Engineer who is working on Watson, told Space.com. "The idea here is to have a Watson system that can be a research development advisor to people who work in the aerospace fields." [Forget Jeopardy: 5 Abilities That Make IBM's Watson Amazing]

 

Watson operates with what IBM calls cognitive computing — essentially, it draws connections after examining huge volumes of data that is fed to it, and it is able to return highly relevant answers within the fields that data encompasses. The system has been used to analyze connections within medical and scientific research documents, make potential diagnoses, invent recipes and analyze people's personality traits through social media posts. (Plus, of course, play Jeopardy! — after the system drew from Wikipedia to help build its knowledge base.)

 

 

 

 

Watson is able to respond to questions that it is asked in natural language — or as a human would ask another human, as opposed to through search terms — and unlike a search engine, where more information can muddle the results, Watson returns better answers when the user gives it more detail, Codella said. At Langley, the system will return what it ranks as the most relevant passages in its database when a user asks it a question. While human researchers couldn't hope to internalize all the aerospace research out there, Watson doesn't have that limitation.

 

"That was the initial emphasis here: Have a system that could read it all, make sense of it all," Codella said. "The number of documents Watson could read is in principle unlimited."

 

Langley played host to a large IBM mainframe in the early 1960s, which was used to calculate complex flight trajectories as NASA made its first forays into human spaceflight. The upcoming new film "Hidden Figures" features the women of Langley learning to program the great machine; mathematician Katherine Johnson famously checked its numbers before John Glenn launched into space, as well. (IBM has a page about the movie and history online.)

 

At the time, the computer let researchers take on the many complex, ever-changing calculations that were needed to develop rockets and plot their paths. Now, when electronic computers have number wrangling well covered, Watson lets them wrangle the library of research, too.

 

Watson researchers are also working with NASA to develop a program that provides important information to pilots "on the fly" — during flight, when they need to make quick decisions and don't have time to gather all the information they might need.

 

"The very first demonstration system we built was meant to surface relevant information to a pilot in flight," Codella said. NASA "tried to recreate an incident that happened in one of the airlines a few years ago and see if Watson could, when given the background information, surface information that would have made a difference, had the pilot known it at the time."

 

The real flight the scenario was based on landed successfully, Codella added, but the pilot took some actions that could have made the situation worse. During a simulated test, Watson was able to provide information about the aircraft, equipment malfunction and weather conditions that would have led the pilot to a better understanding of the situation.

 

 

 

 

"It's going after that tidbit of information that might be so highly relevant, that they might not have been aware of in their own experience, that might make the difference in their decision process," Codella said. He added that the next stage of that project will begin in 2017.

 

IBM's early computers were housed in large rooms on Langley's campus, but Watson operates on servers that communicate with its users remotely, through the cloud. However, there's one situation where that would be particularly inconvenient: in space or on another planet, where time lag and limited bandwidth slow that stream of communication to a trickle.

 

Codella described another scenario they've discussed with NASA, where a Watson system would be able to diagnose astronauts' illnesses in flight and offer suggestions for treatment. Perhaps the system could even help operate the ship itself, he added. (IBM has also discussed the possibility of Watson directing a rover on Mars.) With the continued miniaturization of computer components, called Moore's Law, the computational power it requires could someday be miniaturized enough for it to find a home in space, Codella said.

 

Even as the history of humans performing crucial calculations at Langley is depicted on the big screen, in "Hidden Figures," IBM is helping NASA to write a script for the future role of technology at the agency — where Watson helps read and understand huge libraries of data, reconciling contradictory information and weighing all the options before it picks out the crucial details for a given problem. 

 

 

Author:  Sarah Lewin

Source:  http://www.space.com/35042-ibm-watson-computer-nasa-research.html

Categorized in Science & Tech

While most hackers are benign hobbyists, some hackers do inflict terrible widespread damage and cause financial and emotional hurt. Victimized companies lose millions in repair and restitution costs; victimized individuals lose their jobs, their bank accounts, and even their relationships.

So what are examples of large-scale hacks that wreaked this much havoc? What are the greatest hacks of recent history?

With 'greatest' being synonymous with 'harshest', About.com has assembled a list of noteworthy hacks from the last 20 years. As you read this list below, you will certainly want to reconsider your own password practices. We've enclosed some strong suggestions at the bottom of this article to help you reduce the risk that you too will be hacked one day.

1 Ashley Madison Hack 2015: 37 Million Users

Computer being hacked

The hacker group Impact Team broke into the Avid Life Media servers and copied the personal data of 37 million Ashley Madison users. The hackers then incrementally released this information to the world through various websites. The shameful impact to people's personal reputations has had ripples across the world, including claims that user suicides followed after the hack.

This hack is memorable not only because of the sheer publicity of the impact, but because the hackers also earned some fame as vigilantes crusading against infidelity and lies.

Read more about the Ashley Madison breach:
Rob Price describes the impacts of the Ashley Madison hack scandal
Callum Paton tells us how you can check if your spouse was affected by the hack
Krebs on Security describes how the hack transpired

2 The Conficker Worm 2008: Still Infecting a Million Computers a Year

Conficker worm malware: still infection 1 mil computers per year

While this resilient malware program has not wreaked irrecoverable damage, this program refuses to die; it actively hides itself and then nefariously copies itself to other machines. Even more frightening: this worm continues to open backdoors for future hacker takeovers of the infected machines.

The Conficker worm program (aka 'Downadup' worm) replicates itself across computers, where it lies in secret to either a) convert your machine into a zombie bot for spamming, or b) to read your credit card numbers and your passwords through keylogging, and transmit those details to the programmers.

Conficker/Downadup is a very smart computer program. It defensively deactivates your antivirus software in order to protect itself.

Conficker is noteworthy because of its resilience and reach; it still travels around the Internet 8 years after its discovery.

Read more about the Conficker/Downadup worm program:
Kelly Burton describes the technical side of the Conficker worm
How to detect and remove Conficker from your computer
Symantec can also remove the worm for you

3 Stuxnet Worm 2010: Iran's Nuclear Program Blocked

Stuxnet worm set back Iran's nuclear program by years

A worm program that was less than a megabyte in size was released into Iran's nuclear refinement plants. Once there, it secretly took over the Siemens SCADA control systems. This sneaky worm commanded over 5000 of the 8800 uranium centrifuges to spin out of control, then suddenly stop and then resume, while simultaneously reporting that all is well. This chaotic manipulating went on for 17 months, ruining thousands of uranium samples in secret, and causing the staff and scientists to doubt their own work. All the while, no one knew that they were being deceived and simultaneously vandalized.

This devious and silent attack wreaked far more damage than simply destroying the refining centrifuges themselves; the worm led thousands of specialists down the wrong path for a year and half, and wasted thousands of hours of work and millions of dollars in uranium resources.

The worm was named 'Stuxnet', a keyword that was found in the code's internal comments.

This hack is memorable because of both optics and deceipt: it attacked a nuclear program of a country that has been in conflict with the USA and other world powers; it also deceived the entire nuclear staff for a year and a half as it performed its nasty deeds in secret.

Read more about the Stuxnet hack:
Stuxnet: a modern digital weapon?
Stuxnet was like a Tom Clancy novel
The real story of Stuxnet

4 Home Depot Hack 2014: Over 50 Million Credit Cards

Home Depot hack, 2014: over 50 million credit card numbers

By exploiting a password from one of its stores' vendors, the hackers of Home Depot achieved the largest retail credit card breach in human history. Through careful tinkering of the Microsoft operating system, these hackers managed to penetrate the servers before Microsoft could patch the vulnerability.

Once they entered the first Home Depot store near Miami, the hackers worked their way throughout the continent. They secretly observed the payment transactions on over 7000 of the Home Depot self-serve checkout registers. They skimmed credit card numbers as customers paid for their Home Depot purchases.

This hack is noteworthy because it was against a monolithic corporation and millions of trusting customers.

Read more about the Home Depot hack:
How CEO Frank Blake responded to his chain of stores getting hacked
The Wall Street Journal describes the hack here
The Home Depot hack is now an official case study

5 Spamhaus 2013: the Largest DDOS Attack in History

Spamhaus: nonprofit protection against spammers and hackers

 A distributed denial of service attack is a data flood. By using dozens of hijacked computers that repeat signals at a high rate and volume, hackers will flood and overload computer systems on the Internet.

In March of 2013, this particular DDOS attack was large enough that it slowed the entire Internet across the planet, and completely shut down parts of it for hours at a time.

The perpetrators used hundreds of DNS servers to 'reflect' signals repeatedly, amplifying the flood effect and sending up to 300 gigabits per second of flood data to each server on the network.

The target at the center of the attack was Spamhaus, a nonprofit professional protection service that tracks and blacklists spammers and hackers on behalf of web users. The Spamhaus servers, along with dozens of other internet exchange servers, were flooded in this 2013 DDOS attack.

This DDOS hack is noteworthy because of the sheer scale of its brute force repetition: it overloaded the Internet's servers with a volume of data that had never been seen before.

Read more about the Spamhaus attack:
The New York Times describes the DDOS attack
A London teenage hacker pleads guilty to being one of the DDOS hackers
Meet Spamhaus, the anti-spam service who was the prime target of the DDOS attack.

6 eBay Hack 2014: 145 Million Users Breached

eBay: the world's largest marketplace

Some people say this is the worst breach of public trust in online retail. Other says that it was not nearly as harsh as mass theft because only personal data was breached, not financial information.

Whichever way you choose to measure this unpleasant incident, millions of online shoppers have had their password-protected data compromised. This hack is particularly memorable because it was very public, and because eBay was painted as weak on security because of their slow and lackluster public response.

Read more about the eBay hack of 2014:
BGR describes how the eBay hack transpired
eBay does not win any points with its sluggish response to the breach
Here's eBay's blog response

7 JPMorgan Chase Hack, 2014: (76 + 7) Million Accounts

JP Morgan Chase was hacked

In the middle of 2014, alleged Russian hackers broke into the largest bank in the USA and breached 7 million small business accounts and 76 million personal accounts. The hackers infiltrated the 90 server computers of JPMorgan Chase and viewed personal information on the account holders.

Interestingly enough, no money was looted from these account holders. JPMorgan Chase is not volunteering to share all the results of their internal investigation. What they will say is that the hackers stole contact information, like names, addresses, email addresses and phone numbers. They claimed that there is no evidence of social security, account number, or password breach.

This hack is noteworthy because it struck at people's livelihoods: where they store their money.

Read more about JPMorgan Chase hack:
The New York Times tells the story of the hack
The UK Register tells us that server technicians failed to upgrade one of its servers that allowed the hack
Here is the official report documentation from the S.E.C.

8 The Melissa Virus 1999: 20% of the World's Computers Infected

Melissa email virus 1999

A New Jersey man released this Microsoft macro virus into the Web, where it penetrated Windows computers. The Melissa virus masqueraded as a Microsoft Word file attachment with an email note 'Important Message from [Person X]. Once the user clicked on the attachment, Melissa activated itself and commanded the machine's Microsoft Office to send a copy of the virus as a mass mailout to the first 50 people in that user's address book.

The virus itself did not vandalize files or steal any passwords or information; rather, its objective was to flood email servers with pandemic mailouts.

Indeed, Melissa successfully shut down some companies for days at a time as the network technicians rushed to clean their systems and purge the pesky virus.

This virus/hack is noteworthy because it preyed on people's gullibility and the current state weakness of antivirus scanners on corporate networks. It also gave Microsoft Office a black eye as a vulnerable system.

Read more about Melissa virus:
1999: Melissa wreaks havoc on the Web
How Melissa works
What can we learn from Melissa?

9 LinkedIn 2016: 164 Million Accounts

LinkedIn hack 2016: 164 million accounts breached

In a slow-motion breach that took four years to reveal, the social networking giant admits that 117 million of their users had their passwords and logins stolen back in 2012, to later have that information sold on the digital black market in 2016.

The reason this is a significant hack is because of how long it took for the company to realize how badly they had been hacked. Four years is a long time to find out you've been robbed.

Read more about the LinkedIn hack:
CNN Money describes the incident
LinkedIn publicly responds to the 2012 hack

10 Anthem Health Care Hack 2015: 78 Million Users

Anthem health care: 78 million users hacked

The second-largest health insurer in the USA had its databases compromised through a covert attack that spanned weeks. Details of the penetration are not being volunteered by Anthem, but they do claim that no medical information was stolen, only contact information and social security numbers.

No harm has been yet identified for any of the compromised users. Experts predict that the information will one day be sold via online black markets.

As a response, Anthem is providing free credit monitoring for its members. Anthem is also considering encrypting all their data for the future.

The Anthem hack is memorable because of its optics: another monolithic corporation fell victim to a few clever computer programmers.

Read more about the Anthem hack here:
Anthem responds to their customer questions about the hack
The Wall Street Journal describes the Anthem hack
More details about the Anthem hack and their response.

11 Sony Playstation Network Hack 2011: 77 Million Users

Sony Playstation network: 77 million users hacked

April 2011: intruders from Lulzsec hacker collective cracked open the Sony database at their Playstation Network, revealing the contact information, logins, and passwords to 77 million players. Sony claims that no credit card information was breached.

Sony took down its service for several days in order to patch holes and upgrade their defenses.

There has been no report that the stolen information has been sold or used to harm anyone yet. Experts speculate that it was a SQL injection attack.

The PSN hack is memorable because it affected gamers, a culture of people who are computer-savvy fans of technology.

Read more about the Sony PSN hack here:
Extremetech describes how Sony PSN was hacked
How SQL injection works

12 Global Payments 2012 Hack: 110 Million Credit Cards

Heartland hack 2012: 110 million users

Global Payments is one of several companies that handle credit card transactions for lenders and vendors. Global Payments specializes in small business vendors. In 2012, their systems were breached by hackers, and information on people's credit cards was stolen. Some of those users have since had their credit accounts defrauded with dishonest transactions.

The signature system of credit cards in the USA is dated, and this breach could have easily been reduced if credit card lenders would invest in using the newer chip cards that are used in Canada and the UK.

This hack is noteworthy because it struck at the daily routine of paying for goods at the store, shaking the confidence of credit card users around the world.

Read more about the Global Payments hack:
CNN Money describes the GPN hack
How hackers use DoS and SQL injections
Heartland payment processor was also hacked in 2009 before merging with Global Payments

13 So What Can You Do to Prevent Getting Hacked?

How to Make a Killer Password

Hacking is a real risk that all of us must live with, and you will never be 100% hacker-proof in this age.

You can reduce your risk, though, by making yourself harder to hack than other people. You can also reduce the impact of when you do get hacked by implementing different passwords for your different accounts.

Here are some strong recommendations to reduce your online identity exposure:

1. Check to see if you've been hacked and outed at this free database.

2. Make the extra effort to design strong passwords as we suggest in this tutorial.

3. Use a different password for each of your accounts; this will substantially reduce how much of your life a hacker can access.

4. Consider adding two-factor authorization (2FA) to your Gmail and other main online accounts.

5. Consider subscribing to a VPN service to encrypt all of your online habits.

Author: Paul Gil

Source: https://www.lifewire.com/

Categorized in News & Politics

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