A flourishing, global marketplace of illicit goods and services that operates in the dark recesses of the World Wide Web is creating new opportunities for cybercriminals and risks for businesses and consumers.

Hacking services, narcotics, weapons, child pornography, stolen credit card numbers and other private records – nearly any kind of illegal product or unethical service – is available on the Dark Web, or Dark Net.

“It’s a bastion of all sorts of illegal and unethical activity,” according to experts with SBS CyberSecurity of Madison, S.D.

The Dark Web is a volunteer network of computers that can be accessed on the Internet with special software that is free and easy to acquire. Communications on the Dark Web pass through multiple encryption points to hide IP addresses, and locations are masked.

The anonymity enables people to communicate secretly and conduct business with untraceable cyber currency, such as Bitcoin.

“If you look at cybercrime as a business model, the Dark Web has completely changed how it can be done,” said Buzz Hillestad, a Sioux Falls-based, senior consultant with SBS CyberSecurity. “It can be done anonymously now, which is pretty scary.”

SBS used to be known as Secure Banking Solutions. The company recently changed its name because it assists businesses in fields beyond financial services.

During the past few years, the Dark Web really has emerged into an information superhighway for criminals and unethical practices. The limited-access area that has come to be known as the Dark Web initially was developed by a U.S. military agency in the late 1990s. Information about The Onion Routing project was released to the public in the early 2000s.

So-called onion routing uses layers of relay points and encryption to make communications anonymous. A message from Sioux Falls might look like it came from another country.

Tor is an acronym for The Onion Routing project. It is also the name of software that can be used to access the Dark Web and can refer to the network of computers that make up the Dark Web.

The network initially was developed for legitimate reasons. Law enforcement agencies can use it to communicate secretly, for example, and whistleblowers can use it to expose wrongdoing. It’s also a way for people in tightly controlled countries to get around government-imposed blocks on public information.

Supporters of the network tout it as a vehicle that protects freedom of expression and privacy. The secretive network also can present unrecognized dangers.

Hillestad recently consulted with a healthcare business that had unknowingly been routing information to its transcription service through the Dark Web. The software had been designed that way, possibly just to reduce data-transmission hassles, Hillestad said. Regardless, he advised the facility to get rid of the software.

“There’s no way of knowing where the data was going,” he said.

Hillestad and other experts advise businesses to block and monitor traffic in their networks with common Dark Web protocols, such as Tor or I2P.

Business firewalls often block suspicious traffic coming into a network, but many companies don’t filter traffic going out. Suspicious traffic leaving a network also should be blocked to break the chain of communication, because malware might have gotten into a system through deception or some other means, Hillestad said.

Business leaders also should be automatically alerted about suspicious traffic in their networks so that it can be monitored, he said.

In addition, there is no work-related reason for an employee of a legitimate business to have a Dark Web browser loaded on a company computer, Hillestad said.

“It’s important to know how this stuff works so you can fight it,” he said.


The Dark Web isn’t the only cyber tool that criminals have available to them. They also can misuse search engines such as Shodan, which for a fee can be used to search the Deep Web (but not the Dark Web) to locate private devices such as cameras and public services connected directly to the Internet.

Computerized business and home devices always should be run through a network firewall, Hillestad advises.

A closer look

Advances in technology and the explosive growth of business and personal use of the Internet and private networks to create, move and store sensitive data have fueled a corresponding increase in cybercrime and threats to information.

Juniper Research, a company based in England, estimates that the rapid digitalization of information will increase the global cost of data breaches to $2.1 trillion by 2019. That’s four times the cost of breaches in 2015.

Advances in hacking technology and profit potential in selling or using stolen information is contributing to the growth of cybercrime. Information such as a stolen healthcare record, for example, can be sold online and used by a buyer to make fraudulent claims worth many times the price of the document.

A vast inventory of stolen records with sensitive information are openly for sale on the Dark Web, which takes up a small part of the World Wide Web.

If the World Wide Web is viewed as an iceberg, the Surface Web would be the visible part that sits above the waterline. That’s the publicly accessible part of the Internet that is indexed sites. It’s searchable with tools such as Google, Bing and Yahoo.

Below the surface of the water would be a vast maze of unindexed information known as the Deep Web, where academic, government and business data are stored. Much of that information can only be queried through direct links.

At the bottom of the iceberg is the secretive tip known as the Dark Web. The Dark Web overlays the public internet, but accessing it requires special software, which is free and available online.

Tutorials are available online that show people how to access the Dark Web.

Hillestad and Nick Podhradsky, senior vice president of operations at SBS, recently hosted a webinar that included a tour of the Dark Web. “It’s an e-commerce site that makes it easy to be a bad guy,” Podhradsky said.

Judging from the SBS webinar and other reports, shopping on the Dark Web is not much different than shopping on mainstream websites. There are virtual shopping carts, payment options, classified ads, out-of-stock product advisories and customer reviews.

The Dark Web even has its own information sources. One of the best known information sources is DeepDotWeb.com, which reports news about the Dark Web but is a publicly accessible website. DeepDotWeb looks like a mainstream news publication, but its content is different. It carries a lot of news about arrest reports and market conditions.

“International law enforcement gathered to share concerns about Bitcoin and money laundering,” said one recent headline. “Over 10,000 firearms seized in Spain, bought on the darknet,” said another.

Another recent headline said: “Man tried to hire a hitman on the darknet to kill his wife but got scammed and arrested instead.”

Anyone can open a node, or relay site, on the Dark Web. Law enforcement agencies are known to set up dummy sites to try to track and stop lawbreakers. Inexperienced browsers have to be careful, because scams are common risk.

Hillestad said the Dark Web is a pretty new phenomenon to most people. The rise of ransomware really helped popularize it among criminals. Ransomware is a type of malware that is used to remotely lock up targeted computers and files. Then, the wrongdoers behind the attack demand payment to unlock the information. A lot of ransomware and denial-of-service attacks start with resources from the Dark Web.

To reduce the likelihood of ransomware and other malware being introduced into business networks, security experts stress the importance of companies to training employees well. For example, employees should be trained to not open attachments that arrive unexpectedly.


Companies should track social engineering trends, so that employees and customers can be warned about phishing attacks that could lead to data breaches. Phishing refers to tactics used by cybercriminals to trick people out of sensitive information, such as passwords.

Companies that don’t want information discovered shouldn’t put it online in accessible form, said William Bushee, vice president of technology for BrightPlanet.

BrightPlanet is a Sioux Falls company that uses technology to harvest information from the Deep Web, which is the unindexed part of the World Wide Web between the Surface Web and the Dark Web.

A two-year-old report or news story might no longer be searchable on the Surface Web, for example, but it might exist on the Deep Web. Clients can use information from the Deep Web to identify patterns, threats and opportunities, according to BrightPlanet.

Bushee notes that the Dark Web, or Tor network, didn’t even exist a decade ago.

“Anonymity is really why the Tor network was created in the first place. But as soon as you have anonymity, what do you have? People doing bad things,” he said. “It breeds bad things. But the network itself isn’t bad.”

Cybercrime is flourishing with the help from the Dark Web, but there are steps that businesses can take to reduce risks.

SBS CyberSecurity and other security businesses encourage companies to block protocols commonly used to access the Dark Net from exiting their firewalls. Companies also are encouraged to monitor suspicious traffic.

Good, ongoing employee training also can reduce the risk of a business suffering a malware attack or data breach.

Gary Fischer, a sales engineer at SDN Communications, agrees that good, application-aware firewalls can help protect business networks. SDN is a Sioux Falls company that provides broadband connectivity and cybersecurity services to businesses.

Companies can reduce risks by monitoring what employees do on the internet, if that’s a concern. Companies also can control what software can be installed on computers, Fischer said

“One solution doesn’t cover everything. You might have to do multiple things” to help keep a business network safe, he said.

Jon Pederson, chief technology officer at Midco, also encourages businesses to have good firewall in place. Midco provides internet, phone and TV services to businesses as well as residential customers in the region.

“If electrical engineers get together at a conference and exchange information, they’re going to be better electrical engineers,” Pederson said. The same holds true for hackers exchanging information on the Dark Web, he said.

“If I was law enforcement, that’s where I’d be hanging out to find the bad guys,” Pederson said.

Businesses and other organizations also have opportunities to get together to share information and help protect themselves. One option is the InfraGard.

The FBI collaborated with infrastructure and academic experts and to start the InfraGard program. Participation is aimed at protecting national assets such as communication networks, water supplies, food, banking information, energy sources, transportation systems and public health.


South Dakota has a chapter. Prospective members can find out more about the collaborative program and apply for membership by visiting the InfraGard South Dakota Member Alliance website at www.sdinfragard.net. There is no cost.

Source : http://www.argusleader.com/story/news/business-journal/2017/02/14/dark-web-cybercrime-carries-risks-businesses/97914328/

Categorized in Deep Web

THE MYSTERIOUS CORNER of the Internet known as the Dark Web is designed to defy all attempts to identify its inhabitants. But one group of researchers has attempted to shed new light on what those users are doing under the cover of anonymity. Their findings indicate that an overwhelming majority of their traffic is driven by the Dark Web’s darkest activity: the sexual abuse of children.

At the Chaos Computer Congress in Hamburg, Germany today, University of Portsmouth computer science researcher Gareth Owen will present the results of a six-month probe of the web’s collection of Tor hidden services, which include the stealthy websites that make up the largest chunk of the Dark Web. The study paints an ugly portrait of that Internet underground: drug forums and contraband markets are the largest single category of sites hidden under Tor’s protection, but traffic to them is dwarfed by visits to child abuse sites. More than four out of five Tor hidden services site visits were to online destinations with pedophilia materials, according to Owen’s study. That’s over five times as many as any of the other categories of content that he and his researchers found in their Dark Web survey, such as gambling, bitcoin-related sites or anonymous whistle-blowing.


The researchers’ disturbing statistics could raise doubts among even the staunchest defenders of the Dark Web as a haven for privacy. “Before we did this study, it was certainly my view that the dark net is a good thing,” says Owen. “But it’s hampering the rights of children and creating a place where pedophiles can act with impunity.”

“Before we did this study, it was certainly my view that the dark net is a good thing.”

Precisely measuring anything on the Dark Web isn’t easy, and the study’s findings leave some room for dispute. The creators of Tor known as the Tor Project responded to a request for comment from WIRED with a list of alternative factors that could have skewed its results. Law enforcement and anti-abuse groups patrol pedophilia Dark Web sites to measure and track them, for instance, which can count as a “visit.” In some cases, hackers may have launched denial of service attacks against the sites with the aim of taking them offline with a flood of fraudulent visits. Unstable sites that frequently go offline might generate more visit counts. And sites visited through the tool Tor2Web, which is designed to make Tor hidden services more accessible to non-anonymous users, would be underrepresented. All those factors might artificially inflate the number of visits to child abuse sites measured by the University of Portsmouth researchers.1

“We do not know the cause of the high hit count [to child abuse sites] and cannot say with any certainty that it corresponds with humans,” Owen admitted in a response to the Tor Project shared with WIRED, adding that “caution is advised” when drawing conclusions about the study’s results.

Tor executive director Roger Dingledine followed up in a statement to WIRED pointing out that Tor hidden services represent only 2 percent of total traffic over Tor’s anonymizing network. He defended Tor hidden services’ privacy features. “There are important uses for hidden services, such as when human rights activists use them to access Facebook or to blog anonymously,” he wrote, referring to Facebook’s launch of its own hidden service in October. “These uses for hidden services are new and have great potential.”


Here’s how the Portsmouth University study worked: From March until September of this year, the research group ran 40 “relay” computers in the Tor network, the collection of thousands of volunteer machines that bounce users’ encrypted traffic through hops around the world to obscure its origin and destination. These relays allowed them to assemble an unprecedented collection of data about the total number of Tor hidden services online—about 45,000 at any given time—and how much traffic flowed to them. They then used a custom web-crawling program to visit each of the sites they’d found and classify them by content.

The researchers found that a majority of Tor hidden service traffic—the traffic to the 40 most visited sites, in fact—were actually communications from “botnet” computers infected with malware seeking instructions from a hacker-controlled server running Tor. Most of those malware control servers were offline, remnants of defunct malware schemes like the Skynet botnet whose alleged operator was arrested last year.

But take out that automated malware traffic, and 83 percent of the remaining visits to Tor hidden service websites sought sites that Owen’s team classified as related to child abuse. Most of the sites were so explicit as to include the prefix “pedo” in their name. (Owen asked that WIRED not name the sites for fear of driving more visitors to them.) The researchers’ automated web crawler downloaded only text, not pictures, to avoid any illegal possession of child pornographic images or video. “It came as a huge shock to us,” Owen says of his findings. “I don’t think anyone imagined it was on this scale.”

Despite their popularity on the Tor network, child abuse sites represent only about 2 percent of Tor hidden service websites—just a small number of pedophilia sites account for the majority of Dark Web http traffic, according to the study. Drug-related sites and markets like the now-defunct Silk Road 2, Agora or Evolution represented a total of about 24 percent of the sites measured in the study, by contrast. But visits to those sites accounted for only about 5 percent of site requests on the Tor network, by the researchers’ count. Whistleblower sites like SecureDrop and Globaleaks, which allow anonymous users to upload sensitive documents to news organizations, accounted for 5 percent of Tor hidden service sites, but less than a tenth of a percent of site visits.

The study also found that the vast majority of Tor hidden services persist online for only a matter of days or weeks. Less than one in six of the hidden services that was online when Owen’s study began remained online at the end of it. Since the study only attempted to classify sites by content at the end of its six month probe, Tor director Roger Dingledine points out that it could over-represent child abuse sites that remained online longer than other types of sites. “[The study] could either show a lot of people visiting abuse-related hidden services, or it could simply show that abuse-related hidden services are more long-lived than others,” he writes. “We can’t tell from the data.”

The Study Raises the Question: How Dark Is The Dark Web?

Other defenders of the Tor network’s importance as an alternative to the public, privacy-threatened Web will no doubt bristle at Owen’s findings. But even aside from the Tor Project’s arguments about why the study’s findings may be skewed, its results don’t necessarily suggest that Tor is overwhelmingly used for child abuse. What they may instead show is that Tor users who seek child abuse materials use Tor much more often and visit sites much more frequently than those seeking to buy drugs or leak sensitive documents to a journalist.


Nonetheless, the study raises new questions about the darkest subcultures of the Dark Web and law enforcement’s response to them. In November, the FBI and Europol staged a massive bust of Tor hidden services that included dozens of drug and money laundering sites, including three of the six most popular anonymous online drug markets. The takedowns occurred after Owen’s study concluded, so he doesn’t know which of the pedophilia sites he measured may have been caught in that dragnet. None of the site takedowns trumpeted in the FBI and Europol press releases mentioned pedophilia sites, nor did an analysis of the seizures by security researcher Nik Cubrilovic later that month.

“It came as a huge shock to us. I don’t think anyone imagined it was on this scale.”

In his Chaos Computer Congress talk, Owen also plans to present methods that could be used to block access to certain Tor hidden services. A certain number of carefully configured Tor relays, he says, could be used to alter the “distributed hash table” that acts as a directory for Tor hidden services. That method could block access to a child abuse hidden service, for instance, though Owen says it would require 18 new relays to be added to the Tor network to block any single site. And he was careful to note that he’s merely introducing the possibility of that controversial blocking measure, not actually suggesting it. One of Tor’s central purposes, after all, is to evade censorship, not enable it.

The study could nonetheless lead to difficult questions for the Tor support community. And it could also dramatically shift the larger public conversation around the Dark Web. Law enforcement officials and politicians including New York Senator Chuck Schumer have railed against the use of Tor to enable online drug sales on a mass scale, with little mention of child abuse. Owen’s study is a reminder that criminal content is hiding in the shadows of the Internet that make drug sales look harmless by comparison—and whose consumers may be more active than anyone imagined.

1Updated 12/30/2014 5:25 EST to add more of the Tor Project’s explanations of possible inaccuracies in the study’s count of visits to child abuse sites.


Source : https://www.wired.com/2014/12/80-percent-dark-web-visits-relate-pedophilia-study-finds/

Categorized in Deep Web

The clandestine data hosted within the Dark Web is not secret anymore and has been compromised.

A group affiliated with hacker collective Anonymous has managed to bring down one fifth of Tor-based websites in a vigilante move. The group infiltrated the servers of Freedom Hosting II and took down almost 10,000 websites as they were sharing child porn.

For the unfamiliar, Dark Web is a part of World Wide Web that exists on overlay networks and darknets. Dark Webs uses public Internet but access to it can only be gained through some specific software, authorization codes or a particular configuration.

The Dark Web or Deep Web as some call it, in not listed by search engines and keeps the identity and activity of the user anonymous.


Freedom Hosting II is the single largest host of sites on the Dark Web. The hacker group has managed to breach down the servers of the host and currently, has access to gigabytes of data that they managed to download from the service.

Looks like Freedom Hosting II got pwned. They hosted close to 20% of all dark web sites (previous @OnionScan report) https://t.co/JOLXFJQXiH

— Sarah Jamie Lewis (@SarahJamieLewis) February 3, 2017

Dark Web researcher Sarah Jamie Lewis states that, Freedom Hosting II hosts almost 15 percent to 20 percent of all underground sites on the Dark Web.

“Since OnionScan started in April we have observed FHII hosting between 1500 and 2000 services or about 15-20% of the total number of active sites in our scanning lists,” stated Lewis in her OnionScan 2016 report.

All these underground websites hosted by Freedom Hosting II are .onion and can be accessed through browser Tor.


People visiting the hacked websites were greeted with the message: “Hello, Freedom Hosting II, you have been hacked.”

A petty ransom of 0.1 bitcoin, which is about $100 in today’s exchange rate, has been demanded by the hackers who managed to compromise and download 75 GB of files and 2.6 GB of database from the host servers.

The Anonymous affiliated hackers shared that it decided to attack Freedom Hosting II servers as it learnt that the host was managing child pornography sites and they have zero tolerance for the same. About half of the data downloaded contains child pornography.

The hackers claim they found 10 child pornography sites with almost 30 GB of files and asserts that Freedom Hosting II was aware of these sites and had their content.

“This suggests they paid for hosting and the admin knew of those sites. That’s when I decided to take it down instead,” said the hacker group to Motherboard.

Although it is tough to believe the claims of the hacker group, it does fall in line with past history of the previous Dark Web hosting companies. The original version of Freedom Hosting was prosecuted for child pornography in 2013 by law enforcement officials.

The hackers which took down Freedom Hosting confessed to Motherboard that it was their first hack. The leaked data may now attract law enforcement officials in intervening and it would not be too surprising to hear of arrests since this data could be used in many ways.


Source : http://www.themarshalltown.com/anonymous-attack-thousands-of-websites-on-the-dark-web/19265

Categorized in Deep Web
Washington, Feb 6 (Prensa Latina) The Dark Web, the darkest part of so-called Deep Web, was hacked to expose pages with enormous amounts of children''s pornography to the authorities, Motherboard platform reported Monday.
It is known as Deep Web the pages that carry every content that is not found on superficial Internet or in public nets. It constitutes 90 percent of everything published in the Internet but it cannot be searched by using traditional search engines like GOOGLE, YAHOO or BING.

The hacker responsible for the attack made public the content of more than 10,000 websites hidden in the Internet, which up to now, were only available through a program called THOR.

The action was against a website called Freedom Hosting II, a service to place websites in the Dark Web, which has been involved in polemic issues, linked to child pornography.

According to the hacker, the attack was due to the fact that at least, 50 percent of the files in those servers working for Freedom Hosting II corresponded to child pornography and frauds, through messages that have been shown.

The Deep Web is inaccessible for most of the Internet users, due to the limitations of the public network for access to all the websites; also, the majority of the content in the Deep Web is generated dynamically, so it is difficult to search them through traditional search engines.

That is why many international organizations have qualified the Deep Web as a refuge for criminals and a place to publish illegal content.


According to experts, what is more rampant in this sector of the network are scams, since the only thing that protects users in the Deep Web is common sense.
Categorized in Deep Web

Much of the data of the World Wide Web hides like an iceberg below the surface. The so-called 'deep web' has been estimated to be 500 times bigger than the 'surface web' seen through search engines like Google. For scientists and others, the deep web holds important computer code and its licensing agreements. Nestled further inside the deep web, one finds the 'dark web,' a place where images and video are used by traders in illicit drugs, weapons, and human trafficking. A new data-intensive supercomputer called Wrangler is helping researchers obtain meaningful answers from the hidden data of the public web.

The Wrangler supercomputer got its start in response to the question, can a computer be built to handle massive amounts of I/O (input and output)? The National Science Foundation (NSF) in 2013 got behind this effort and awarded the Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC), Indiana University, and the University of Chicago $11.2 million to build a first-of-its-kind data-intensive supercomputer. Wrangler's 600 terabytes of lightning-fast flash storage enabled the speedy reads and writes of files needed to fly past big data bottlenecks that can slow down even the fastest computers. It was built to work in tandem with number crunchers such as TACC's Stampede, which in 2013 was the sixth fastest computer in the world.

While Wrangler was being built, a separate project came together headed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) of the U.S. Department of Defense. Back in 1969, DARPA had built the ARPANET, which eventually grew to become the Internet, as a way to exchange files and share information. In 2014, DARPA wanted something new - a search engine for the deep web. They were motivated to uncover the deep web's hidden and illegal activity, according to Chris Mattmann, chief architect in the Instrument and Science Data Systems Section of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) at the California Institute of Technology.

"Behind forms and logins, there are bad things. Behind the dynamic portions of the web like AJAX and Javascript, people are doing nefarious things," said Mattmann. They're not indexed because the web crawlers of Google and others ignore most images, video, and audio files. "People are going on a forum site and they're posting a picture of a woman that they're trafficking. And they're asking for payment for that. People are going to a different site and they're posting illicit drugs, or weapons, guns, or things like that to sell," he said.

Mattmann added that an even more inaccessible portion of the deep web called the 'dark web' can only be reached through a special browser client and protocol called TOR, The Onion Router. "On the dark web," said Mattmann, "they're doing even more nefarious things." They traffic in guns and human organs, he explained. "They're basically doing these activities and then they're tying them back to terrorism."

In response, DARPA started a program called Memex. Its name blends 'memory' with 'index' and has roots to an influential 1945 Atlantic magazine article penned by U.S. engineer and Raytheon founder Vannevar Bush. His futuristic essay imagined making all of a person's communications - books, records, and even all spoken and written words - in fingertip reach. The DARPA Memex program sought to make the deep web accessible. "The goal of Memex was to provide search engines the information retrieval capacity to deal with those situations and to help defense and law enforcement go after the bad guys there," Mattmann said.

Karanjeet Singh is a University of Southern California graduate student who works with Chris Mattmann on Memex and other projects. "The objective is to get more and more domain-specific (specialized) information from the Internet and try to make facts from that information," said Singh said. He added that agencies such as law enforcement continue to tailor their questions to the limitations of search engines. In some ways the cart leads the horse in deep web search. "Although we have a lot of search-based queries through different search engines like Google," Singh said, "it's still a challenge to query the system in way that answers your questions directly."

Once the Memex user extracts the information they need, they can apply tools such as named entity recognizer, sentiment analysis, and topic summarization. This can help law enforcement agencies like the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigations find links between different activities, such as illegal weapon sales and human trafficking, Singh explained.


"Let's say that we have one system directly in front of us, and there is some crime going on," Singh said. "The FBI comes in and they have some set of questions or some specific information, such as a person with such hair color, this much age. Probably the best thing would be to mention a user ID on the Internet that the person is using. So with all three pieces of information, if you feed it into the Memex system, Memex would search in the database it has collected and would yield the web pages that match that information. It would yield the statistics, like where this person has been or where it has been sited in geolocation and also in the form of graphs and others."

"What JPL is trying to do is trying to automate all of these processes into a system where you can just feed in the questions and and we get the answers," Singh said. For that he worked with an open source web crawler called Apache Nutch. It retrieves and collects web page and domain information of the . The MapReduce framework powers those crawls with a divide-and-conquer approach to big data that breaks it up into small pieces that run simultaneously. The problem is that even the fastest computers like Stampede weren't designed to handle the input and output of millions of files needed for the Memex project.

The World Wide Web is like an iceberg, with most of its data hidden below the surface. There lies the 'deep web,' estimated at 500 times bigger than the 'surface web' that most people see through search engines like Google. A innovative

The Wrangler data-intensive supercomputer avoids data overload by virtue of its 600 terabytes of speedy flash storage. What's more, Wrangler supports the Hadoop framework, which runs using MapReduce. "Wrangler, as a platform, can run very large Hadoop-based and Spark-based crawling jobs," Mattmann said. "It's a fantastic resource that we didn't have before as a mechanism to do research; to go out and test our algorithms and our new search engines and our crawlers on these sites; and to evaluate the extractions and analytics and things like that afterwards. Wrangler has been an amazing resource to help us do that, to run these large-scale crawls, to do these type of evaluations, to help develop techniques that are helping save people, stop crime, and stop terrorism around the world."

Singh and Mattmann don't just use Wrangler to help fight crime. A separate project looks for a different kind of rule breaker. The Distributed Release Audit Tool (DRAT) audits software licenses of massive code repositories, which can store hundreds of millions of lines of code and millions of files. DRAT got its start because DARPA needed to audit the massive code repository of its national-scale 100-million-dollar-funded presidential initiative called XDATA. Over 60 different kinds of software licenses exist that authorize the use of code. What got lost in the shuffle of XDATA is whether developers followed DARPA guidelines of permissive and open source licenses, according to Chris Mattmann.

Mattmann's team at NASA JPL initially took the job on with an Apache open source tool called RAT, the Release Audit Tool. Right off the bat, big problems came up working with the big data. "What we found after running RAT on this very large code repository was that after about three or four weeks, RAT still hadn't completed. We were running it on a supercomputer, a very large cloud computer. And we just couldn't get it to complete," Mattmann said. Some other problems with RAT bugged the team. It didn't give status reports. And RAT would get hung up checking binary code - the ones and zeroes that typically just hold data such as video and were not the target of the software audit.

Mattmann's team took RAT and tailored it for parallel computers with a distributed algorithm, mapping the problem into small chunks that run simultaneously over the many cores of a supercomputer. It's then reduced into a final result. The MapReduce workflow runs on top of the Apache Object Oriented Data Technology, which integrates and processes scientific archives.

The distributed version of RAT, or DRAT, was able to complete the XDATA job in two hours on a Mac laptop that previously hung up a 24-core, 48 GB RAM supercomputer at NASA for weeks. DRAT was ready for even bigger challenges.

"A number of other projects came to us wanting to do this," Mattmann said. The EarthCube project of the National Science Foundation had a very large climate modeling repository and sought out Mattmann's team. "They asked us if all these scientists are putting licenses on their code, or whether they're open source, or if they're using the right components. And so we did a very big, large auditing for them," Mattmann said.


"That's where Wrangler comes in," Karanjeet Singh said. "We have all the tools and equipment on Wrangler, thanks to the TACC team. What we did was we just configured our DRAT tool on Wrangler and ran distributedly with the compute nodes in Wrangler. We scanned whole Apache SVN repositories, which includes all of the Apache open source projects."

The project Mattmann's team is working on early 2017 is to run DRAT on the Wrangler supercomputer over historically all of the code that Apache has developed since its existence - including over 200 projects with over two million revisions in a code repository on the order of hundreds of millions to billions of files.

"This is something that's only done incrementally and never done at that sort of scale before. We were able to do it on Wrangler in about two weeks. We were really excited about that," Mattmann said.

Apache Tika formed one of the key components to the success of DRAT. It discerns Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) file types and extracts its metadata, the data about the data. "We call Apache Tika the 'babel fish,' like 'The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy,'" Mattmann said. "Put the babel fish to your ear to understand any language. The goal with Tika is to provide any type of file, any file found on the Internet or otherwise to it and it will understand it for you at the other end...A lot of those investments and research approaches in Tika have been accelerated through these projects from DARPA, NASA, and the NSF that my group is funded by," Mattmann said.

When data's deep, dark places need to be illuminated

File type breakdown of XDATA. Credit: Chris Mattmann

"A lot of the metadata that we're extracting is based on these machine-learning, clustering, and named-entity recognition approaches. Who's in this image? Or who's it talking about in these files? The people, the places, the organizations, the dates, the times. Because those are all very important things. Tika was one of the core technologies used - it was one of only two - to uncover the Panama Papers global controversy of hiding money in offshore global corporations," Mattmann said.

Chris Mattmann, the first NASA staffer to join the board of the Apache Foundation, helped create Apache Tika, along with the scalable text search engine Apache Lucerne and the search platform Apache Solr. "Those two core technologies are what they used to go through all the leaked (Panama Papers) data and make the connections between everybody - the companies, and people, and whatever," Mattmann said.

Mattmann gets these core technologies to scale up on supercomputers by 'wrapping' them up on the Apache Spark framework software. Spark is basically an in-memory version of the Apache Hadoop capability MapReduce, intelligently sharing memory across the compute cluster. "Spark can improve the speed of Hadoop type of jobs by a factor of 100 to 1,000, depending on the underlying type of hardware," Mattmann said.

"Wrangler is a new generation system, which supports good technologies like Hadoop. And you can definitely run Spark on top of it as well, which really solves the new technological problems that we are facing," Singh said.

Making sense out of  guides much of the worldwide efforts behind 'machine learning,' a slightly oxymoronic term according to computer scientist Thomas Sterling of Indiana University. "It's a somewhat incorrect phrase because the machine doesn't actually understand anything that it learns. But it does help people see patterns and trends within data that would otherwise escape us. And it allows us to manage the massive amount and extraordinary growth of information we're having to deal with," Sterling said in a 2014 interview with TACC.

One application of machine learning that interested NASA JPL's Chris Mattmann is TensorFlow, developed by Google. It offers  commodity-based access to very large-scale machine learning. TensorFlow's Inception version three model trains the software to classify images. From a picture the model can basically tell a stop sign from a cat, for instance. Incorporated into Memex, Mattmann said Tensorflow takes its web crawls of images and video and looks for descriptors that can aid in "catching a bad guy or saving somebody, identifying an illegal weapon, identifying something like counterfeit electronics, and things like this."

"Wrangler is moving into providing TensorFlow as a capability," Mattmann said. "One of the traditional things that stopped a regular Joe from really taking advantage of large-scale machine learning is that a lot of these toolkits like Tensorflow are optimized for a particular type of hardware, GPUs or graphics processing units." This specialized hardware isn't typically found in most computers.

"Wrangler, providing GPU-types of hardware on top of its petabyte of flash storage and all of the other advantages in the types of machines it provides, is fantastic. It lets us do this at very large scale, over lots of data and run these machine learning classifiers and these tool kits and models that exist," Mattmann said.

What's more, Tensorflow is compute intensive and runs very slowly on most systems, which becomes a big problem when analyzing millions of images looking for needles in the haystack. "Wrangler does the job," Singh said. Singh and others of Mattmann's team are currently using Tensorflow on Wrangler. "We don't have any results yet, but we know that - the tool that we have built through Tensorflow is definitely producing some results. But we are yet to test with the millions of images that we have crawled and how good it produces the results," Singh said.


"I'm appreciative," said Chris Mattmann, "of being a member of the advisory board of the staff at TACC and to Niall Gaffney, Dan Stanzione, Weijia Xu and all the people who are working at TACC to make Wrangler accessible and useful; and also for their listening to the people who are doing science and research on it, like my group. It wouldn't be possible without them. It's a national treasure. It should keep moving forward."

Source : https://phys.org/news/2017-02-deep-dark-illuminated.html

Categorized in Deep Web

There is no law enforcement presence in the Dark Web. 80% of its hits are reportedly connected to child pornography

The Internet is massive. Millions of web pages, databases and servers all run 24 hours a day, seven days a week. But the so-called “visible” Internet — sites that can be found using search engines like Google and Yahoo — is just the tip of the iceberg. Below the surface is the Deep Web, which accounts for approximately 90 per cent of all websites. In fact, this hidden Web is so large that it is impossible to discover exactly how many pages or sites are active at any given time. This Web was once the province of hackers, law enforcement officers and criminals. However, new technology like encryption and the anonymisation browser software, Tor, now makes it possible for anyone to dive deep if they are interested.


What is the Dark Web?

There are a number of terms surrounding the non-visible Web, but it is worth knowing how they differ if you are planning to browse off the beaten path. The ‘Dark Web’ refers to sites with criminal intent or illegal content, and ‘trading’ sites where users can purchase illicit goods or services. In other words, the Deep covers everything under the surface that is still accessible with the right software, including the Dark Web. There is also a third term, “Dark Internet” that refers to sites and databases that are not available over public Internet connections, even if you are using Tor. Often, Dark Internet sites are used by companies or researchers to keep sensitive information private.

How is it accessed?

Most people who wish to access the Deep Web use Tor, a service originally developed by the United States Naval Research Laboratory. Think of Tor as a Web browser like Google Chrome or Firefox. The main difference is that, instead of taking the most direct route between your computer and the deep parts of the Web, the Tor browser uses a random path of encrypted servers, also known as “nodes.” This allows users to connect to the Deep Web without fear of their actions being tracked or their browser history being exposed. Sites on the Deep also use Tor (or similar software such as I2P) to remain anonymous, meaning you will not be able to find out who is running them or where they are being hosted.

Many users now leverage Tor to browse both the public Internet and the Deep. Some simply do not want government agencies or even Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to know what they are looking at online, while others have little choice — users in countries with strict access and usage laws are often prevented from accessing even public sites unless they use Tor clients and virtual private networks (VPNs). The same is true for government critics and other outspoken advocates who fear backlash if their real identities were discovered. Of course, anonymity comes with a dark side since criminals and malicious hackers also prefer to operate in the shadows.

Use and misuse

For some users, the Deep Web offers the opportunity to bypass local restrictions and access TV or movie services that may not be available in their local areas. Others go deep to download pirated music or grab movies that are not yet in theatres. At the dark end of the Web, meanwhile, things can get scary, salacious and just plain...strange. As noted by The Guardian, for example, credit card data is available on the Dark Web for just a few dollars per record, while ZDNet notes that anything from fake citizenship documents to passports and even the services of professional hitmen are available if you know where to look. Interested parties can also grab personal details and leverage them to blackmail ordinary Internet users. Consider the recent Ashley Madison hack — vast amounts of account data, including real names, addresses and phone numbers — ended up on the Dark Web for sale.


This proves that, even if you do not surf the murky waters of the Dark Web, you could be at risk of blackmail (or worse) if sites you regularly use are hacked.

Illegal drugs are also a popular draw on the Dark Web. As noted by Motherboard, drug marketplace Silk Road — which has been shut down, replaced, shut down again and then rebranded — offers any type of substance in any amount to interested parties. Business Insider, meanwhile, details some of the strange things you can track down in the Deep, including a DIY vasectomy kit and a virtual scavenger hunts that culminated in the “hunter” answering a NYC payphone at 3 am.

What are the real risks of the Dark Web?

Thanks to the use of encryption and anonymisation tools by both users and websites, there is virtually no law enforcement presence down in the Dark. This means anything — even material well outside the bounds of good taste and common decency — can be found online. This includes offensive, illegal “adult” content that would likely scar the viewer for life. A recent Wired article, for example, reports that 80 per cent of Dark Web hits are connected to paedophilia and child pornography. Here, the notion of the Dark as a haven for privacy wears thin and shores up the notion that if you do choose to go Deep, always restrict access to your Tor-enabled device so that children or other family members are not at risk of stumbling across something no one should ever see. Visit the Deep Web if you are interested, but do yourself a favour: do not let kids anywhere near it and tread carefully — it is a long way down.

Altaf Halde is Managing Director, Kaspersky Lab — South Asia, and is an industry veteran in cyber security.


Source : http://www.dnaindia.com/analysis/column-the-secrets-of-the-dark-web-2296778

Categorized in Deep Web

In today’s data-rich world, companies, governments and individuals want to analyze anything and everything they can get their hands on – and the World Wide Web has loads of information. At present, the most easily indexed material from the web is text. But as much as 89 to 96 percent of the content on the internet is actually something else – images, video, audio, in all thousands of different kinds of nontextual data types.

Further, the vast majority of online content isn’t available in a form that’s easily indexed by electronic archiving systems like Google’s. Rather, it requires a user to log in, or it is provided dynamically by a program running when a user visits the page. If we’re going to catalog online human knowledge, we need to be sure we can get to and recognize all of it, and that we can do so automatically.


How can we teach computers to recognize, index and search all the different types of material that’s available online? Thanks to federal efforts in the global fight against human trafficking and weapons dealing, my research forms the basis for a new tool that can help with this effort.

Understanding what’s deep

The “deep web” and the “dark web” are often discussed in the context of scary news or films like “Deep Web,” in which young and intelligent criminals are getting away with illicit activities such as drug dealing and human trafficking – or even worse. But what do these terms mean?

The “deep web” has existed ever since businesses and organizations, including universities, put large databases online in ways people could not directly view. Rather than allowing anyone to get students’ phone numbers and email addresses, for example, many universities require people to log in as members of the campus community before searching online directories for contact information. Online services such as Dropbox and Gmail are publicly accessible and part of the World Wide Web – but indexing a user’s files and emails on these sites does require an individual login, which our project does not get involved with.

The “surface web” is the online world we can see – shopping sites, businesses’ information pages, news organizations and so on. The “deep web” is closely related, but less visible, to human users and – in some ways more importantly – to search engines exploring the web to catalog it. I tend to describe the “deep web” as those parts of the public internet that:

  1. Require a user to first fill out a login form,
  2. Involve dynamic content like AJAX or Javascript, or
  3. Present images, video and other information in ways that aren’t typically indexed properly by search services.

What’s dark?

The “dark web,” by contrast, are pages – some of which may also have “deep web” elements – that are hosted by web servers using the anonymous web protocol called Tor. Originally developed by U.S. Defense Department researchers to secure sensitive information, Tor was released into the public domain in 2004.


Like many secure systems such as the WhatsApp messaging app, its original purpose was for good, but has also been used by criminals hiding behind the system’s anonymity. Some people run Tor sites handling illicit activity, such as drug traffickingweapons and human trafficking and even murder for hire.

The U.S. government has been interested in trying to find ways to use modern information technology and computer science to combat these criminal activities. In 2014, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (more commonly known as DARPA), a part of the Defense Department, launched a program called Memex to fight human trafficking with these tools.

Specifically, Memex wanted to create a search index that would help law enforcement identify human trafficking operations online – in particular by mining the deep and dark web. One of the key systems used by the project’s teams of scholars, government workers and industry experts was one I helped develop, called Apache Tika.

The ‘digital Babel fish’

Tika is often referred to as the “digital Babel fish,” a play on a creature called the “Babel fish” in the “Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy” book series. Once inserted into a person’s ear, the Babel fish allowed her to understand any language spoken. Tika lets users understand any file and the information contained within it.

When Tika examines a file, it automatically identifies what kind of file it is – such as a photo, video or audio. It does this with a curated taxonomy of information about files: their name, their extension, a sort of “digital fingerprint. When it encounters a file whose name ends in ”.MP4,“ for example, Tika assumes it’s a video file stored in the MPEG-4 format. By directly analyzing the data in the file, Tika can confirm or refute that assumption – all video, audio, image and other files must begin with specific codes saying what format their data is stored in.


Once a file’s type is identified, Tika uses specific tools to extract its content such as Apache PDFBox for PDF files, or Tesseract for capturing text from images. In addition to content, other forensic information or "metadata” is captured including the file’s creation date, who edited it last, and what language the file is authored in.

From there, Tika uses advanced techniques like Named Entity Recognition (NER) to further analyze the text. NER identifies proper nouns and sentence structure, and then fits this information to databases of people, places and things, identifying not just whom the text is talking about, but where, and why they are doing it. This technique helped Tika to automatically identify offshore shell corporations (the things); where they were located; and who (people) was storing their money in them as part of the Panama Papers scandal that exposed financial corruption among global political, societal and technical leaders.

Tika extracting information from images of weapons curated from the deep and dark web. Stolen weapons are classified automatically for further follow-up.

Identifying illegal activity

Improvements to Tika during the Memex project made it even better at handling multimedia and other content found on the deep and dark web. Now Tika can process and identify images with common human trafficking themes. For example, it can automatically process and analyze text in images – a victim alias or an indication about how to contact them – and certain types of image properties – such as camera lighting. In some images and videos, Tika can identify the people, places and things that appear.

Additional software can help Tika find automatic weapons and identify a weapon’s serial number. That can help to track down whether it is stolen or not.

Employing Tika to monitor the deep and dark web continuously could help identify human- and weapons-trafficking situations shortly after the photos are posted online. That could stop a crime from occurring and save lives.

Memex is not yet powerful enough to handle all of the content that’s out there, nor to comprehensively assist law enforcement, contribute to humanitarian efforts to stop human trafficking and even interact with commercial search engines.

It will take more work, but we’re making it easier to achieve those goals. Tika and related software packages are part of an open source software library available on DARPA’s Open Catalog to anyone – in law enforcement, the intelligence community or the public at large – who wants to shine a light into the deep and the dark.

Author : Christian Mattmann

Source : http://theconversation.com/searching-deep-and-dark-building-a-google-for-the-less-visible-parts-of-the-web-58472

Categorized in Deep Web

The large amount of leaked patient records stolen and posted for sale to the dark web in recent months has caused prices for most of those records to drop, according to new research provided to CyberScoop and conducted by the Institute for Critical Infrastructure Technology and cybersecurity firms Flashpoint and Intel Security.

In the face of exceeding supply, stagnant demand and increased law enforcement attention, it’s becoming increasingly difficult for criminals to make a living selling partial healthcare records, according to James Scott, a senior fellow at ICIT.


While the quality, quantity and sometimes origin of such electronic records will help dictate the price of any specific package for sale, average prices are largely trending downwards for individual, non-financial files, new research shows. The value of similar healthcare records that sold last year for roughly $75 to $100 dollars can now be found for around $20 to $50 dollars, Scott said.

Image via ICIT of TheRealDeal stolen record package Image via ICIT of TheRealDeal stolen record package

“The volume of medical data for sale in the criminal underground is increasing, leading to very low prices for individual records,” Vitali Kremez, a senior analyst focused on cyber intelligence at Flashpoint, told CyberScoop.

A majority of stolen healthcare patient records sold on the dark web come from U.S.-based institutions that have been breached, according to Intel Security.

The average price for a single complete electronic health record — described as a “fullz” in underground markets — typically tagged with financial information and supporting documents like utility bills or insurance receipts, currently hovers around $50, World Privacy Forum founder Pam Dixon recently estimated.

Image via ICIT of TheRealDeal stolen record package Image via ICIT of TheRealDeal stolen record package

In broad strokes, an electronic healthcare record is rarely worth very much unless it is converted into a “complete ID kit,” which combineslong form healthcare records, additional documents and are authorized via a breached government registration database, explained Scott.

Even so, because healthcare records contain vast personal information, these document offer scammers a stepping stone to more comprehensive fraud schemes.


Dixon told Healthcare IT News that decreasing prices are a general conclusion of easier access to sensitive personal records. One component of this eased access, based upon data gathered by ICIT and Intel Security, is the growing sale of hacking-as-a-service on the dark web — which enables those without technical backgrounds to hack into systems by relying on paid mercenaries.

Laying the groundwork for a further discordant dark web economy in some part, according to Kremez and Intel Security vice president Raj Samani, is also the ambiguous rise of prominent, dedicated healthcare hackers. Two of these mysterious actors, known simply by their vendor usernames “earthbound11” and “thedarkoverlord,” have been flooding the market with medical fullz in recent months, thereby dictating the price for other smaller resellers.

A hacker’s underground reputation is typically one of the leading factors leading to the valuation and eventual sale of any records package they post, research shows.

Screen Shot 2016-10-24 at 1.59.05 PMImage via Intel Security Report – shows alleged healthcare hacker DarkOverlord advertising a breach

“The larger trend in the trade of compromised personal healthcare information is toward larger breaches affecting more data,” said Kremez, “cybercriminals themselves have realized that the value of their stolen medical data is much lower than once expected.”


Though it remains unclear how a recent fall in Dark Web prices have and now continue to influence hackers’ attack behavior towards the healthcare industry, several experts who spoke with CyberScoop believe it will ultimately lead to a spike in overall network intrusions at hospitals — the counterintuitive thinking here being that larger data dumps will help dark web vendors recoup recent profit losses.

“After the 2015 breach of 100 million medical records from Anthem, Premera Blue Cross, and Excellus Health Plan, let alone the numerous smaller networks compromised in 2015 and 2016, the annual rate of medical identity theft could easily increase to be ten or twenty times greater than the 2014 rate,” an extensive, recent Dark Web report from ICIT reads. 

Unlike stolen credit card details and other payment information sold online, however, a cloud of uncertainty looms over leaked healthcare records because cause and effect is difficult to decipher, said Samani. According to an April 2014 FBI bulletin, electronic healthcare record theft is also more difficult to detect, taking almost twice as long to spot as normal identity theft.

In most cases, the data necessary to draw a conclusive connection between a leaked patient record and relevant case of identity fraud, for example, is neither readily available nor visible The result is an environment where targeted data breaches occur but security researchers cannot definitely say how some, if not most, of the leaked information is being used, explained Samani.

“The impact of stolen payment cards are felt almost immediately whereas other forms of data the impact could be longer term,” said Samani, “indeed we can determine a direct correlation between a breach, and the pain felt when cards are declined.[But] it is not so easy to determine the origin of fraud with other forms of data.”

Author : Chris Bing

Source : https://www.cyberscoop.com/dark-web-health-records-price-dropping/

Categorized in Deep Web

A recently revealed a dark web scanning service was launched in the UK. The service is called OwlDetect and is available for £3,5 a month. It allows users to scan the dark web in search for their own leaked information. This includes email addresses, credit card information and bank details.

The service reportedly uses online programs and a team of trained experts to scan hundreds of thousands of dark web websites in order to look for their customers’ data. If any personal data is found, the company helps its users act in order to keep themselves safe. It was launched in an attempt to remove reliance on big companies, as users usually only know they were hacked after these companies make it public.


In a few cases, however, the information is revealed a long time after users are hacked. Earlier this year, Yahoo confirmed that, at least 500 million user accounts were compromised by what they believed to be a “state-sponsored actor”. The breach reportedly occurred in 2014, so it took users two years to know they were hacked.

Chairman of the National Cyber Management Centre, and member of OwlDetect’s advisory team, Professor Richard Benham said:

Today the risk of having your personal information compromised is greater than ever. From messaging apps to online shopping and dating websites, we trust a huge number of companies with our details, and there are endless opportunities for those details to fall into the wrong hands.

Crawling the Deep Web

The deep web is, as we all know, beyond the reach of regular search engines. That may be about to change in the future, as more and more tools keep on claiming to be able to crawl it in search for specific information.

According to their website, this new service has a database of stolen data. This database was created over the past 10 years, presumably with the help of their software and team. A real deep web search engine does exist, however.

A few days ago, Hacked.com reported how the Department of Defense’s deep web search engine was to be enhanced by a recent acquisition. This search engine, named Memex, is reportedly able to crawl 90 to 95% of the deep web, presenting its search results in sophisticated infographics.

Source : https://hacked.com/this-tool-lets-you-scan-the-dark-web-for-personal-data/

Categorized in Deep Web

Coffee lovers will travel far and wide to seek out new blends to satisfy their craving – but would you venture into the murky world of the Dark Web to get your hands on an exclusive bag of beans?

For anyone wanting to buy Chernyi Black – a unique blend from Russia – the only place you'll be able to find it is through the same nefarious internet back alleys infamously associated with those anonymously browsing underworld marketplaces for drugs and illegal weapons.

This black market brew, however, is not illegal. Actually, it's not even rare or insanely expensive (roughly £12 a bag), but it won't be easy to find – and that's the appeal. Its creators, the Chernyi Cooperative, a Moscow-based coffee shop, brewed up the idea because they are attempting to make coffee even trendier, and wanted to tap into an exclusive audience.


"We faced a difficult challenge — to attract the attention of trendsetters who already have access to plenty of interesting content," Maxim Fedorov, social media director of Possible Moscow, told AdWeek.

"That is why we chose Tor. The target audience of 'Black' is familiar with anonymous marketplaces. They know how the purchase process is organised and are aware of the subtleties in attaining what they desire."

Interestingly, Digital Trends explains that in Russia it is generally regarded that coffee is harmful and shouldn't be consumed daily – something that's a far cry from the culture seen in other caffeine-fuelled cities around the world. The Chernyi Cooperative therefore devised the idea to sell its blend via the Dark Web as to thumb its nose at the notion. They also claim to want to change perceptions on how the Dark Web is used. "People are happy to see that the darknet doesn't only exist to service what some may term 'undesirables'. This project demonstrates it can be used by anyone looking for a secure and private connection."

If this has hit your hipster weak spot then Tor awaits. Anyone wanting to buy the $12 bag of coffee will have to download the anonymous browsing tool and locate its onion site cherniyx23pmfane.onion. The creators of the marketing gimmick have not held back either – they even consulted an ex-police officer who specialised in the darknet to deliver a cryptic website for a fully authentic flavour of the whole internet underworld.

Those who manage to navigate the site can buy the coffee using bitcoin or a contactless payment system in-store – the address of which is provided in suitably clandestine fashion in the form of coordinates.

Auhtor : James Billington

Source : http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/black-market-brew-coffee-you-can-only-buy-dark-web-1589781

Categorized in Deep Web

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