Source: This article was Published technologyreview.com By Martin Giles - Contributed by Member: Juan Kyser

That’s the view of security expert Bruce Schneier, who fears lives will be lost in a cyber disaster unless governments act swiftly.

Smart gadgets are everywhere. The chances are you have them in your workplace, in your home, and perhaps on your wrist. According to an estimate from research firm Gartner, there will be over 11 billion internet-connected devices (excluding smartphones and computers) in circulation worldwide this year, almost double the number just a couple of years ago.

Many billions more will come online soon. Their connectivity is what makes them so useful, but it’s also a cybersecurity nightmare. Hackers have already shown they can compromise everything from connected cars to medical devices, and warnings are getting louder that security is being shortchanged in the stampede to bring products to market.

In a new book called Click Here to Kill Everybody, Bruce Schneier argues that governments must step in now to force companies developing connected gadgets to make security a priority rather than an afterthought. The author of an influential security newsletter and blog, Schneier is a fellow at the Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University and a lecturer in public policy at the Harvard Kennedy School. Among other roles, he’s also on the board of the Electronic Frontier Foundation and is chief technology officer of IBM Resilient, which helps companies prepare to deal with potential cyber threats.

Schneier spoke with MIT Technology Review about the risks we’re running in an ever more connected world and the policies he thinks are urgently needed to address them.

The title of your book seems deliberately alarmist. Is that just an attempt to juice sales?

It may sound like publishing clickbait, but I’m trying to make the point that the internet now affects the world in a direct physical manner, and that changes everything. It’s no longer about risks to data, but about risks to life and property. And the title really points out that there’s the physical danger here, and that things are different than they were just five years ago.

How’s this shift changing our notion of cybersecurity?

Our cars, our medical devices, our household appliances are all now computers with things attached to them. Your refrigerator is a computer that keeps things cold, and a microwave oven is a computer that makes things hot. And your car is a computer with four wheels and an engine. Computers are no longer just a screen we turn on and look at, and that’s the big change. What was computer security, its own separate realm, is now everything security.

You’ve come up with a new term, “Internet+,” to encapsulate this shift. But we already have the phrase “internet of things” to describe it, don’t we?

I hated having to create another buzzword, because there are already too many of them. But the internet of things is too narrow. It refers to the connected appliances, thermostats, and other gadgets. That’s just a part of what we’re talking about here. It’s really the internet of things plus the computers plus the services plus the large databases being built plus the internet companies plus us. I just shortened all this to “Internet+.”

Let’s focus on the “us” part of that equation. You say in the book that we’re becoming “virtual cyborgs.” What do you mean by that?

We’re already intimately tied to devices like our phones, which we look at many times a day, and search engines, which are kind of like our online brains. Our power system, our transportation network, our communications systems, are all on the internet. If it goes down, to a very real extent society grinds to a halt, because we’re so dependent on it at every level. Computers aren’t yet widely embedded in our bodies, but they’re deeply embedded in our lives.

Can’t we just unplug ourselves somewhat to limit the risks?

That’s getting harder and harder to do. I tried to buy a car that wasn’t connected to the internet, and I failed. It’s not that there were no cars available like this, but the ones in the range I wanted all came with an internet connection. Even if it could be turned off, there was no guarantee hackers couldn’t turn it back on remotely.

Hackers can also exploit security vulnerabilities in one kind of device to attack others, right?

There are lots of examples of this. The Mirai botnet exploited vulnerabilities in-home devices like DVRs and webcams. These things were taken over by hackers and used to launch an attack on a domain-name server, which then knocked a bunch of popular websites offline. The hackers who attacked Target got into the retailer’s payment network through a vulnerability in the IT systems of a contractor working on some of its stores.

True, but these incidents didn’t lead to loss of life or limb, and we haven’t seen many cases involving potential physical harm yet, have we?

We haven’t. Most attacks still involve violations of data, privacy, and confidentiality. But we’re entering a new era. I’m obviously concerned if someone steals my medical records, but what if they change my blood type in the database? I don’t want someone hacking my car’s Bluetooth connection and listening to my conversations, but I really don’t want them to disable the steering. These attacks on the integrity and availability of systems are the ones we really have to worry about in the future because they directly affect life and property.

There’s been lots of discussion in the US this year about cyber threats to critical infrastructure like power grids and dams. How serious are these?

We know that at least twice, Russian hackers have turned off power to bits of Ukraine’s grid as part of a broader military campaign. We know that nation-state hackers have penetrated systems at some US power companies. These hacks have been exploratory ones and haven’t caused damage, but we know it’s possible to do so. If there are military hostilities against the US, we should expect these attacks will be used. And the US will use them against our adversaries, just as we used cyberattacks to delay the nuclear programs in Iran and North Korea.

What implications does all this have for our current approach to computer security, such as issuing patches, or fixes, for software flaws?

Patching is a way of regaining security. We produce systems that aren’t very good, then find vulnerabilities and patch them. That works great with your phone or computer because the cost of insecurity is relatively low. But can we do this with a car? Is it okay to suddenly say a car is insecure, a hacker can crash it, but don’t worry because there will be a patch out next week? Can we do that with an embedded heart pacemaker? Because computers now affect the world in a direct, physical manner, we can’t afford to wait for fixes.

But we already have very strict security standards for software that’s used in sensitive cyber-physical domains like aviation, don’t we?

Right, but it’s very expensive. Those standards are there because there’s already strong government regulation in this and a few other industries. In consumer goods, you don’t have that level of safety and security, and that’s going to have to change. The market right now doesn’t reward secure software at all here. As long as you, as a company, won’t gain additional market share because of being more secure, you’re not going to spend much time on the issue

So what do we need to do to make the Internet+ era safer?

There’s no industry that’s improved safety or security without governments forcing it to do so. Again and again, companies skimp on security until they are forced to take it seriously. We need government to step up here with a combination of things targeted at firms developing internet-connected devices. They include flexible standards, rigid rules, and tough liability laws whose penalties are big enough to seriously hurt a company’s earnings.

But won’t things like strict liability laws have a chilling effect on innovation?

Yes, they will chill innovation—but that’s what’s needed right now! The point is that innovation in the Internet+ world can kill you. We chill innovation in things like drug development, aircraft design, and nuclear power plants because the cost of getting it wrong is too great. We’re past the point where we need to discuss regulation versus no-regulation for connected things; we have to discuss smart regulation versus stupid regulation.

There’s a fundamental tension here, though, isn’t there? Governments also like to exploit vulnerabilities for spying, law enforcement, and other activities.

Governments are certainly poachers as well as gamekeepers. I think we’ll resolve this long-standing tension between offense and defense eventually, but it’s going to be a long, hard slog to get there.

Your book largely focuses on the US. Do you think it will take the lead here?

I focus on the US because it’s where the major tech companies are located and it’s the regime I know best, but I do talk about Europe a fair bit as well. The European Union is the regulatory superpower on this planet right now. I think it’s going to advance further and faster than the US. In the US, I look more to the states, and specifically Massachusetts, New York, and California.

I also think there will be international treaties and norms that put some of our connected infrastructures off-limits to nation-state cyber attacks, at least in peacetime. We urgently need action at all levels now, from local to international. My biggest fear is that there will be a cyber disaster and that governments will rush headlong to implement measures, without a lot of thought, that won’t solve the problem.

Categorized in Internet of Things

 Source: This article was published thebusinesstactics.com By Carl Sanford - Contributed by Member: Bridget Miller

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Categorized in Internet of Things

Source: This article was published techcrunch.com By Ron Miller - Contributed by Member: Jennifer Levin

If you have an essential Internet of Things device running Windows 10 IoT Core Service, you don’t want to be worried about security and OS patches over a period of years. Microsoft  wants to help customers running these kinds of devices with a new program that guarantees 10 years of updates.

The idea is that as third-party partners build applications on top of the Windows 10 IoT Core Services, these OEMs, who create the apps, can pay Microsoft to guarantee updates for these devices for a decade. This can help assure customers that they won’t be vulnerable to attack on these critical systems from unpatched applications.

The service does more than provide updates though. It also gives OEMs the ability to manage the updates and assess the device’s health.

“The Windows IoT Core service offering is enabling partners to commercialize secure IoT devices backed by industry-leading support. And so device makers will have the ability to manage updates for the OS, for the apps and for the settings for OEM-specific files,” Dinesh Narayanan, director of business development for emerging markets explained.

It gives OEMs creating Windows-powered applications on machines like healthcare devices or ATMs this ability to manage them over an extended period. That’s particularly important as these devices tend to have a more extended usage period than say a PC or tablet.”We want to extend support and commit to that support over the long haul for these devices that have a longer life cycle,” Narayanan said.

Beyond the longevity, the service also provides customers with access to the Device Update Center where they can control and customize how and when the devices get updated. It also includes another level of security called Device Health Attestation that allows the OEMs to evaluate the trustworthiness of the devices before they update them using a third party service.

All of this is designed to give Microsoft a foothold in the growing IoT space and to provide an operating system for these devices as they proliferate. While predictions vary dramatically, Gartner has predicted that at least 20 billion connected devices will be online in 2020.

While not all of these will be powered by Windows, or require advanced management capabilities, those that do can be assured if their vendor uses this program that they can manage the devices and keep them up-to-date. And when it comes to the Internet of Things, chances are that’s going to be critical.

Categorized in Internet of Things

 Source: This article was published forbes.com By Jacob Morgan - Contributed by Member: Jennifer Levin

The "Internet of things" (IoT) is becoming an increasingly growing topic of conversation both in the workplace and outside of it. It's a concept that not only has the potential to impact how we live but also how we work. But what exactly is the "Internet of things" and what impact is it going to have on you, if any? There are a lot of complexities around the "Internet of things" but I want to stick to the basics. Lots of technical and policy-related conversations are being had but many people are still just trying to grasp the foundation of what the heck these conversations are about.

Let's start with understanding a few things.

Broadband Internet has become more widely available, the cost of connecting is decreasing, more devices are being created with Wi-Fi capabilities and sensors built into them, technology costs are going down, and smartphone penetration is sky-rocketing.  All of these things are creating a "perfect storm" for the IoT.

So What Is The Internet Of Things?

Simply put, this is the concept of basically connecting any device with an on and off switch to the Internet (and/or to each other). This includes everything from cell phones, coffee makers, washing machines, headphones, lamps, wearable devices and almost anything else you can think of.  This also applies to components of machines, for example, a jet engine of an airplane or the drill of an oil rig. As I mentioned, if it has an on and off switch then chances are it can be a part of the IoT.  The analyst firm Gartner says that by 2020 there will be over 26 billion connected devices... That's a lot of connections (some even estimate this number to be much higher, over 100 billion).  The IoT is a giant network of connected "things" (which also includes people).  The relationship will be between people-people, people-things, and things-things.

How Does This Impact You?

The new rule for the future is going to be, "Anything that can be connected will be connected." But why on earth would you want so many connected devices talking to each other? There are many examples of what this might look like or what the potential value might be. Say for example you are on your way to a meeting; your car could have access to your calendar and already know the best route to take. If the traffic is heavy your car might send a text to the other party notifying them that you will be late. What if your alarm clock wakes up you at 6 a.m. and then notifies your coffee maker to start brewing coffee for you? What if your office equipment knew when it was running low on supplies and automatically re-ordered more?  What if the wearable device you used in the workplace could tell you when and where you were most active and productive and shared that information with other devices that you used while working?

On a broader scale, the IoT can be applied to things like transportation networks: "smart cities" which can help us reduce waste and improve efficiency for things such as energy use; this helping us understand and improve how we work and live. Take a look at the visual below to see what something like that can look like.

libelium_smart_world_infographic_big

The reality is that the IoT allows for virtually endless opportunities and connections to take place, many of which we can't even think of or fully understand the impact of today. It's not hard to see how and why the IoT is such a hot topic today; it certainly opens the door to a lot of opportunities but also to many challenges. Security is a big issue that is oftentimes brought up. With billions of devices being connected together, what can people do to make sure that their information stays secure? Will someone be able to hack into your toaster and thereby get access to your entire network? The IoT also opens up companies all over the world to more security threats. Then we have the issue of privacy and data sharing. This is a hot-button topic even today, so one can only imagine how the conversation and concerns will escalate when we are talking about many billions of devices being connected. Another issue that many companies specifically are going to be faced with is around the massive amounts of data that all of these devices are going to produce. Companies need to figure out a way to store, track, analyze and make sense of the vast amounts of data that will be generated.

So what now?

Conversations about the IoT are (and have been for several years) taking place all over the world as we seek to understand how this will impact our lives. We are also trying to understand what the many opportunities and challenges are going to be as more and more devices start to join the IoT. For now, the best thing that we can do is educate ourselves about what the IoT is and the potential impacts that can be seen on how we work and live.

Categorized in Internet of Things

Cybersecurity Expert. Trusted advisor to board members and stakeholders, to define strategies for managing cybersecurity risks.

The development of the cyber environment is articulated through new digital scenarios -- from the technological development of smartphone apps to the Internet of Things, from the sharing economy to social networks -- the circulation of personal data has expanded extensively and rapidly. In particular, I recognize a slow but decisive transition from a material, utilitarian and free sharing typical of the sharing economy, for which self-regulation was sufficient, to today's atmosphere of social sharing. If the services of the sharing economy technologies seemed to put the privacy of users at risk, the new system seems to be even more saturated with issues. In fact, the social sharing of photographs, thoughts, and confidential information risks endangering the privacy of internet users and, considering that much of this personal data is also transported overseas where the discipline and the protection provided is profoundly different, the question becomes extremely complex.

This shift is characterized by the diffusion and horizontal expansion of increasingly sophisticated and integrated social engineering methods and techniques, and through the release and sharing of technologically persuasive applications. These scenarios are found in the profile of cyber attacks and are significant characterizations in terms of behavioral matrixes and operational creativity.

Inevitably, the concepts of knowledge and information management have been redefined and are now almost completely digitalized, with significant relapses in terms of security. In today's cyber scenario, a new multidimensional concept of security has emerged, deriving from the interpenetration of the paradigms of social change and digital-media convergence -- both understood as multipliers of instances coming in particular from the underground. This underground becomes ever more reticular, competent and cohesive, from a digital point of view, until it's the "cartilage" of the system exoskeleton, not only in infrastructural terms but also in terms of cultural identity.

As a result, open society, right-to-know and digital info sharing become the pillars of contemporary democratic architecture. It is necessary to explore cyberspace in a deep and scientific way -- to understand it as a human space, one which needs to be identified and analyzed dynamically, with scientific rigor, avoiding any reductionist simplicity dictated by the fashions of the moment. The specificities and the socio-cultural differences between activism and hacktivism are also worth examining in the transition process toward fully digital models of politics and diplomacy.

As an example, Bitcoin should not be considered mere virtual currency, but also as an instrument, product, and modality of self-construction. It's an identity-based dissemination of digital exchange communities and an interactive process through which all the subjects involved create information, innovation, and resources.

It is essential to direct operational research into the elaboration and anticipation of scenarios that are no longer futuristic or even too far in the future -- ones in which we imagine the impact and dynamics of the cybercriminals who use distributed denial of service (DDoS) or botnet attacks. These attacks might be a self-legitimized form of cyber-protest or a revisitation, in a cyber environment, of protest sit-ins that animated most of the 20th century and which often caused paralysis not only of viability but also of the vital functions of important institutions.

The unknown journey that leads humanity toward post-globalization is strongly marked by some pieces of evidence including the conflicts arising from the frictions between the development of the metropolitan institutional environment and the organizational dynamics of transnational digital communities and the advent of new sexual-digital identities.

We are witnessing the progressive emergence of organized and globalized criminals, above all at the level of the media. These criminals are born from the necessity of evolution through the web, pre-existing local and internationalized structures, and by long processes of criminal hybridization. This hybridization has connected them through the web. This evolution requires a resetting of operational missions based on full integration between social sciences and computational technologies in order to uncover qualitative and quantitative strategies that can be used to attain a deep understanding of the organized and now digitized criminal complex.

The triangulation of big data, web intelligence, and information assurance turns out to be the key to managing the complexity and the centrality of information, which is now the regulating essence of every aspect of life. Today, it's important to focus not just on the internet of things but also on the sometimes obscure internet of thoughts, which requires equal amounts of analytical attention. This emphasizes that today cyber can no longer be considered an object external to mankind, and should instead be seen as pervasively connected to it. Therefore, in firmly considering cybersecurity as a dynamic process and not a static product, it is evident that it is not possible to guarantee the security of the globalized citizen in relation to the relationship between freedom and democracy, without using appropriate conceptual tools to understand and manage the complexity that turns out to be unquestionably human, cultural and social.

Source: This article was published on forbes.com By John Giordani

Categorized in Internet of Things

FILE - CIA Director Mike Pompeo testifies before a Senate Intelligence hearing during his nomination process, in Washington, Jan. 12, 2017.

WASHINGTON — If this week’s WikiLeaks document dump is genuine, it includes a CIA list of the many and varied ways the electronic device in your hand, in your car, and in your home can be used to hack your life.

It’s simply more proof that, “it’s not a matter of if you’ll get hacked, but when you’ll get hacked.” That may be every security expert’s favorite quote, and unfortunately, they say it’s true. The WikiLeaks releases include confidential documents the group says exposes “the entire hacking capacity of the CIA.”

The CIA has refused to confirm the authenticity of the documents, which allege the agency has the tools to hack into smartphones and some televisions, allowing it to remotely spy on people through microphones on the devices.

Watch: New Generation of Hackable Internet Devices May Always Be Listening

Screenshot 1

WikiLeaks also claimed the CIA managed to compromise both Apple and Android smartphones, allowing their officers to bypass the encryption on popular services such as Signal, WhatsApp and Telegram.

For some of the regular tech users, news of the leaks and the hacking techniques just confirms what they already knew. When we’re wired 24-7, we are vulnerable.

“The expectation for privacy has been reduced, I think,” Chris Coletta said, “... in society, with things like WikiLeaks, the Snowden revelations ... I don’t know, maybe I’m cynical and just consider it to be inevitable, but that’s really the direction things are going.”

The internet of things

The problem is becoming even more dangerous as new, wired gadgets find their way into our homes, equipped with microphones and cameras that may always be listening and watching.

One of the WikiLeaks documents suggests the microphones in Samsung smart TV’s can be hacked and used to listen in on conversations, even when the TV is turned off.

Security experts say it is important to understand that in many cases, the growing number of wired devices in your home may be listening to all the time.

“We have sensors in our phones, in our televisions, in Amazon Echo devices, in our vehicles,” said Clifford Neuman, the director of the Center for Computer Systems Security, at the University of Southern California. “And really almost all of these attacks are things that are modifying the software that has access to those sensors so that the information is directed to other locations. Security practitioners have known that this is a problem for a long time.”

Neuman says hackers are using the things that make our tech so convenient against us.

“Certain pieces of software and certain pieces of hardware have been criticized because, for example, microphones might be always on,” he said. “But it is the kind of thing that we’re demanding as consumers, and we just need to be more aware that the information that is collected for one purpose can very easily be redirected for others.”

Tools of the espionage trade

The WikiLeaks release is especially damaging because it may have laid bare a number of U.S. surveillance techniques. The New York Times says the documents it examined layout programs called “Wrecking Crew” for instance, which “explains how to crash a targeted computer, and another tells how to steal passwords using the autocomplete function on Internet Explorer.”

Steve Grobman, chief of the Intel Security Group, says that’s bad not only because it can be done, but also because so-called “bad actors” now know it can be done. Soon enough, he warns, we could find our own espionage tools being used against us.

“We also do need to recognize the precedents we set, so, as offensive cyber capabilities are used ... they do give the blueprint for how that attack took place. And bad actors can then learn from that,” he said.

So how can tech-savvy consumers remain safe? Security experts say they can’t, and to remember the “it’s not if, but when” rule of hacking.

The best bet is to always be aware that if you’re online, you’re vulnerable.

Source: This article was published voanews.com By Kevin Enochs

Categorized in Online Research

The Internet of Things explained: What the IoT is, and where it's going next.

What is the Internet of Things?

The Internet of Things, or IoT, refers to billions of physical devices around the world that are now connected to the internet, collecting and sharing data. Thanks to cheap processors and wireless networks, it's possible to turn anything, from a pill to an aeroplane, into part of the IoT. This adds a level of digital intelligence to devices that would be otherwise dumb, enabling them to communicate without a human being involved, and merging the digital and physical worlds.

What is an example of an Internet of Things device?

Pretty much any physical object can be transformed into an IoT device if it can be connected to the internet and controlled that way.

A lightbulb that can be switched on using a smartphone app is an IoT device, as is a motion sensor or a smart thermostat in your office or a connected streetlight. An IoT device could be as fluffy as a child's toy or as serious as a driverless truck, or as complicated as a jet engine that's now filled with thousands of sensors collecting and transmitting data. At an even bigger scale, smart cities projects are filling entire regions with sensors to help us understand and control the environment.

The term 'IoT' is mainly used for devices that wouldn't usually be generally expected to have an internet connection, that can communicate with the network independently of human action. For this reason, a PC isn't generally considered an IoT device and neither is a smartphone -- even though the latter is crammed with sensors. A smartwatch or a fitness band might be counted as an IoT device, however.

What is the history of the Internet of Things?

The idea of adding sensor and intelligence to basic objects was discussed throughout the 1980s and 1990s (and there are arguably some much earlier ancestors), but apart from some early projects -- including an internet-connected vending machine -- progress was slow simply because the technology wasn't in place.

Processors that were cheap and power-frugal enough to be all but disposable were required before it became cost-effective to connect up billions of devices. The adoption of RFID tags-- low-power chips that can communicate wirelessly -- solved some of this issue, along with the increasing availability of broadband internet and cellular and wireless networking. The adoption of IPv6 -- which, among other things, should provide enough IP addresses for every device the world (or indeed this galaxy) is ever likely to need -- was also a necessary step for the IoT to scale. Kevin Ashton coined the phrase 'Internet of Things' in 1999, although it took at least another decade for the technology to catch up with the vision.

news-networking-iot-city-istock.png

"The IoT integrates the interconnectedness of human culture -- our 'things' -- with the interconnectedness of our digital information system -- 'the internet.' That's the IoT," Ashton told ZDNet.

Adding RFID tags to expensive pieces of equipment to help track their location was one of the first IoT applications. But since then, the cost of adding sensors and an internet connection to objects has continued to fall, and experts predict that this basic functionality could one day cost as little as 10 cents, making it possible to connect nearly everything to the internet.

The IoT was initially most interesting to business and manufacturing, where its application is sometimes known as machine-to-machine (M2M), but the emphasis is now on filling our homes and offices with smart devices, transforming it into something that's relevant to almost everyone. Early suggestions for internet-connected devices included 'blogjects' (objects that blog and record data about themselves to the internet), ubiquitous computing (or 'ubicomp'), invisible computing, and pervasive computing. However, it was Internet of Things and IoT that stuck.

How big is the Internet of Things?

Big and getting bigger -- there are already more connected things than people in the world. Analyst Gartner calculates that around 8.4 billion IoT devices were in use in 2017, up 31 percent from 2016, and this will likely reach 20.4 billion by 2020. Total spending on IoT endpoints and services will reach almost $2tn in 2017, with two-thirds of those devices found in China, North America, and Western Europe, said Gartner.

Out of that 8.4 billion devices, more than half will be consumer products like smart TVs and smart speakers. The most-used enterprise IoT devices will be smart electric meters and commercial security cameras, according to Gartner.

Another analyst, IDC, puts worldwide spending on IoT at $772.5bn in 2018 -- up nearly 15 percent on the $674bn that will be spent in 2017. IDC predicts that total spending will hit $1tn in 2020 and $1.1tn in 2021.

According to IDC, hardware will be the largest technology category in 2018 with $239bn going on modules and sensors, with some spending on infrastructure and security. Services will be the second largest technology category, followed by software and connectivity.

What are the benefits of the Internet of Things for business?

Occasionally known as the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), the benefits of the IoT for business depend on the particular implementation, but the key is that enterprises should have access to more data about their own products and their own internal systems, and a greater ability to make changes as a result.

Manufacturers are adding sensors to the components of their products so that they can transmit back data about how they are performing. This can help companies spot when a component is likely to fail and to swap it out before it causes damage. Companies can also use the data generated by these sensors to make their systems and their supply chains more efficient, because they will have much more accurate data about what's really going on.

"With the introduction of comprehensive, real-time data collection and analysis, production systems can become dramatically more responsive," say consultants McKinsey.

Enterprise use of the IoT can be divided into two segments: industry-specific offerings like sensors in a generating plant or real-time location devices for healthcare; and IoT devices that can be used in all industries, like smart air conditioning or security systems.

While industry-specific products will make the early running, by 2020 Gartner predicts that cross-industry devices will reach 4.4 billion units, while vertical-specific devices will amount to 3.2 billion units. Consumers purchase more devices, but businesses spend more: the analyst group said that while consumer spending on IoT devices was around $725bn last year, businesses spending on IoT hit $964bn. By 2020, business and consumer spending on IoT hardware will hit nearly $3tn.

The Internet of Things, broken down by industry.

For IDC the three industries that are expected to spend the most on IoT in 2018 are manufacturing ($189bn), transportation ($85bn), and utilities ($73bn). Manufacturers will largely focus on improving the efficiency of their processes and asset tracking, while two-thirds of IoT spending by transport will go toward freight monitoring, followed by fleet management.

IoT spending in the utility industry will be dominated by smart grids for electricity, gas, and water. IDC puts spending on cross-industry IoT areas like connected vehicles and smart buildings, at nearly $92bn in 2018.

What are the benefits of the Internet of Things for consumers?

The IoT promises to make our environment -- our homes and offices and vehicles -- smarter, more measurable, and chattier. Smart speakers like Amazon's Echo and Google Home make it easier to play music, set timers or get information. Home security systems make it easier to monitor what's going on inside and outside or to see and talk to visitors. Meanwhile, smart thermostats can help us heat our homes before we arrive back, and smart lightbulbs can make it look like we're home even when we're out.

Looking beyond the home, sensors can help us to understand how noisy or polluted our environment might be. Autonomous cars and smart cities could change how we build and manage our public spaces.

However, many of these innovations could have major implications for our personal privacy.

The Internet of Things and smart homes

amazon-home.jpg

The House that Alexa Built: An Amazon showcase in London in 2017.

For consumers, the smart home is probably where they are likely to come into contact with Internet-enabled things, and it's one area where the big tech companies (in particular Amazon, Google, and Apple) are competing hard.

The most obvious of these are smart speakers like Amazon's Echo, but there are also smart plugs, light bulbs, cameras, thermostats, and the much-mocked smart fridge. But as well as showing off your enthusiasm for shiny new gadgets, there's a more serious side to smart home applications. They may be able to help keep older people independent and in their own homes longer by making easier for family and carers to communicate with them and monitor how they are getting on. A better understanding of how our homes operate, and the ability to tweak those settings, could help save energy -- by cutting heating costs, for example.

What about the Internet of Things security?

Security is one the biggest issues with the IoT. These sensors are collecting in many cases extremely sensitive data -- what you say and do in your own home, for example. Keeping that security is vital to consumer trust, but so far the IoT's security track record has been extremely poor. Too many IoT devices give little thought to basics of security, like encrypting data in transit and at rest.

Flaws in software -- even old and well-used code -- are discovered on a regular basis, but many IoT devices lack the capability to be patched, which means they are permanently at risk. Hackers are now actively targeting IoT devices such as routers and webcams because their inherent lack of security makes them easy to compromise and roll up into giant botnets.

Flaws have left smart home devices like refrigerators, ovens, and dishwashers open to hackers. Researchers found 100,000 webcams that could be hacked with ease, while some internet-connected smartwatches for children have been found to contain security vulnerabilities that allow hackers to track the wearer's location, eavesdrop on conversations, or even communicate with the user.

When the cost of making a device smart becomes negligible, these problems will only become more widespread and intractable.

The IoT bridges the gap between the digital world and the physical world, which means that hacking into devices can have dangerous real-world consequences. Hacking into the sensors controlling the temperature in a power station could trick the operators into making a catastrophic decision; taking control of a driverless car could also end in disaster.

What about privacy and the Internet of Things?

With all those sensors collecting data on everything you do, the IoT is a potentially vast privacy headache. Take the smart home: it can tell when you wake up (when the smart coffee machine is activated) and how well you brush your teeth (thanks to your smart toothbrush), what radio station you listen to (thanks to your smart speaker), what type of food you eat (thanks to your smart oven or fridge), what your children think (thanks to their smart toys), and who visits you and passes by your house (thanks to your smart doorbell).

What happens to that data is a vitally important privacy matter. Not all smart home companies build their business model around harvesting and selling your data, but some do. It's surprisingly easy to find out a lot about a person from a few different sensor readings. In one project, a researcher found that by analysing data charting just the home's energy consumption, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide levels, temperature, and humidity throughout the day they could work out what someone was having for dinner.

Consumers need to understand the exchange they are making and whether they are happy with that. Some of the same issues apply to business: would your executive team be happy to discuss a merger in a meeting room equipped with smart speakers and cameras, for example? One recent survey found that four out of five companies would be unable to identify all the IoT devices on their network.

The Internet of Things and cyberwarfare

The IoT makes computing physical. So if things go wrong with IoT devices, there can be major real-world consequences -- something that nations planning their cyber warfare strategies are now taking into account.

Last year, a US intelligence community briefing warned that the country's adversaries already have the ability to threaten its critical infrastructure as well "as the broader ecosystem of connected consumer and industrial devices known as the Internet of Things". US intelligence has also warned that connected thermostats, cameras, and cookers could all be used either to spy on citizens of another country or to cause havoc if they were hacked. Adding key elements of national critical infrastructure (like dams, bridges, and elements of the electricity grid) to the IoT makes it even more vital that security is as tight as possible.

Internet of Things and big data

The IoT generates vast amounts of data: from sensors attached to machine parts or environmental sensors, or the words we shout at our smart speakers. That means the IoT is a significant driver of big data projects because it allows companies to create vast data sets and analyse them. Giving a manufacturer vast amounts of data about how its components behave in real-world situations can help them to make improvements much more rapidly, while data culled from sensors around a city could help planners make traffic flow more efficiently.

In particular, the IoT will deliver large amounts of real-time data. Cisco calculates that machine-to-machine connections that support IoT applications will account for more than half of the total 27.1 billion devices and connections, and will account for five percent of global IP traffic by 2021.

Internet of Things and the cloud

The huge amount of data that IoT applications generate means that many companies will choose to do their data processing in the cloud rather than build huge amounts of in-house capacity. Cloud computing giants are already courting these companies: Microsoft has its Azure IoT suite, while Amazon Web Services provides a range of IoT services, as does Google Cloud.

The Internet of Things and smart cities

By spreading a vast number of sensors over a town or city, planners can get a better idea of what's really happening, in real time. As a result, smart cities projects are a key feature of the IoT. Cities already generate large amounts of data (from security cameras and environmental sensors) and already contain big infrastructure networks (like those controlling traffic lights). IoT projects aim to connect these up, and then add further intelligence into the system.

There are plans to blanket Spain's Balearic Islands with half a million sensors and turn it into a lab for IoT projects, for example. One scheme could involve the regional social-services department using the sensors to help the elderly, while another could identify if a beach has become too crowded and offer alternatives to swimmers. In another example, AT&T is launching a service to monitor infrastructures such as bridges, roadways, and railways with LTE-enabled sensors to monitor structural changes such as cracks and tilts.

The ability to better understand how a city is functioning should allow planners to make changes and monitor how this improves residents' lives.

Big tech companies see smart cities projects as a potentially huge area, and many -- including mobile operators and networking companies -- are now positioning themselves to get involved.

How does Internet of Things devices connect?

IoT devices use a variety of methods to connect and share data: homes and offices will use standard wi-fi or Bluetooth Low Energy (or even Ethernet if they aren't especially mobile); other devices will use LTE or even satellite connections to communicate. However, the vast number of different options has already led some to argue that IoT communications standards need to be as accepted and interoperable as wi-fi is today.

One likely trend is that, as the IoT develops, it could be that less data will be sent for processing in the cloud. To keep costs down, more processing could be done on-device with only the useful data sent back to the cloud -- a strategy known as 'edge computing'.

Where does the Internet of Things go next?

As the price of sensors and communications continue to drop, it becomes cost-effective to add more devices to the IoT -- even if in some cases there's little obvious benefit to consumers. As the number of connected devices continues to rise, our living and working environments will become filled with smart products -- assuming we are willing to accept the security and privacy trade-offs. Some will welcome the new era of smart things. Others will pine for the days when a chair was simply a chair.

Source: This article was published zdnet.com By Steve Ranger 

Categorized in Internet of Things

IOT IS COMING and a lot of IT execs are scared silly. Or maybe it’s more accurate to say they are resigned to their fates.

In a May study of 553 IT decision makers, 78% said they thought it was at least somewhat likely that their businesses would suffer data loss or theft enabled by IoT devices. Some 72% said the speed at which IoT is advancing makes it harder to keep up with evolving security requirements.

Such fears are rooted in reality. Last October, hackers took down the company that controls much of the Internet’s domain name system infrastructure using some 100,000 “malicious endpoints” from IoT devices. More recently, the WannaCry ransomware attack crippled some Bank of China ATM networks and washing machine networks. For naysayers, those attacks validated fears that hackers could cause mayhem by commandeering our IoT devices.

At the same time, the IoT industry continues its steady growth path. Gartner predicts that by 2020 there will be some 21 billion IoT devices in existence, up from 5 billion in 2015. About 8 billion of those devices will be industrial, not consumer devices. Both present a juicy target for hackers.

For some, it seems like IoT is a slow-motion wreck playing out in real time. “The reason that the industry hasn’t backed off is the value proposition is very powerful,” said Chris Moyer, CTO, and VP-cybersecurity at DXC. “The risk proposition is also very powerful and that’s where the balancing is going on.”

Regardless of the industry’s appetite, IoT isn’t likely to get a scale until the industry addresses its security issue. That will take a cooperation among vendors, government intervention, and standardization. In 2017, none of those things appear to be on the horizon.

What’s wrong with IoT security

The consensus is that IoT is still under-secured and presents possibly catastrophic security risks as companies trust IoT devices for business, operational and safety decisions.  Existing standards are not in place and vendors keep struggling to embed the right level of intelligence and management into products.  Add the increasing collaboration among attackers and then it creates a need to address these challenges across a set of dimensions.

Consider what we face with the security of IoT devices;

  • Unlike PCs or smartphones, IoT devices are generally short on processing power and memory. That means that they lack robust security solutions and encryption protocols that would protect them from threats.
  • Because such devices are connected to the Internet, they will encounter threats daily. And search engines for IoT devices exist that offer hackers an entrée into webcams, routers and security systems.
  • Security was never contemplated in the design or development stages for many of these Internet-connected devices.
  • It’s not just the devices themselves that lack security capability; many of the networks and protocols that connect them don’t have a robust end-to-end encryption mechanism.
  • Many IoT devices require manual intervention to be upgraded while others can’t be upgraded at all. “Some of these devices were built very rapidly with limited design thinking beyond Iteration 1 and they’re not update-able,” said Moyer.
  • IoT devices are a “weak link” that allows hackers to infiltrate an IT system. This is especially true if the devices are linked to the overall network.
  • Many IoT devices have default passwords that hackers can look up online. The Mirai distributed denial of services attack was possible because of this very fact.
  • The devices may have “backdoors” that provide openings for hackers.
  • The cost of security for a device may negate its financial value. “When you have a 2-cent component, when you put a dollar’s worth of security on top of it, you’ve just broken the business model,” said Beau Woods, an IoT security expert.
  • The devices also produce a huge amount of data. “It’s not just 21 billion devices you have to work with,” said Kieran McCorry, director of technology programs at DXC. “It’s all the data generated from 21 billion devices. There are huge amounts of data that are almost orders of magnitude more than the number of devices that are out there producing that data. It’s a massive data-crunching problem.”

Taking such shortcomings into account, businesses can protect themselves to a certain extent by following best practices for IoT security. But if compliance isn’t 100% (which it won’t be) then, inevitably, attacks will occur and the industry will lose faith in IoT. That’s why security standards are imperative.

Who will set the standards?

Various government agencies already regulate some IoT devices. For instance, the FAA regulates drones and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration regulates autonomous vehicles. The Department of Homeland Security is getting involved with IoT-based smart cities initiatives. The FDA also has oversight of IoT medical devices.

At the moment though, no government agency oversees the IoT used in smart factories or consumer-focused IoT devices for smart homes. In 2015, the Federal Trade Commission issued a report on IoT that included advice on best practices. In early 2017, the FTC also issued a “challenge” to the public to create a “tool that would address security vulnerabilities caused by out-of-date software in IoT devices” and offered a $25,000 prize for the winner.

Moyer said that while the government will regulate some aspects of IoT, he believes that only the industry can create a standard. He envisions two pathways to such a standard: Either buyer will push for one and refuse to purchase items that don’t support a standard or a dominant player or two will set a de facto standard with its market dominance. “I don’t think it’s going to happen that way,” Moyer said, noting that no such player exists.

Instead of one or two standards, the industry has several right now and none appears to be edging toward dominance. Those include vendor-based standards and ones put forth by the IoT Security Foundation, the IEEE, the Trusted Computing Group, the IoT World Alliance and the Industrial Internet Consortium Security Working Group. All of those bodies are working on standards, protocols and best practices for security IoT environments.

Ultimately what will change the market is buyers, who will begin demanding standards, Moyer said. “Standards get set for lots of reasons,” Moyer said. “Some are regulatory but a lot is because buyers say it’s important to me.”

Lacking standards, Woods sees several paths to improve IoT security. One is transparency in business models. “If you’re buying 1,000 fleet vehicles, one might be able to do over-the-air updates and the other we’d have to replace manually and it would take seven months,” Woods said. “It’s a different risk calculus.”

Another solution is to require manufacturers to assume liability for their devices. Woods said that’s currently the case for hardware devices, but it is often unclear who assumes liability for software malfunctions.

AI to the rescue?

A wildcard in this scenario is artificial intelligence. Proponents argue that machine learning can spot general usage patterns and alert the system when abnormalities occur. Bitdefender, for instance, looks at cloud server data from all endpoints and uses machine learning to identify abnormal or malicious behavior. Just as a credit card’s system might flag a $1,000 splurge in a foreign country as suspicious, a ML system might identify unusual behavior from a sensor or smart device. Because IoT devices are limited in function, it should be relatively easy to spot such abnormalities.

Since the use of machine learning for security is still new, defenders of this approach advocate using a security system that includes human intervention.

The real solution: A combination of everything

While AI may play a bigger role in IoT security than initially thought, a comprehensive IoT solution will include a bit of everything, including government regulation, standards, and AI.

The industry is capable of creating such a solution, but the catch is that it needs to do it on a very accelerated timetable. At the moment, in the race between IoT security and IoT adoption, the latter is winning.

So what can companies do now to latch on to IoT without making security compromises? Moyer had a few suggestions:

  1. Take an integration approach. This is a case where more is better. Moyer said that companies using IoT should integrate management solutions and bring the IoT platform in for primary connectivity and data movement and pull that data into an analytics environment that’s more sophisticated and lets them do a behavioral analysis, which can be automated. “By integrating those components, you can be more confident that what you’ve got from a feed in an IoT environment is more statistically valid,” he said.
  2. Pick the right IoT devices. Those are devices that have a super-strong ecosystem and a set of partners that are being open about how they’re sharing information.
  3. Use IoT Gateways and Edge Devices. To mitigate against an overall lack of security, many companies are using IoT gateways and edge devices to segregate and provide layers of protection between insecure devices and the Internet.
  4. Get involved in creating standards. On a macro level, the best thing you can do to ensure IoT security over the long run is to get involved in setting standards both in your particular industry and in tech as a whole.

This article was produced by WIRED Brand Lab for DXC Technology.

Categorized in Internet of Things

Cybersecurity can cause organizational migraines. In 2016, breaches cost businesses nearly $4 billion and exposed an average of 24,000 records per incident. In 2017, the number of breaches is anticipated to rise by 36%. The constant drumbeat of threats and attacks is becoming so mainstream that businesses are expected to invest more than $93 billion in cyber defenses by 2018. Even Congress is acting more quickly to pass laws that will — hopefully — improve the situation.

Despite increased spending and innovation in the cybersecurity market, there is every indication that the situation will only worsen. The number of unmanaged devices being introduced onto networks daily is increasing by orders of magnitude, with Gartner predicting there will be 20 billion in use by 2020. Traditional security solutions will not be effective in addressing these devices or in protecting them from hackers, which should be a red flag, as attacks on IoT devices were up 280% in the first part of 2017. In fact, Gartner anticipates a third of all attacks will target shadow IT and IoT by 2020.

This new threat landscape is changing the security game. Executives who are preparing to handle future cybersecurity challenges with the same mindset and tools that they’ve been using all along are setting themselves up for continued failure.

The False Panacea of Security Training

There is much debate over the effectiveness of security and awareness training, centered on competing beliefs that humans can either be the most effective or weakest links in security chains. It can’t be denied, however, that in the age of increased social-engineering attacks and unmanaged device usage, reliance on a human-based strategy is questionable at best. This assertion is further substantiated when you consider recent reports put out by security providers like PhishMe showing that 80% of employees who’ve completed training are still susceptible to being phished.

It only took one click on a link that led to the download of malware strains like WannaCry and Petya to set off cascading, global cybersecurity events. This alone should be taken as absolute proof that humans will always represent the soft underbelly of corporate defenses.

Connectivity First, Security Second

Today, connected devices are being used by employees to drive bottom-line activity. Their utility and convenience are giving IoT devices a foothold in the enterprise — in corporate offices, hospitals, power plants, manufacturing facilities and more. We recently found that 82 percent of our enterprise customers have Amazon Echos in use, which are almost always in an executive’s office. These devices, designed to listen and transmit information, may lead to increased productivity, but they also introduce unquantifiable risks. Our own research recently demonstrated that the Amazon Echo is susceptible to airborne attacks. Amazon has patched the vulnerabilities, but this finding demonstrates how easily a compromised device can lead to the leak of confidential information.

Connected devices are proliferating at a rate IT departments and security teams can’t keep up with. They are manufactured with little oversight or regulatory control, and are all Wi-Fi- and Bluetooth-enabled; designed to connect immediately. They are introduced into corporate environments by individual users who have no real security knowledge or expertise, which is a risk. Users may have productivity goals in mind, but there is simply no way you can rely on employees to use them within acceptable security guidelines. IoT training and awareness programs certainly will not do anything to help, so what’s the answer?

Reframing the Human-Security Relationship

It is time to relieve your people (employees, partners, customers, etc.) of the cybersecurity burden. It may be prudent, and required, for you to continue with awareness programs, but you will have to rely more on intelligent technologies and automation if you hope to have any chance at success.

Removing the human risk means repositioning the way you think of the relationship between employees, connected devices, and overall corporate cyber defenses. You must accept that IoT and other security issues aren’t user interaction problems; they’re device and system interaction problems. The highly connected nature of IoT devices means that they’re constantly in communication, capable of spreading malware, and capable of leaping from system to system with no human interaction — all beyond the reach of current security solutions. Security threats are stacking up against your people at work: employees are still falling victim to automated phishing emails and organizations with ample security analysts simply can’t manage the volume of vulnerabilities present in new connected devices and software. And, new IoT attack vectors like BlueBorne and KRACK that work around humans to infect devices and networks are popping up faster than they can be addressed.

An Intelligent Cybersecurity System

To manage security today, your systems must be intelligent and able to work without human supervision, knowing when and how to take proactive or defensive action.

When it comes to connected devices, the massive numbers that will be in use in businesses make it impossible for people on their own, or for understaffed IT and security teams, to manually identify and stop risky activity. To identify devices and behavior patterns that represent a threat, your IoT security system must be intelligent enough to spot all connected devices and the vulnerabilities they introduce, approve and deny access to networks, and learn from constantly evolving conditions to become more effective over time.

Intelligent products learn patterns of what secure and insecure activity looks like on connected devices — something impossible to tell just by looking at a phone, speaker, or web camera. I’ve seen compromised tablets streaming video from a boardroom to an undisclosed location. The tablet showed no signs of compromise and this activity was not recognized by the traditional security solutions in place. Only by identifying its behavior and traffic patterns were we able to see the risk. An intelligent system would be able to identify such suspicious traffic behavior immediately.

Lastly, an intelligent system can take action. Once the system has learned how to identify suspicious behavior, it can immediately stop a device from being used for malicious purposes. For example, it could shut down a botnet attack entirely, preventing it from connecting to other devices, or limiting the damage it can do. Being able to control a connected device is the difference between one device being infected and your entire network getting taken over.

The same is true for security technologies designed to defend against other threats. Anti-phishing technologies that can’t identify and block attacks on their own are basically disasters waiting to happen. Manual patching processes are also of little value.

The New Reality

Attacks are coming at businesses from all angles and through all channels, with IoT creating a significantly larger attack surface. Executives are accountable for the performance, or rather, the lack of performance of the security, and businesses will face a range of consequences, from brand damage to recovery costs and loss of customers in the face of breaches. The stakes are higher than ever to secure your systems and networks — and the new IoT reality complicates matters further. Solutions we’ve relied upon in the past, such as training employees, will not mitigate the massive security challenge companies are facing. The scope of IoT is far too complex for traditional security teams to manage with legacy solutions. It’s time to remove people from the discussion and move towards a more intelligent, secure future.

Source: This article was published hbr.org By Yevgeny Dibrov

Categorized in Internet Privacy

These and many other insights are from Dresner Advisory Services’ 2017 Edition IoT Intelligence Wisdom of Crowds Series study. The study defines IoT as the network of physical objects, or "things," embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and connectivity to enable objects to collect and exchange data. The study examines key related technologies such as location intelligence, end-user data preparation, cloud computing, advanced and predictive analytics, and big data analytics. Please see page 11 of the study for details regarding the methodology. For an excellent overview of Internet of Things (IoT) predictions for 2018, please see Gil Press' post, 10 Predictions For The Internet Of Things (IoT) In 2018.

"Although still early days for IoT, we see this as a defining topic for the industry. IoT Intelligence, the means to understand and leverage IoT data, will likewise grow in importance and will elevate key technologies such as location intelligence, advanced and predictive analytics, and big data," said Howard Dresner, founder and chief research officer at Dresner Advisory Services.

 Related...

Key takeaways from the study include the following:

  • Business Intelligence Competency Centers (BICC), R&D, Marketing & Sales and Strategic Planning are most likely to see the importance of IoT.Finance is considered among the least likely departments to see the importance of IoT. The study also found that sales analytics apps are increasingly relying on IoT technologies as foundational components of their core application platforms.
Dresner Advisory Services’ 2017 Edition IoT Intelligence Wisdom of Crowds Series Study
  • Manufacturing, Consulting, Business Services and Distribution/Logistics are IoT industry adoption leaders. Conversely, Federal Government, State & Local Government are least likely to prioritize IoT initiatives as very important or critical. IoT early adopters are most often defining goals with clear revenue and competitive advantages to drive initiatives. Manufacturing, Consulting, Business Services and Distribution/Logistics are challenging, competitive industries where revenue growth is often tough to achieve. IoT initiatives that deliver revenue and competitive strength quickly are the most likely to get funding and support.
Dresner Advisory Services’ 2017 Edition IoT Intelligence Wisdom of Crowds Series Study
  • IoT advocates or early adopters say location intelligence, streaming data analysis, and cognitive BI to deliver the greatest business benefit.Conversely, IoT early adopters aren’t expecting to see as significant of benefits from data warehousing as they are from other technologies. Consistent with previous studies, both the broader respondent base and IoT early adopters place a high priority on reporting and dashboards. IoT early adopters also see the greater importance of visualization and end-user self-service.

Dresner Advisory Services’ 2017 Edition IoT Intelligence Wisdom of Crowds Series Study
  • Business Intelligence Competency Centers (BICC), Manufacturing and Supply Chain are among the most powerful catalysts of BI and IoT adoption in the enterprise. The greater the level of BI adoption across the 12 functional drivers of BI adoption defined in the graphic below, the greater the potential for IoT to deliver differentiated value based on unique needs by area. Marketing, Sales and Strategic Planning are also strong driver areas among IoT advocates or early adopters.
Dresner Advisory Services’ 2017 Edition IoT Intelligence Wisdom of Crowds Series Study
  • IoT early adopters are relying on growing revenue and increasing competitive advantage as the two main goals to drive IoT initiatives’ success. The most successful IoT advocates or early adopters evangelize the many benefits of IoT initiatives from a revenue growth position first. IoT early adopters are more likely to see and promote the value of better decision-making, improved operational efficiencies, increased competitive advantage, growth in revenues, and enhanced customer service when BI adoption excels, setting the foundation for IoT initiatives to succeed.

Dresner Advisory Services’ 2017 Edition IoT Intelligence Wisdom of Crowds Series Study
  • The most popular feature requirements for advanced and predictive analytics applications include regression models, textbook statistical functions, and hierarchical clustering. More than 90% of respondents replied that these three leading features are “somewhat important” to their daily use of analytics. Geospatial analysis (highly associated with mapping, populations, demographics, and other Web-generated data), recommendation engines, Bayesian methods, and automatic feature selection is the next most required series of features.
Dresner Advisory Services’ 2017 Edition IoT Intelligence Wisdom of Crowds Series Study
  • 74% of IoT advocates or early adopters say location intelligence is critical or very important. Conversely, only 26% of the overall sample ranks location intelligence at the same level of importance. One of the most promising use cases for IoT-based location intelligence is its potential to streamline traceability and supply chain compliance workflows in highly regulated manufacturing industries. In 2018, expect to see ERP and Supply Chain Management (SCM) software vendors launch new applications that capitalize on IoT location intelligence to streamline traceability and supply chain compliance on a global scale.
Dresner Advisory Services’ 2017 Edition IoT Intelligence Wisdom of Crowds Series Study
Source: This article was published forbes.com By Louis Columbus
Categorized in Internet of Things
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