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Sourcing great candidates is half the battle of recruiting. In order to hire the best person for the job, you need to identify, interview and pique the interest of the right people. It’s no easy feat, either — recruiters spend 13 hours on average sourcing candidates for a single role.

Using Boolean search in recruitment can to save time and improve the quality of your candidate pool, ultimately increasing the quality of your next hire. In this article, we’ll cover 11 essential Boolean search operators and five tips to success.

Boolean search is a query methodology that is used to broaden, narrow or refine search results. It was invented by George Boole, an English mathematician and author of The Mathematical Analysis of Logic (1847) and it has significantly influenced the evolution of the search-engine giant, Google. 

In recruitment, Boolean search helps to quickly and effectively locate ideal candidates for open roles. Similar to an “Advanced Search” function, Boolean search operators — words and symbols — allow you to include, exclude and tag specific keywords to carefully refine your search results. Ultimately, the goal of using Boolean search in recruitment is to hone in on broad topics — such as job titles or requirements — to identify a desirable, niche candidate pool. 

Ultimately, the goal of using Boolean search in recruitment is to hone in on broad topics — such as job titles or requirements — to identify a desirable, niche candidate pool.

Using Boolean search operators to create a complex search string, recruiters can locate a range of relevant candidates. In doing so, you minimize sourcing needs and improve the efficiency of your recruitment process

ADVANTAGES OF BOOLEAN SEARCH IN RECRUITMENT

We understand that as a tech recruiter in a highly competitive industry, your bandwidth is already at or quickly approaching capacity. So before you dedicate the time to learning new sourcing techniques, let’s review some of the advantages of Boolean search in recruitment.

  • Faster. It’s estimated that recruiters can identify 20-60 well-suited candidates for a given role per hour
  • Cost-effective. Job boards are great for networking, but they don’t always cater to a specific field or industry and can cost a pretty penny. This means recruiters have to individually sift through unqualified or irrelevant resumes to find the right candidates. Boolean search makes it easier to hone in on a specific set of candidates without having to pay a monthly subscription fee. 
  • More control. With a conceivably unlimited number of Boolean search string possibilities, recruiters can carefully customize how they source candidates and control the results.
  • Active recruiting method. While you can’t necessarily get away from posting job openings, it is somewhat of a passive recruitment tactic. You’re assuming that the right candidate will come to you, which is ideal, but less attainable for young companies just getting started. Boolean search allows recruiters to actively source candidates without draining their resources.

6 BASIC BOOLEAN SEARCH OPERATORS RECRUITERS SHOULD KNOW

To start creating complex Boolean search strings to improve your sourcing tactics, there are six essential operators you need to know. These can be used as many times as necessary in a search string and should be written in all-caps. Otherwise, they will be interpreted as part of your search string keywords, not as a Boolean search operator.

OPERATOR #1: AND

boolean-search-in-recruitment-and-operator
Image via Built In

Functionality: Includes multiple criteria in search results

When to Use It: Use the AND operator to narrow search results based on multiple requirements. 

Explanation: If you’re looking to hire a new software engineer, you’d use the AND operator to search for software AND engineer. The results you receive will include both “software” and “engineer.”  

Boolean Search Example

  • software AND engineer
boolean-search-in-recruitment-example01
Boolean Search Example: AND operator

OPERATOR #2: OR

boolean-search-in-recruitment-or-operator
Image via Built In

Functionality: Includes one or more criteria in search results

When to Use It: Use the OR operator to expand your search results. 

Explanation: Your developer role is still vacant. You’re familiar with the software engineer vs. developer debate, so you broaden your search results by using the OR operator to search for engineer OR developer. This will generate a results list that includes either “engineer” or “developer.”

Boolean Search Example

  • engineer OR developer
boolean-search-in-recruitment-example02
Boolean Search Example: OR operator

OPERATOR #3: NOT OR (-)

boolean-search-in-recruitment-not-operator
Image via Built In

Functionality: Excludes unwanted criteria from search results 

When to Use It: Use the NOT or (-) operator to narrow your search results by omitting unwanted criteria.

Explanation: Perhaps one of the most common and practical uses of Boolean search in recruitment is including the NOT operator to eliminate job postings; you’re looking for candidates to fill open roles, not a job seeker looking for a new position. To eliminate job postings and descriptions from your search results, include one or more of the following operators in your search string:

  • NOT job; -job
  • NOT jobs; -jobs
  • NOT hire; -hire
  • NOT hiring; -hiring

Use the (-) operator when searching on Google or LinkedIn, removing a space between the minus symbol and the keyword. 

Boolean Search Example

  • software engineer NOT job
  • software engineer -job
boolean-search-in-recruitment-example03
Boolean Search Example: NOT / - operator

When searching in Google using this Boolean search string, you may notice a jobs widget. Scroll past the widget to find the results that match your Boolean search criteria.

OPERATOR #4: BRACKETS ()

Functionality: Group search phrases and prioritize operators 

When to Use It: Use the brackets operator to include multiple operators without changing the search query. 

Explanation: Brackets maintain groupings and indicate priority. Let’s say we’re looking for either a software engineer or developer. Since engineers specialize in various disciplines — chemical, mechanical, biomechanical, etc. — and developers are often associated with construction, it’s important we include software in our search string. 

Without the brackets operator, the search string would look like this: software AND engineer OR developer NOT jobs. In this example, the search engine does not know which search to prioritize. Including brackets around engineer OR developer signals to the search engine to perform the engineer OR developer query first, then eliminate all results that do not include “software,” and all results relating to job, jobs, hire or hiring.

Boolean Search Example

  • software AND (engineer OR developer) -job -jobs -hire -hiring
boolean-search-in-recruitment-example04
Boolean Search Example: Brackets () operator

OPERATOR #5: QUOTATIONS “”

Functionality: Search for exact phrase

When to Use It: Use the quotations operator when you want results that include an exact phrase. 

Explanation: This is probably the search operator you’re most familiar with. We often use it when we’ve lost track of the source for a quote we like or when we need to find the name of a song we only remember a line or two of. 

However, when performing a Boolean search in recruitment, only use the quotations operator when you are confident in the exact phrase you’re looking for. Otherwise, you’ll unintentionally exclude a large pool of viable results. 

Boolean Search Example

Your team has decided that they are looking for a software engineer, not developer. To refine your search results, update your search query to the following: 

  • “software engineer” -job -jobs -hire -hiring
boolean-search-in-recruitment-example05
Boolean Search Example: Quotations "" operator

OPERATOR #6: ASTERISK *

Functionality: Search for variations of a root word

When to Use It: Use the asterisk operator to broaden your search results when you know there are multiple variations of a root word.

Example: To vastly expand your search results for a manager, searching for manag* will pull results like: manager, managed, managing, manages, management, managerial, etc.

Pay careful attention to where you truncate the root word as including an extra letter will modify your results. For example, searching for manage* will eliminate managing from the original list.  

Boolean Search Example

  • software AND (engineer OR developer) -job -jobs -hire -hiring AND manag*

boolean-search-in-recruitment-example06
Boolean Search Example: Asterisk * operator

SAMPLE STRING: BOOLEAN SEARCH IN RECRUITMENT

Now, let’s put these six operators to use and work backward to decode this search string.

  • software AND (engineer OR developer) -job -jobs -hire -hiring AND manag* AND (“Ruby on Rails” OR Ruby)
sample-string-boolean-search-in-recruitment
Sample String: Boolean Search in Recruitment

Our first two operators — software AND (engineer OR developer) — describe the role we’re looking for: a software engineer or software developer. We want individuals who meet this main requirement and who: 

  • Have management experience, but do not necessarily have “manager” in their title: AND manag*
  • Have experience working with Ruby languages: (“Ruby on Rails” OR Ruby)

We also want to eliminate all job postings for similar roles: -job -jobs -hire -hiring

boolean-search-in-recruitment-basic-operators
Image via Built In

5 ADVANCED BOOLEAN SEARCH OPERATORS

Once you feel confident in your ability to perform recruitment searches using the six basic Boolean operators, expand your skills using the following five advanced search functions. Note that unless the operator is shown in all-caps, it does not need to be capitalized in your search string.

ADVANCED OPERATOR #1: TILDE ~

Functionality: Search for synonyms of a word

When to Use It: Use the tilde (~) operator to expand your search results when including criteria that may be described in multiple ways.

Explanation: When sourcing candidates, you’re interested in resumes, not job descriptions. However, you don’t necessarily want to exclude candidates who have a CV or curriculum vitae. Add the tilde operator to your search string to include all three application documents within your search results.

Boolean Search Example

  • software AND (engineer OR developer) AND ~resume -job -jobs -hire -hiring AND manag* AND (“Ruby on Rails” OR Ruby)

boolean-search-in-recruitment-example07
Boolean Search Example: Tilde ~ operator

Just by adding the tilde (~) operator, we already see more applicable, candidate-driven results.

ADVANCED OPERATOR #2: NEAR

Functionality: Search for two words that appear within 1-10 words of each other in results

When to Use It: Use the NEAR operator to include a broader topic in your search results without unfavorably limiting them to an exact phrase. 

Explanation: If you want your software engineer candidates to have experience in web development, use the NEAR operator to include results that discuss web development and are not limited to “web development” exactly. 

 

As we discussed earlier, “develop” has many variations. To include results such as “web developer” or “developed multiple web pages,” use the asterisk operator on develop*. Include brackets to ensure the NEAR operator is interpreted properly.

Boolean Search Example

  • software AND (engineer OR developer) AND ~resume -job -jobs -hire -hiring AND manag* AND (“Ruby on Rails” OR Ruby) AND (web NEAR develop*)

boolean-search-in-recruitment-example08
Boolean Search Example: NEAR operator

ADVANCED OPERATOR #3: FILETYPE:

Functionality: Search for results in specific file formats

When to Use It: Use the filetype: operator when searching your ATS or the web for resume or CV documents.

Explanation: Include a filetype: operator in your search string to limit results to only those with a specified file attachment that contains the other operator criteria. Since resumes can be linked online in various formats, we’ll also use the OR operator to avoid excluding other qualified resumes that may be in a different file type.

Boolean Search Example

  • software AND (engineer OR developer) AND ~resume (filetype:pdf OR filetype:doc OR filetype:txt OR filetype:docx) -job -jobs -hire -hiring AND manag* AND (“Ruby on Rails” OR Ruby) AND (web NEAR develop*) 
boolean-search-in-recruitment-example09
Boolean Search Example: filetype: operator

ADVANCED OPERATOR #4: URL: AND SITE:

Functionality: Search for results within a specific website

When to Use It: Use either the URL: or site: operator to narrow your search results to websites that are home to your target candidates, such as social media platforms or networking sites. Do not include a space between the operator and domain, as in: site:google.com.

Explanation: Since you’re looking for a software engineer, you can narrow your search results to only resumes from known developer websites, such as GitHub.com. 

When sourcing across the entire internet, you’re sure to find candidates who meet your stated criteria. However, when searching a specific website, you will likely need to pare down your search string to just the basics to start. Then, add operators back on one at a time in order of priority to whittle down your list of results.

Boolean Search Example

  • site:github.com software AND (engineer OR developer) AND ~resume -job -jobs -hire -hiring
boolean-search-in-recruitment-example10
Boolean Search Example: site: operator

ADVANCED OPERATOR #5: INTITLE: / INTEXT: / INURL:

Functionality: Search for results with keywords within the title (intitle:) or body text (intext:) of a web page, or within the URL (inurl:).

When to Use It: As an alternative to the filetype: operator, use the intitle: or intext: operators to search for resume pages or links within a website, or use the inurl: operator to find a relevant URL. 

Explanation: Often, job seekers create online portfolios with links to all their work and application documents. While there is usually the opportunity to download a file, resumes and CVs are often uploaded as a web page with “resume” or “CV” in the title. 

Using the intext: operator performs the same function as intitle:, but within the body text of a web page, just as the inurl: operator searches within the URL. 

Boolean Search Example

  • site:github.com (inurl:resume OR inurl:CV) software AND (engineer OR developer) -job -jobs -hire -hiring
boolean-search-in-recruitment-example11
Boolean Search Example: inurl: operator

As you can see from the photo above, our most refined search string has yielded only resume results that meet our specified criteria. Now, we can evaluate each resume with confidence, knowing that these candidates will be relevant to our search.

boolean-search-in-recruitment-advanced-operators
Image via Shutterstock

5 TIPS FOR USING BOOLEAN SEARCH IN RECRUITMENT

Creating and testing new search strings is key to hone your skills and make the most of Boolean search techniques in recruitment. As you familiarize yourself with the operators we’ve discussed, use the following five tips to improve your results.

1. USE CANDIDATE PERSONAS

Creating a custom candidate persona for every open role gives you the information you need to recruit the right people. Work with hiring managers to distinguish job must-haves from nice-to-haves. Doing so will help you refine your Boolean search strings and accurately narrow your results. 

2. REGULARLY MODIFY YOUR SEARCH STRING

Know that the more operators you add to your search string, the narrower your results become. While complex search strings will quickly help you identify your ideal candidate, you may unintentionally eliminate qualified individuals from your talent pool. Cut or add operators as needed to adjust your search results.

3. RECORD SUCCESSFUL SEARCH STRINGS

As you continue to use Boolean search methods, make note of search strings you use most frequently and that yield high-quality results. Keep these strings on hand to save time on future searches. 

4. KEEP A LIST OF SPELLING VARIATIONS

The more results you review, the more readily you’ll recognize spelling variations in your keywords. For example, candidates may write “Power Point” instead of “PowerPoint.” Keep track of spelling variations you notice and use the OR operator to include all known variations within your results. 

5. BE AWARE OF FALSE POSITIVES

False positives — results that look accurate but aren’t — are common in Boolean search. No matter how specific and complex your search string is, an irrelevant result may find its way into the mix. Carefully consult each result and verify it meets your requirements.

Using Boolean search in recruitment is a low-cost, highly effective approach to sourcing candidates. The more experience you have crafting Boolean search strings the better your results will be. Minimizing your time spent sourcing candidates can drastically cut down on your cost-per-hire and reduce the cost-of-vacancy for open positions, so it’s worth your time to master Boolean search methods.

 [Source: This article was published in builtin.co By Kate Heinz - Uploaded by the Association Member: Jay Harris]

Categorized in Search Techniques

Social media monitoring is fast becoming a requirement for modern brands who looking to support their customers on social media platforms, keep an eye on competitors, and/or find relevant influencers. But it can also be a daunting task - with so much discussion happening online, you can easily get swamped by irrelevant mentions, which not only waste your time but can also impact your analytics in a negative way.

One way to address this is by utilizing a monitoring tool with Boolean search capacity, which will enable you to hone in your search terms and focus on more specific mentions. Not every social monitoring tool has Boolean capabilities - tools like Awario, TweetDeck, or Sprout Social will let you play around with Boolean before settling on a subscription plan:

  • Awario is a comprehensive social media and web monitoring tool which comes with advanced features, like Boolean search and powerful analytics
  • TweetDeck is a free Twitter tool with impressive search capabilities and scheduling options.
  • Sprout Social is an all-in-one solution for social media marketers: it’s equipped with a unified inbox, customizable reports, scheduled post publishing, and advanced social listening mode

But before we dive into the 'how' of creating more complex Boolean expressions for brand monitoring, lets start with the basics - without going into too much technical detail, Boolean search enables users to create more specific queries for more accurate results and better reporting. By using your keywords, along with Boolean operators, you can either restrict or broaden your search expressions, and improve your results. 

Here are five steps to help you nail Boolean search for social media monitoring.

1. Find out if you actually need Boolean search

Boolean logic powers up a search query and makes it more adaptable to your needs. But that said, not everyone will need it. If, for example, you don't have a brand name that can be used in multiple contexts, a regular search will likely tackle the task.

Here are some examples of when Boolean search is the only option, or at least, where it will be more helpful than a regular search mode:

  • The name of the brand is a common or ambiguous word - e.g. Apple, Slack, or Uber. Using such a name as a keyword will likely bring a ton of irrelevant mentions. Boolean search can help to narrow your results by utilizing grouping or negative keywords.
  • Combining groups of keywords - Let’s say I own a streaming platform - to find people looking for a service like mine online, I might use phrases like 'streaming service', 'streaming app', 'streaming platform', etc. Using Boolean, I can combine this group with phrases people use to ask about something, such as 'looking for', 'recommend', 'I need', etc., enabling broader, more accurate mention matching.
  • Searching for linkless mentions - With Boolean search, it’s also easier to create queries which exclude mentions that already have links to a particular website. You can also filter results by language or country, and the same operator also makes it possible to discover new backlinks as they appear.
  • Checking for plagiarism - This is probably the least obvious case for using Boolean search, but it works, and it works great. You can set up a query that will search for exact matches of pieces of your content across social media platforms and on the Web to see if someone's using your work without permission.

2. Research keywords

Before playing around with your first query, it's a good idea to get a clear understanding of what keywords should be included, because the tool will ignore lots of relevant results otherwise.

It’s extremely important to research all alternate brand spellings, common typos, and acronyms - in the example below, you can see that the most popular brand name alternatives are listed, along with relevant social media handles and a hashtag.

3. Learn Boolean operators

Major Boolean logic operators that any social monitoring tool has are 'OR', 'AND', 'AND NOT'.

In addition, platforms can go beyond these basics to fulfill more specific needs of businesses, though not all will offer each variant. Here, for example, are the operators offered by Awario:

Quotes

To search for a specific word combination, or an exact phrase match, you can list the term/s in quotation marks. If you place the plus sign before the quoted phrase, the app will respect special characters and punctuation marks, while double plus before the quoted phrase will ensure the app also considers letter case. 

OR

This operator searches for either or both listed keywords. Note that all operators can be used multiple times within a query. In this example, we'll add a social media handle, which is spelled as a single word. This will enable us to monitor conversations where people tag the company. Then we can also add the 'TBC' acronym - it's not used as often, but we’ll include it for the sake of an example.

AND

Predictably enough, the query above will bring lots of irrelevant mentions, as 'TBC' has a huge amount of full forms. The 'AND' operator will help us make sure that the results include a specific keyword or a group of keywords together with those we already have.

I’ve added the last name of the company’s CEO - this will show us only results where 'TBC' is mentioned in the same post as Musk.

AND NOT

The 'AND NOT' operator is used to add negative keywords to your search. For example, let’s say you want to stop getting conversations where people discuss the fact that the company sells flamethrowers.

Parentheses

The next step in improving our search is grouping the keywords and assigning special keyword formats to them. It’s pretty straightforward here - to group a couple of keywords, you can list them in brackets. For example, let’s imagine we want to add more negative keywords using 'OR'. We have to be sure to group them, otherwise, the 'OR' operator will be applied to the rest of the query.

country, lang, and FROM

Within Boolean search, you can also filter your results by country, language, or social media platform with the help of 'country', 'lang', and 'FROM' respectively. The first two can be used together with the 'AND' operator, while 'FROM' is used independently.

So let’s say we need to get mentions from Australia and New Zealand in English, and we want to get mentions from Twitter, Reddit, and Facebook. The search expression would be the following:

link

Treating links separately in addition to your keywords is important for several purposes:

  • Getting metrics for a particular web page and interacting with users who share this page online
  • Picking up mentions where a website’s name is different from target keywords
  • Collecting mentions which link to a website but don’t contain a mention of its name
  • Excluding web pages linking to your own website for link-building purposes

The 'link' operator will help us with these tasks.

 

Let’s include the link to the website just to make sure we don’t lose any mentions where the anchor text is different from the URL.

Note that adding an asterisk before and after a URL makes sure that links to all subdomains and pages of a website will be found as well.

near/n

This operator specifies the closeness of your keywords to each other - this means that your search app will pull in mentions where keywords appear within a number of words away from each other.

Let’s imagine that we've decided to monitor news about 'Boring Bricks' produced by the company from the examples above. Quick research shows that, in news report, these words generally appear in a different order and the distance between them is also different. Let’s choose the safe distance of, say, 50 words and see if we get good results on Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube.

To make sure we don’t get irrelevant mentions, we'll look for those starting with capital letters only.

UNION

'UNION' helps in combining multiple Boolean expressions into one. This makes sense if you want to merge a couple of search expressions with completely different parameters and different sources into one expression, i.e. get all results into one feed.

As you can see, the last two examples above have different sources. If we want to merge both expressions, we’ll need help from the 'UNION' operator.

4. Avoid common mistakes

Capitalize AND, OR, AND NOT

This one is common. Keep in mind that a query won’t be correct until you capitalize the 'AND', 'OR', 'AND NOT', and 'FROM' operators.

Group keywords

If a query is (or seems to be) ready, but the results are completely the opposite of what you expected, the problem is most likely the grouping. Remember that if not grouped, 'AND' or 'AND NOT' are applied to the closest keyword only.

Choose suitable operators

Languages are flexible, and the same phrase may be constructed differently depending on its place in the sentence. For that purpose, the proximity operator 'near/n' will often do a better job than putting a phrase into quotes.

Don’t forget that keywords aren’t case-sensitive

They aren’t, and they ignore symbols and capital letters unless you specifically tell them not to, using such keyword formats as +“h&m” or even ++“H&M”.

5. Iterate

It’s difficult to foresee all the possible outcomes of queries, as a brand abbreviation may be also used by another company, or an initial negative keywords list might not be complete. But the good news is that queries can always be edited and extended. My advice here is iterate, blacklist, remove, add terms, and to experiment with different operators.

Summing Up

Social media is a great place to get instant feedback or content for your company. When choosing a brand monitoring tool, make sure Boolean search capability, and unlimited keywords are included in the product to maximize this capacity.

Is Boolean hard to use? It can look intimidating at first, but learning the process really is worth the effort, and you can easily find lots of educational resources for the topic.

Take advantage of Boolean search to get the most relevant results possible - and happy monitoring.

 [Source: This article was published in socialmediatoday.com By Aleh Barysevich - Uploaded by the Association Member: Jennifer Levin]

Categorized in Search Engine

A Boolean search, in the context of a search engine, is a type of search where you can use special words or symbols to limit, widen, or define your search.

This is possible through Boolean operators such as ANDORNOT, and NEAR, as well as the symbols + (add) and - (subtract).

 

When you include an operator in a Boolean search, you're either introducing flexibility to get a wider range of results, or you're defining limitations to reduce the number of unrelated results.

Most popular search engines support Boolean operators, but the simple search tool you'll find on a website probably doesn't.

Boolean Meaning

George Boole, an English mathematician from the 19th century, developed an algebraic method that he first described in his 1847 book, The Mathematical Analysis of Logic and expounded upon in his An Investigation of the Laws of Thought (1854).

Boolean algebra is fundamental to modern computing, and all major programming languages include it. It also figures heavily in statistical methods and set theory.

Today's database searches are largely based on Boolean logic, which allows us to specify parameters in detail—for example, combining terms to include while excluding others. Given that the internet is akin to a vast collection of information databases, Boolean concepts apply here as well.

Boolean Search Operators

For the purposes of a Boolean web search, these are the terms and symbols you need to know:

Boolean Operator Symbol Explanation Example
AND + All words must be present in the results football AND nfl
OR Results can include any of the words paleo OR primal
NOT - Results include everything but the term that follows the operator  diet NOT vegan
NEAR The search terms must appear within a certain number of words of each other swedish NEAR minister

Note: Most search engines default to using the OR Boolean operator, meaning that you can type a bunch of words and it will search for any of them, but not necessarily all of them.

Tips: Not all search engines support these Boolean operators. For example, Google understands - but doesn't support NOT. Learn more about Boolean searches on Google for help.

Why Boolean Searches Are Helpful

When you perform a regular search, such as dog if you're looking for pictures of dogs, you'll get a massive number of results. A Boolean search would be beneficial here if you're looking for a specific dog breed or if you're not interested in seeing pictures for a specific type of dog.

Instead of just sifting through all the dog pictures, you could use the NOT operator to exclude pictures of poodles or boxers.

A Boolean search is particularly helpful after running an initial search. For instance, if you run a search that returns lots of results that pertain to the words you entered but don't actually reflect what you were looking for, you can start introducing Boolean operators to remove some of those results and explicitly add specific words.

To return to the dog example, consider this: you see lots of random dog pictures, so you add +park to see dogs in parks. But then you want to remove the results that have water, so you add -water. Immediately, you've cut down likely millions of results.

More Boolean Search Examples

Below are some more examples of Boolean operators. Remember that you can combine them and utilize other advanced search options such as quotes to define phrases.

AND

free AND games

Helps find free games by including both words.

"video chat app" iOS AND Windows

Searches for video chat apps that can run on both Windows and iOS devices.

OR

"open houses" saturday OR sunday

Locate open houses that are open either day.

"best web browser" macOS OR Mac

If you're not sure how the article might be worded, you can try a search like this to cover both words.

NOT

2019 movies -horror

Finds movies mentioning 2019, but excludes all pages that have the word horror.

"paleo recipes" -sugar

Locates web pages about paleo recipes but ensures that none of them include the word sugar.

Note: Boolean operators need to be in all uppercase letters for the search engine to understand them as an operator and not a regular word.

[Source: This article was published in lifewire.com By Tim Fisher - Uploaded by the Association Member: Jason bourne] 

Categorized in Research Methods

Boolean searches make it easy to find what you're looking for in a Google search. The two basic Boolean search commands AND and OR are supported in Google. Boolean searches specify what you want to find and whether to make it more specific (using AND) or less specific (using OR).

 

A Boolean operator must be in uppercase letters because that's how Google understands it's a search operator and not a regular word. Be careful when typing the search operator; it makes a difference in the search results.

AND Boolean Operator

Use the AND operator in Google to search for all the search terms you specify. Using AND ensures that the topic you're researching is the topic you get in the search results.

For example, a search for Amazon on Google is likely to yield results relating to Amazon.com, such as the site's homepage, its Twitter account, Amazon Prime information, and items available for purchase on Amazon.com.

If you want information on the Amazon rainforest, a search for Amazon rainforest might yield results about Amazon.com or the word Amazon in general. To make sure each search result includes both Amazon and rainforest, use the AND operator.

amazon

Examples of the AND operator include:

  • Amazon AND rainforest
  • sausage AND biscuits
  • best AND college AND towns

In each of these examples, search results include web pages with all the terms connected by the Boolean operator AND.

OR Boolean Operator

Google uses the OR operator to search for one term or another term. An article can contain either word but doesn't have to include both. This usually works well when using two similar words or subjects you want to learn about.

For example, in a search for how to draw OR paint, the OR operator tells Google it doesn't matter which word is used since you'd like information on both.

Screenshot 2

To see the differences between the OR and AND operators, compare the results of how to draw OR paint versus how to draw AND paint. Since OR gives Google the freedom to show more content (since either word can be used), there are more results than if AND is used to restrict the search to include both words.

The break character (|) can be used in place of OR. The break character is the one attached to the backslash key (\).

 

Examples of the OR operator include:

  • how to draw OR paint
  • how to draw | paint
  • primal OR paleo recipes
  • red OR yellow triangle

Combine Boolean Searches and Use Exact Phrases

When searching for a phrase rather than a single word, group the words with quotation marks. For example, search for "sausage biscuits" (with the quotes included) to show only results for phrases that include the words together, without anything between them. It ignores phrases such as sausage and cheese biscuits.

However, a search for "sausage biscuits" | "cheese sauce" gives results for either exact phrase, so you'll find articles about cheese sauce and articles about sausage biscuits.

When searching for a phrase or more than one keyword, in addition to using a Boolean operator, use parentheses. Type recipes gravy (sausage | biscuit) to search for gravy recipes for either sausages or biscuits. To search for sausage biscuit recipes or reviews, combine the exact phrase with quotations and search for "sausage biscuit" (recipe | review).

If you want paleo sausage recipes that include cheese, type (with quotes) "paleo recipe" (sausage AND cheese).

Screenshot 3

Boolean Operators Are Case Sensitive

Google may not care about uppercase or lowercase letters in search terms, but Boolean searches are case sensitive. For a Boolean operator to work, it must be in all capital letters.

For example, a search for freeware for Windows OR Mac gives different results than a search for freeware for Windows or Mac.

Screenshot 4

[Source: This article was published in lifewire.com By Marziah Karch - Uploaded by the Association Member: Olivia Russell] 

Categorized in Search Engine

Contents

How to Use the Advanced Search Form

The Advanced Search form lets you focus your search, giving you more precise results.

You can access the Advanced Search in several ways:

  • Clicking on the Advanced Search link found in the Search box on the home page
  • Clicking on Advanced Search in the Modify Search box on the Search Results page.
  • Choosing Advanced Search from the Find Studies menu

    To use the Advanced Search form, enter search terms in one or more fields and then click on Search.

  • A list of search results will be displayed. The total number of studies found is shown below the search box, along with your search terms.
  • The first column of the search results list, Row, indicates the order in which the studies are listed. Studies that most closely match your search terms are listed first. The Status column shows which studies are recruiting new volunteers and which studies are not recruiting new volunteers. (For more details on search results, see How to Use Search Results.)

Search Tips

  • You do not need to use all the search fields. Fill in only the fields that are needed for your search.
  • Click on a field label, such as Study Type, to learn more about it.
  • Try using operators such as OR and NOT to broaden or narrow your search.
  • If your search results do not include enough studies, consider clearing one or more search fields on the form and trying the search again.

Search Term Highlighting

The words you type in the Advanced Search form fields will be highlighted in the text of the study record. Search words and synonyms for search words will be highlighted. For example, if your search words are heart attack, the words "heart" and "attack" as well as synonyms for heart attack, such as myocardial infarction, will be highlighted.

Searches Using the Operators OR, NOT, and AND

Words such as OR, NOT, and AND (in uppercase letters), are known as search operators. You can use these words to tell the ClinicalTrials.gov search function to broaden or narrow your search. Here are some ways you can use search operators:

  • Use OR to find study records that contain any of the words connected by OR.

    Example: aspirin OR ibuprofen

    This search finds study records containing either the word "aspirin" or the word "ibuprofen." Using OR broadens your search.

  • Use NOT to find study records that do not contain the word following NOT.

    Example: immunodeficiency NOT AIDS

    This search finds study records containing the word "immunodeficiency" but excludes records containing the word "AIDS" from the search results. Using NOT narrows your search.

  • AND is not necessary because the search function will automatically find study records that contain all the words specified in the search. However, you may use AND to separate distinct concepts. 

  • Use ORNOTAND, and parentheses to create more complicated search expressions.

    Use parentheses in searches that contain more than one operator (OR, NOT, AND). This means that the words that are together in parentheses will be treated as a unit.

    Example: (heart disease OR heart attack) AND (stroke OR clot)

    This search finds study records containing either the phrase "heart disease" or the phrase "heart attack" as well as records containing either the word "stroke" or the word "clot."

  • Using AND and OR as operators can sometimes be confusing.

    The correct way to search for a phrase such as:

    "ear, nose, and throat conditions"

    is to enter:

    (Ear OR Nose OR Throat) AND Conditions

    However, if you want to find studies with exactly the phrase "ear, nose, and throat" then you should enclose the phrase in quotes.

 Source: This article was published clinicaltrials.gov

Categorized in How to

By William Comcowich—Boolean search queries are a powerful and easy-to-use tool to improve your search results. This article will teach you how to use them.

Public relations measurement and marketing teams may subscribe to a media monitoring service to find mentions of their brands in news and social media. But many companies miss mentions because they aren’t using the best search strategies. Even worse, they may be inundated with irrelevant mentions about companies or brands with similar names in different industries.

The use of Boolean search queries can assure more accurate media monitoring results. It’s especially useful in eliminating extraneous results. Some PR and marketing folks may cringe when they hear they should use “Boolean,” thinking it’s some sort of geeky computer solution that’s beyond their skills. It’s not. The art of constructing Boolean search queries is actually quite easy to learn and master. Mainstream search engines like Google and Bing as well as social media monitoring services such as CyberAlert permit Boolean searches.

Boolean Search Terms Explained

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Simply put, Boolean search involves words like AND, OR, and NOT, and punctuation like parenthesis and quotes. In the Google search engines, the connecting words must be in all caps.

Simply put, Boolean search involves words like AND, OR, and NOT, and punctuation like parenthesis and quotes. In the Google search engines, the connecting words must be in all caps.

AND — Write AND between search terms to require the search results to include both words in any order. If you enter the search term Dove, you’ll see results for the bird, the soap, personal hygiene products, and a nonprofit foundation, among other unrelated results. Boolean search narrows results to your desired outcome. If you input Dove AND chocolate, you’ll receive results that contain both words, leading with Dove Chocolate.

OR — OR will produce results containing any of the words connected by OR. If placed between several words or phrases, results will display pages with one, several, or all of the words. You can use OR to search for nicknames, abbreviations, and common misspellings of your company and its products, as in Wal-Mart OR Wallmart OR Wally Mart. Including OR in queries is especially useful in social media, given the preponderance of abbreviations and misspellings.

NOT— Place NOT before a word to exclude the word from results. That’s a useful technique to eliminate irrelevant results. If your company name or other search term is identical to an unrelated term, perhaps another company in an unrelated industry, use NOT to exclude undesired results. The search term Volkswagen may not require NOT terms to eliminate unrelated results, but Lincoln certainly does. Example: Lincoln AND (auto OR car OR dealer OR etc.) AND NOT (president OR penny OR emancipation OR St. OR Ave.)

If you’re researching what consumers are saying about a product online, you can use NOT to exclude the company’s own online comments, since those results would skew research results. In some search engines, the minus sign replaces the word NOT.

Quotes and Dashes  — Use double quotation marks for searches for exact phrases. When you search without putting search terms in quotes, many results will be separated by other words, sometimes many other words. That may not be what you’re seeking. Placing the words in quotes will yield that exact phrase – and it that exact order, as in “Wal-Mart sucks” or “College of the Holy Cross”. Phrases can also be expressed in many search engines with dashes between words, as in University-of-Michigan.

Parenthesis — Parentheses group terms together so operators like AND and NOT can be applied to all the terms in the brackets. For instance, Dove AND chocolate AND NOT (soap OR lotion OR beauty) will exclude mentions of the beauty products.

NEAR— A proximity operator, NEAR returns results when two or more words are close to each other. You determine the maximum number of words separating the search terms. For instance, if you seek Dove within five words of “soft skin”, you would enter something like: Dove NEAR/5 “soft skin”. The NEAR operator helps narrow results when different brands are discussed in the same post.

In some applications, the tilde, the ~ sign on the top left of your keyboard, can be used as the proximity operator. Place quotation marks around the search terms and a number after the tilde to indicate the maximum number of words between the keywords. For instance, “Dove skin”~5 will return sites with those words separated by no more than five other words. Some of the major search engines do not support proximity operators.

Additional Filters — Many search engines and media monitoring systems allow you to apply additional filters based on geographic location, social media channels, language, and other factors.

Companies with difficult-to-search keywords or acronyms may wish to investigate the power of regular expressions (REX) to purge irrelevant search results. Used in addition to Boolean queries, REX statements can add greater specificity to a search query and permit even more precise search results. For example, REX statements can specify initial caps as in Orange, the French mobile phone service, thereby ignoring all mentions of orange with a lower case. Another REX statement specifies all caps as in acronyms (which is especially useful if your acronym is also a common word). Among many other capabilities, REX statements can also stipulate the number of times a keyword must appear in an article. REX statements often solve long-standing search problems. The major search engines don’t typically support REX statements. Among media monitoring services, CyberAlert can include a full range of REX statements in its client queries.

Corporate Functions

A Boolean query is mandatory for any acronym since most every three or four-letter acronym represents multiple organizations. Boolean queries are also very useful in sorting out clips for specific divisions, departments, or geographic areas. For example, legal would have a specific set of Boolean terms plus the corporate or brand names.

A query for legal threats of a bank, then, could be constructed as:

([Name of Bank] OR [Nicknames of Bank] OR [Stock Exchange Symbol] OR [Names of Executives]) AND (litigation OR legal-action OR legal-issue OR class-action OR lawsuit OR filed-suit OR charges OR trial OR subpoena OR inquiry OR examination OR probe OR investigation OR alleged OR deceptive OR fraud OR warning-letter OR lawyer OR attorney OR lobbyist OR money-laundering OR capital-requirements OR corporate-governance OR Securities and Exchange Commission OR SEC OR Federal-Deposit-Insurance-Corporation OR FDIC OR Federal Reserve Board OR Office-of-the-Comptroller-of- the-Currency OR Dodd-Frank OR stress-test OR settlement OR pact OR hacked OR customer-data OR data-loss OR credit-agency OR tax-evasion OR off-shore-accounts)

The same principle can be applied to countries. Combine AND with the name of the country to sort and deliver relevant clips to country managers. Boolean requires using foreign language terms for generic words if searching for clips from the foreign country.

Brands can use Boolean search techniques to search for problems and risks by using problem terms or terms that denote anger such as “sucks.” Thus, a complaint query would read: ([Name of Company] OR [Nicknames of Company] OR [Stock Exchange Symbol] OR [Names of Executives]) AND (sucks OR stinks OR useless OR lousy OR stupid OR worthless OR [etc.])

Bottom Line Boolean search queries can improve your media and social media monitoring results, uncover mentions of your brand and exclude irrelevant results.

 Source: This article was published painepublishing.com By William Comcowich

Categorized in Search Techniques

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