fbpx

The internet is much more than just the publicly available, Google-able web services most online users frequent – and that’s good for free expression. Companies frequently create private networks to enable employees to use secure corporate servers, for example. And free software allows individuals to create what are called “peer-to-peer” networks, connecting directly from one machine to another.

Unable to be indexed by current search engines, and therefore less visible to the general public, subnetworks like these are often called “darknets,” or collective as the singular “darknet.” These networks typically use software, such as Tor, that anonymizes the machines connecting to them, and encrypts the data traveling through their connections.

Some of what’s on the darknet is alarming. A 2015 story from Fox News reads:

“Perusing the darknet offers a jarring jaunt through jaw-dropping depravity: Galleries of child pornography, videos of humans having sex with animals, offers for sale of illegal drugs, weapons, stolen credit card numbers and fake identifications for sale. Even human organs reportedly from Chinese execution victims are up for sale on the darknet.”

But that’s not the whole story – nor the whole content and context of the darknet. Portraying the darknet as primarily, or even solely, for criminals ignores the societal forces that push people toward these anonymous networks. Our research into the content and activity of one major darknet, called Freenet, indicates that darknets should be understood not as a crime-ridden “Wild West,” but rather as “wilderness,” spaces that by design are meant to remain unsullied by the civilizing institutions – law enforcement, governments and corporations – that have come to dominate the internet.

There is definitely illegal activity on the darknet, as there is on the open internet. However, many of the people using the darknet have a diverse range of motives and activities, linked by a common desire to reclaim what they see as major benefits of technology: privacy and free speech.

Describing Freenet

Our research explored Freenet, an anonymous peer-to-peer network accessed via a freely downloadable application. In this type of network, there are no centralized servers storing information or transferring data. Rather, each computer that joins the network takes on some of the tasks of sharing information.

When a user installs Freenet, her computer establishes a connection to a small group of existing Freenet users. Each of these is connected in turn to other Freenet users’ computers. Through these connections, the entire contents of the network are available to any user. This design allows Freenet to be decentralized, anonymous and resistant to surveillance and censorship.

Freenet’s software requires users to donate a portion of their local hard drive space to store Freenet material. That information is automatically encrypted, so the computer’s owner does not know what files are stored or the contents of those files. Files shared on the network are stored on numerous computers, ensuring they will be accessible even if some people turn off their machines.

Joining the network

As researchers, we played the role of a novice Freenet user. The network allows many different types of interaction, including social networking sites and even the ability to build direct relationships with other users. But our goal was to understand what the network had to offer to a new user just beginning to explore the system.

There are several Freenet sites that have used web crawlers to index the network, offering a sort of directory of what is available. We visited one of these sites to download their list. From the 4,286 total sites in the index we chose, we selected a random sample of 427 sites to visit and study more closely. The sites with these indexes are a part of the Freenet network, and therefore can be accessed only by users who have downloaded the software. Standard search engines cannot be used to find sites on Freenet.

An introductory page on Freenet. Roderick Graham and Brian Pitman, CC BY-ND

Finding a ‘hacker ethic’

What we found indicated that Freenet is dominated by what scholars call a “hacker ethic.” This term encompasses a group of progressive and libertarian beliefs often espoused by hackers, which are primarily concerned with these ideals:

  • Access to information should be free;
  • Technology can, and should, improve people’s lives;
  • Bureaucracy and authority are not to be trusted;
  • A resistance to conventional and mainstream lifestyles

Some of that may be because using darknet technology often requires additional technical understanding. In addition, people with technical skills may be more likely to want to find, use and even create services that have technological protections against surveillance.

Our reading of hacking literature suggests to us that the philosophical and ideological beliefs driving darknet users are not well-known. But without this context, what we observed on Freenet would be hard to make sense of.

There were Freenet sites for sharing music, e-books and video. Many sites were focused around personal self-expression, like regular internet blogs. Others were dedicated to promoting a particular ideology. For example, socialist and libertarian content was common. Still other sites shared information from whistle-blowers or government documents, including a copy of the Wikileaks website’s data, complete with its “Afghan War Diary” of classified documents about the United States military invasion of Afghanistan following the Sept. 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.

With the hacker ethic as a guide, we can understand that most of this content is from individuals who have a deep mistrust of authority, reject gross materialism and conformity, and wish to live their digital lives free of surveillance.

What about crime?

There is criminal activity on Freenet. About a quarter of the sites we observed either delivered or linked to child pornography. This is alarming, but must be seen in the proper context. Legal and ethical limits on researchers make it very hard to measure the magnitude of pornographic activity online, and specifically child pornography.

The Conversation logo

Once we came upon a site that purported to have child pornography, we left the site immediately without investigating further. For example, we did not seek to determine whether there was just one image or an entire library or marketplace selling pornographic content. This was a good idea from the perspectives of both law and ethics, but did not allow us to gather any real data about how much pornography was actually present.

Other research suggests that the presence of child pornography is not a darknet or Freenet problem, but an internet problem. Work from the the Association for Sites Advocating Child Protection points to pervasive sharing of child pornography well beyond just Freenet or even the wider set of darknets. Evaluating the darknet should not stop just at the presence of illegal material, but should extend to its full content and context.

A pie chart shows the share of Freenet sites devoted to particular types of content. Roderick Graham and Brian Pitman, CC BY-ND

With this new information, we can look more accurately at the darknet. It contains many distinct spaces catering to a wide range of activities, from meritorious to abhorrent. In this sense, the darknet is no more dangerous than the rest of the internet.

And darknet services do provide anonymity, privacy, freedom of expression and security, even in the face of a growing surveillance state.

Author : Roderick S Graham & Brian Pitman

Source : http://www.business-standard.com/article/current-affairs/is-darknet-more-dangerous-than-rest-of-the-internet-117013100232_1.html

Categorized in Deep Web

Look around you, people of the internet. The bots. They’re everywhere.

Most website visitors aren’t humans, but are instead bots—or, programs built to do automated tasks. They are the worker bees of the internet, and also the henchmen. Some bots help refresh your Facebook feed or figure out how to rank Google search results; other bots impersonate humans and carry out devastating DDoS attacks.

Overall, bots—good and bad—are responsible for 52 percent of web traffic, according to a new report by the security firm Imperva, which issues an annual assessment of bot activity online. The 52-percent stat is significant because it represents a tip of the scales since last year’s report, which found human traffic had overtaken bot traffic for the first time since at least 2012, when Imperva began tracking bot activity online.

Now, the latest survey, which is based on an analysis of nearly 17 billion website visits from across 100,000 domains, shows bots are back on top. Not only that, but harmful bots have the edge over helper bots, which were responsible for 29 percent and 23 percent of all web traffic, respectively.

“The most alarming statistic in this report is also the most persistent trend it observes,” writes Igal Zeifman, Imperva’s marketing director, in a blog post about the research. “For the past five years, every third website visitor was an attack bot.”

Put another way: More than 94 percent of the 100,000 domains included in the report experienced at least one bot attack over the 90-day period in Imperva’s study.

Websites that are less popular with humans—as measured by traffic—tended to attract more visits from bots. “Simply put,” Zeifman wrote, “good bots will crawl your website and bad bots will try to hack it regardless of how popular it is with the human folk. They will even keep visiting a domain in absence of all human traffic.”

Though bots are interested in websites even when humans are not, bot activity tends to mirror human behavior online. For instance, the most active helper-bot online is what’s known as a “feed fetcher,” and it’s the kind of bot that helps refresh a person’s Facebook feed on the site’s mobile app. Facebook’s feed fetcher, by itself, accounted for 4.4 percent of all website traffic, according to the report—which is perhaps stunning, but not altogether surprising. Facebook is a behemoth, and its bot traffic illustrates as much.

Overall, Feed fetchers accounted for more than 12 percent of web traffic last year. Search engine bots, commercial data-extracting spiders, and website monitoring bots are among the other helpful bots you’re likely to encounter online. (That is, if you consider the collection of your personal data for advertising purposes to be helpful.)

Data-grabbing bots do their work invisibly, while other bots are easier to spot. In fact, bots and people bump into one another often. Spambots show up in comment sections and Twitter bots clog people’s timelines with everything from marketing, to political campaigning, to social activism, to utter nonsense. These sorts of bots aren’t always pleasant, but they aren’t outright dangerous.

For the real villains, we turn to impersonator bots used for DDoS attacks. They accounted for about 24 percent of overall web traffic last year. Top offenders in this category included Nitol malware, a bot called Cyclone meant to mimic Google’s good search-ranking bots, and Mirai malware—a virus that caused mass internet disruptions in the United States in October.

Other bad bots to contend with include unauthorized-data-scrapers, spambots, and scavengers seeking security vulnerabilities to exploit. Together, they made up about 5 percent of web traffic.

And even though the internet is already  mostly bots, we’re only just beginning to see the Bot Age take shape. According to the market-research firm CB Insights, more than a dozen venture-capital-backed bot startups raised their first round of funding last year.

Author : ADRIENNE LAFRANCE

Source : https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2017/01/bots-bots-bots/515043/

Categorized in Deep Web

Table Of Contents

1. What is the Deep Web?

There are many words to describe the deep web, including the invisible web, hidden web, and even Deepnet.

The reason it exists is because the Internet has become so dependent upon search engines, and search engines are only as good as the web crawlers that serve up content for the results. Some researchers believe that the searchable web is barely 1% of what’s actually available on the World Wide Web.

Crawlers are excellent at crawling through static web pages, extracting information on those pages, and providing that information in the form of search results. However, there is valuable information tucked away below the surface of those search results – information buried inside online databases and dynamically generated pages that the search spiders are capable of crawling.

Just a few examples of those tremendous databases include information like patents, census data, data collected on space missions, climate data and academic databases filled with scientific papers overflowing with interesting and valuable information.

All of this doesn’t even include the deepest and darkest corner of the Internet where secretive onion websites exist, accessible only through special Tor software. A basic layout of what this looks like is shown below.

Deep Web.png

Methods of accessing these different parts of the deep web are determined by the data that you want to get at. The tools used to navigate the deep web are outlined here.

  • Databases – Information about people, census data, climate data, world information and other searchable information that could be stored in a table format.
  • Journals and Books – Information contained in a digital format that is either stored in a format not accessible by web crawlers or exists behind a paid gateway. These files need to be downloaded and opened on a PC.
  • Tor Network – Sites that want to remain hidden, and typically include things like illegal porn, stolen personal data, drug contacts, anonymous political dissidents, terrorists, and more.

This manual will take you on a tour through the many levels of the deep web, starting with the databases where you can find information only accessible to those who know the secrets to accessing them. Then, we’ll continue on to the spectrum of information available in academic journals and books where you can browse through volumes of writings about scholarly topics. Finally, we’ll arrive at the gates of Tor, beyond which lies the deep darkness of the entire Internet.

1.1 Databases for People Research

If you are a landlord or if you’ve ever taught in most school systems, then you’re probably more than familiar with one of the most common deep web databases around – the background search.

Most businesses or public institutions like schools will pay for a background check, but there are also databases all throughout the Internet where you can query to learn more about people.

The databases that are available for free include public records, criminal databases, digitized court records, and a variety of “people search” websites that provide basic identifying information, physical address, and family details.

There are a number of reasons to use deep web for people research – everything from finding lost relatives to genealogical research.

1.1.1 Adoption Research

A common use of people search databases is by adopted children trying to find their natural parents.

Regular people-search websites and services can be used for adoption research, but usually such research is hit-and-miss, since most of the free services provide only superficial information about people, and the paid websites require the researcher to know things like birth date and current location of residence. In most cases, an adopted child or parent may have some vague idea of the birth date, but no idea where the person is currently located.

This kind of research is so common in fact that there is now an influx of new websites specifically designed to match adopted children with natural parents who want to be found.

These are non-profit “registries” where adopted children and the parents who gave up their children are able to register for finding their child or parent.

deep-web2.jpg

These databases are not accessible from search engines, but knowing the right registry databases, either parents or children stand the chance of discovering and reuniting with their family members.

1.1.2 Lost Relatives

Another common use for people-search websites is when children run away, one parent leaves the family, or extended family members simply lose contact over time. In cases like these, a family member may seek out resources on the Internet to track down those relatives. Typical tools for this sort of research includes things like:

  • Social Networks – There have been many family reunions on Facebook
  • Search Engines – You’d be surprised what you can find!
  • Public Records
  • Online White Pages
  • People Search Websites
  • Birth, Marriage & Death Indexes

Finding lost relatives is probably one of the hardest research activities on the deep web, unless you have a good amount of detailed information about the person. Usually with a birthday, current residence, current age, full name or the names of immediate family members, you should be able to locate nearly anyone to a good degree of certainty.

1.1.3 Veteran Research

Most veterans work for a national government, and since most governments that are open with information offer a number of valuable and useful tools for research, veteran research on the Web is actually very fruitful.

For example, the Ministry of Defence in the UK provides a “Subject Access Request” form where veterans can request their own service records from the government.

deep-web3.jpg

This form can be found at The National Archivesfor the UK, and most governments around the world also have their own National Archives online where you can also do veteran research for service members in your country.

In addition to national archives, you can do Veterans research online using the following Deep Web resources not searchable via any search engine.

  • FOIA Requests
  • Non-Profit Organizations for Veterans
  • US Veteran Services Websites
  • Historical Research Websites

Because veterans records are maintained by governments, and because they are typically stored in locations that are easy to access, finding the records for specific veterans is usually pretty easy. This is especially true when those records have been digitized, which is more common these days than ever before. The Deep Web is chock-full of valuable veterans information.

1.1.4Genealogy

In the people-research genre, genealogy is probably one of the most common. It is an extremely popular hobby that many thousands of people across the world actively take part in. For this reason, there are long lists of fantastic genealogy websitesacross the Internet that can help you find your past ancestors. Of course the MakeUseOf Genealogy Manualis always a great place to start.

One of the more well-known and long running one of those are the various GenWeb projects across the world.

deep-web4.jpg

Most major countries have their own branch of the GenWeb website, and each of those is focused on providing a database of local ancestry research resources to genealogists in those local areas.

Other Deep Web databases that you’ll find on the topic are things like:

  • Cemetery Records
  • Online Obituaries and Birth Notices
  • Free Genealogy Databases
  • Local Historical Society Databases and File Archives

1.1.5 Background Checks

Whether you’re a landlord trying to verify that your new tenants don’t have a criminal record, or you’re trying to find out if your new boyfriend has some deep hidden secrets he’s not telling you, there are lots of legitimate reasons for wanting to conduct a background check.

Any in-depth background check that you conduct online is likely going to cost a modest fee. However, what many people don’t realize is that there are legitimate ways to look up background information about people at no cost on the web. You can’t get all of the details, but you can pull up information like family members, email addresses, phone numbers and even a criminal record.

If you don’t want to spend any cash right away for the paid online background database information, you can always dig through the Internet for information. With a Google search or by searching on social networks, you can learn a lot about people – but not nearly as much as you can uncover when you start dipping into the Deep Web.

deep-web5.jpg

Even paid services offer just enough information in the free “introductory” searches that will let you dig up even more dirt on other sites, like public records databases.

Options to look up background data on your own include:

  • County or small regional government websites with searchable databases for local town code citations, birth or marriage records
  • State databases for arrest records or criminal history
  • Federal databases for licenses and federal criminal records, investigations, and any military service

The benefit of using paid database searches is that it saves you a lot of time and effort to dig up information on individuals. However, you can discover much of the information that turns up in the paid background reports by taking the time to visit various public records websites around the net that offer databases filled with records that are publicly accessible by anyone for free.

1.2 Other Types of Deep WebResearch

Sometimes, when you’re researching the Internet, your needs may go deeper than just researching people. It may involve digging into the history about a certain location or an event. This kind of research can span several areas of the deep web – and these areas include academic resources, government and legal case databases, and of course the many historical resources buried throughout the web, and untouchable by most web crawlers.

1.2.1 Local History

No matter where in the world you live, the odds are pretty good that you have a historical society there, or at least some organization who works to preserve and protect the history of that local region.

That local historical society may actually have their own online research database where you can search for digitized historical records.

deep-web6.jpg

These databases – unreachable by search engines – contain photos, scanned historical documents, and other records that all together make up a treasure trove of information that you have access to thanks to the Internet.

In additional to historical societies, your local library may actually offer similar database search utilities on their websites that let you look up digitized documents or newspaper scans that cover the history of the region.

Local history is also linked to genealogy. Researchers use just about every records database on the Internet – public records, historical societies, libraries and more, in order to track down the lineage of a family.

One of the most well-known Deep Web databases that is used as part of historical research like this is FamilySearch.org.

deep-web7.jpg

This is a website that is astonishingly rich with information and resources for doing genealogy research, considering the fact that the service is provided entirely free, built and supported by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

It certainly isn’t the only genealogy database website out there, but it is one of the largest.

1.2.2 Legal Research

Whether or not you’re in trouble with the law doesn’t matter – when it comes to taking a stance on public policy or on any issue that involves legal questions, it’s good to have access to court cases and court decisions that set precedence for future court decisions.

In fact, if you arein trouble with the law, your lawyer will hopefully have a legal researcher who is well aware of the deep web, and capable of exploiting all of the resources that are buried there.

A few examples of legal research websites that you’ll find in the deep web include:

  • Law school court opinion search engines
  • Law library case databases
  • Non-profit legal organization search tools for legal cases

There are literally thousands of high quality legal research databases available on the Internet today, and surprisingly, not one item from that mountain of case documents and court decisions ever makes its way into search engine results. It’s basically a mountain of data about people, companies, organizations and historical events that you have access to if you know where to look.

1.2.3 Academic Studies

Academic research goes on around the world every single day. Often, findings are reported in the news, and other times they go unnoticed. However, you can find all of these studies tucked away deep inside of the deep web in the databases stored on various university servers.

Usually these academic databases are accessible and searchable by the public, but there are some systems that will charge you for access to the scientific journals where many of those findings are published.

However, the best option when looking to the deep web for data on academic studies and research findings are the free search tools offered by large organizations like Google (Google Scholar) and Microsoft (Microsoft Academic Research).

deep-web8.jpg

These are search forms that will burrow deep into the academic research databases and pull out the research and the findings that are most important to you. You won’t find these through search engines, but only through these academic research database search tools that pull the data out of the deep web for you.

1.3 Tor Websites

If the informational databases and private search tools of individual organizations make up one small part of the deep web, then Tor represents the secret dark corners where few respectable people dare to go.

Think of Tor as an alternative web. It is literally its own network, where websites don’t have any domain or IP addresses. Because of this, they are completely inaccessible to search engines. You need a special browser — these days known as the “Tor browser bundle” to access those difficult-to-find websites. I’ll give you more details on that later.

deep-web9.jpg

The Tor browser is your gateway into the Tor network of websites where you can download pirated movies and music, access questionable pornography or conspire to commit a crime.

Okay — so it isn’t all just about bad stuff. The Tor network is also where journalists, protesters and other people go who are wary about governments or officials trying to track their online activities. The Tor network, being one level removed from the Internet itself, provides a certain degree of privacy and security.

The websites located on the Tor network are known as “onion” sites, because most of the sites located there end with the .onion extension — only readable with the Tor browser.

1.3.1 Secret Websites

The Tor browser lets you browse the normal Internet anonymously — under a fake IP address. However, to access the hidden websites, you’ll need to find the Onion directories. You can browse the regular Internet for directories that list active Onion sites.

deep-web10.jpg

Some of those sites may also include “Deep Search” sites that act as sort of search engines for the Tor Network. Most Onion sites come and go, so it isn’t useful to list any active ones here because they likely will disappear before long.

The best way to find the sites is to start with a standard Internet search engine for “onion sites” and look for search engines or directories within the Tor network. Access those from your Tor browser, and you’re on your way toward discovering the many secret Onion sites scattered throughout the deep web.

1.3.2 Illegal Websites and Content

Once you start exploring the Tor network through these directories and search engines, it won’t take long for you to realize just how astonishing this part of the Deep web really is. You’ll find all sorts of downloadable content like books, magazines, and all kinds of other media that you’d be hard-pressed to discover on the open web.

deep-web11.jpg

Much of this is content that is openly available for free to the public without any sort of royalty issues, but there is also content throughout the Tor network that is fully licensed and where the owner should legally receive royalties. By downloading the content – like music, movies and more – you are essentially stealing those published works from the creator.

However, that ethical problem doesn’t stop the Tor network from being used as the distribution center for illegal, pirated movies, music and print publications.

In fact, the anonymity provided by the Tor browser, combined with the creation of so many “secret” websites that offer anything you could possibly hope to find, has also resulted in the proliferation of things like illegal pornography, terrorism and crime handbooks, stolen credit card numbers, and more.


This is the darkest part of the web, so the fact that this kind of content and people exist there shouldn’t surprise you – so if you do decide to go there, tread very carefully.

2. Deep Web Research Resources

In the next chapters, we’ll provide you with specific instructions on how to go about finding information, data or other content inside the deep web. In addition. you’ll find lots of useful resources in each section, which should offer a good starting point in your own journey through that part of the invisible Internet.

2.1 Statistics

Have you ever wondered how many women vs men use social networks? Are you working on a research paper for school, and need to know the results of the latest studies on disease?

The volume of data that’s available on the Internet outside of the reach of search engines is remarkable, and this is especially true when it comes to statistical research online. The reason for this is that there are two types of organizations that generally make it their business to distribute very detailed statistical information to the public — governments, and educational organizations.

By taking advantage of the free databases made available by these organizations, you can discover information that most people would find surprising. Anyone else who tries to find that data simply by Googling won’t find it, because to get access to that data, you need to know the URL for the search form of those databases.

The following are some of the most valuable deep web databases for statistical data on the web.

2.1.1 Government Databases

Governments around the world offer citizens a virtual warehouse filled to the ceiling with impressive data about regions and people. The following are some examples of government databases around the world.

2.1.1.1 United States

Nearly every agency inside of the U.S. government performs some form of research. Because of this, the U.S. government as a collective entity contains an unimaginable amount of data. As a service to the public for sifting through all that information, the government offers a website called FedStatsthat organizes government-created statistical data in one place.

deep-web12.jpg

The “Topic Links” section allows visitors to sift through a list of U.S. statistical data on subjects like adoption, state and national historical data, disease rates, educational statistics and much more. FedStats is probably the single most comprehensive statistical database research tool for deep web researchers. Most of the data found here is available in PDF format, or via database search forms.

The Pollak Libraryat the University Fullerton of California has accumulated its own impressive collection of free government databases for you to sift through for information.

deep-web13.jpg

Interesting databases you’ll find here include the Homeland Security Digital Library, the Child Welfare Information Gateway, and the Educator’s Reference Desk [ERIC].

Another valuable resource for government deep web databases is a wiki called GODORT, the Government Documents Round Table of the American Library Association. GODORT offers a list of State agencies across the United States. In this Wiki for every state in the U.S. you can find court docket records, political information, property databases and more.

courts-records.jpg

Other government databases that provide you with information that’s untouchable to search engines includes all of the following:

  • CGP– A database of published government ebooks covering research and studies across many different topical areas.
  • Christopher Center– Valparaiso University has a nice collection of government databases, organized by genre like Arts & Humanities, Consumer Affairs, Education and more.
  • GPO– The U.S. Government Printing office offers a useful search engine for collections of printed documents like government manuals, laws, presidential papers and more.

2.1.1.2 Europe

If you live in Europe and you’re looking for deep web government databases online, there are plenty of options. In Europe, there are just as many (if not more) Departments and organizations where you can find data that may be important to you, but you need to know where to look.

Because the list is so long, the European Unionactually provides a directory of government databases organized by subject.

In the EU directory, you’ll find sections for Agriculture, Environment, Public Health and even local development databases like EURYDICE, the Educational system and policies in Europe where you can find facts, figures and reports about the educational systems in Europe, all buried deep inside the website as a collection of PDF reports and data.

deep-web15.jpg

Just like FedStats for the U.S., the corresponding starting point for European statistics is a website called Eurostat. It is a little more focused on government financials than anything else.

deep-web16.jpg

Here, you can look up database information about government expenditures, government debt, and quarterly financial statements.

This is all great for financial information, but what about the sort of data sources that you’d find at a place like the National Archives in the U.S.? Well, the Harold B. Lee Library at Brigham Young University offers a system called Euro Docs, which is a giant directory linking you to historical documents for European countries.

You never know what you’ll find while browsing through these resources. While many of these are simply links to other informational websites, many of those external websites are databases or documents to volumes of information.

For example, at one link I stumbled upon a digital, interactive map of Roman and Medieval civilizations in Europe.

deep-web17.jpg

One of the coolest tools that you could use to efficiently visualize public data from around the world is theGoogle Public Data Explorer, an online data visualization tool that we’ve covered previously at MakeUseOf.

This is an amazing tool that pulls data from many of the same government data sources mentioned above, but in a visual format, allows you to compare and predict data trends across the world for things like domestic issues, economic factors, education, and agriculture.

deep-web18.jpg

You can select from the list of any country in the world, and even filter by gender, or narrow the size of the prediction window from 50 years down to just a few.

2.1.2 Academic Databases

Across the world, there are many thousands of ongoing scientific studies and research about some of the most important issues facing the world today. Many of the findings in these studies have ramifications that sometimes could influence the health, social beliefs or the laws of entire populations.

Academic databases are probably the deepest part of the invisible Internet, so it’s not an easy task to cover all of them, however there is a very clear shortlist of resources that provide access to the largest bulk of academic journals and books on the Internet. These are search engines or database that are inaccessible to the Google search engine. Once you start using these resources to research for statistics, studies and other data, you’ll wonder how you ever got by without it.

One of the most comprehensive search engines for academic journals and books is JSTOR, a digital library of over 1,500 journals, books and other sources.

deep-web19.jpg

The goal of this non-profit is to help researchers, students and others build and use a “wide range of scholarly content”.

deep-web20.jpg

Even if you don’t plan to invest in obtaining research material, most of the studies and other sources provide findings in the introduction, so you can at least obtain the ultimate conclusion of the study even though you need to pay to read the entire report.

The results of most searches using this database search tool usually return hundreds or even thousands of results. The journals and other sources that are available are displayed in sample form — but to download the full study or book you do need to pay.

Another very popular resource for digging into the deep web of scholarly works is ironically Google itself, with a resource known as Google Scholar.

deep-web21.jpg

Google Scholar will sift through articles published in major journals — utilizing the same search techniques as organizations like JSTOR, and often providing the same results. Google Scholar provides access to journal publications, patents and even case law results from U.S. federal or State courts (U.S.-based only).

The patents search capability of this search tool is worth its weight in gold. There are some amazing discoveries hidden away in the patents database.

One of the most well known academic research tools is the Institute of Education Sciences (ERIC). This system run by the Education Department of the U.S. government has long been a tool of librarians and educators to conduct academic research, and to help students find citations for their work.

deep-web22.jpg

ERIC is probably one of the most useful resources for students, because many of the papers and studies provided in the results are available in full from educational institutions or non-profit research organizations. Excerpts are always available, and a direct link to the source is provided for every result.

deep-web23.jpg

You can search for only published work that has been peer reviewed, or only for results that provide the full text download straight from the ERIC system. The ease of use and low-cost of many results make this a research tool of choice for academic information on the deep web.

Never to be outdone, Microsoft provides a counterpart to Google Scholar in the form of Microsoft Academic Search.

deep-web24.jpg

Like Google Scholar, many results are available for free, but just as many of the results include links to paid academic journals or journal distributors. Excerpts are available however, so if only the results or findings of the paper are desired, this is a quick and easy search tool to find those.

If you’re looking for only freely available papers and journals, then you’ll want to explore the Genamics journal database. This search tool and journal directory is focused only on “freely available journal information”, and allows you to search by Title/ISSN, or browse using the “Category Browser” within the academic area that you’re interested in.

deep-web25.jpg

The website doesn’t look very professionally made, but the face of the site betrays the fact that the database contains over 101794 journals available for free, and that list continues to grow.

If academic conferences are your thing, then you’ll definitely want to check out the Conference Alerts website. Conferences are a fantastic way for academics to discuss and share research, and just to meet other professionals within the academic community. Conal is a website that lets you search for conferences by topic, country, or city.

deep-web26.jpg

This site isn’t just some dead listing that hardly ever gets updated. This website isn’t entirely a deep web search tool, because the listings themselves are HTML based, so search engines could crawl these results.

However, the Conal advanced search tool lets you search through the entire database by date, and you can subscribe to automated alerts that let you know of upcoming conferences that fit your search criteria.

Other valuable resources if you are an academic researcher looking for information inside of the deep web:

  • iSeek– The creators of this tool promise the results are safe, authoritative, intelligent and time-saving.
  • Digital Library of the Commons– The DLC is provided by Indiana University so students can research “full-text articles, papers and dissertations.” Most of the results found here include full PDF documents not accessible to search engines.
  • Infomine– This search engine from the University of California is what the school library offers to students to find scholarly information on the Internet.

2.2 People Research

One of the most common areas of the deep web that people dive into are resources available for checking into the background of other people. This might be a journalist trying to vet a source, a landlord looking into the background of a potential tenant, or a number of other reasons to research another person.

Researching people online covers a wide range of different areas and resources, mostly depending on what type of information you’re looking for, how you want to use it, and your connection or relationship to the person you’re researching.

In the following sections, you’ll learn the many different ways that you can do background research on people. In most cases the services are free, but in those cases where there’s a cost, that will be clearly noted.

2.2.1 Adoption Research

Between 1999 and 2011, there were roughly 234,000 adoptions. That means that the odds are pretty good that of those thousands of children across the world, either one of the adopted children or one of the natural parents will eventually want to locate and reconnect with each other.

A very good starting point for any adoption research effort is the Adoption Database. This site offers a search tool where you can filter for things like adopted name at birth, date of birth, birth mother’s maiden name, the hospital where the birth took place, and much more.

deep-web28.jpg

The volume of detail and the depth of results from this database is tremendous. What you’ll basically find here are records from adopted children or natural parents who’ve submitted their information so that they can be found, in addition to who they are looking for.

deep-web29.jpg

This means that the database is balanced on the principle that if both the adopted child and the natural parent both want to be found and submit their information to the database, the odds are good that they’ll find each other. There are thousands of records spanning many years of adoptions in this database, which makes it a powerful tool for adoption research.

Another free tool that can help with adoption research is the Adoption Registry. This registry is run like a classified ads database, where natural parents or adopted children can place an ad describing themselves and who they are looking for.

deep-web30.jpg

Another good search tool is called FindMe.org, a non-profit and free “mutual consent” reunion registry. This is a registry that lets both the adoptee and the adopted find each other when they are both interested in being found.

A final, useful deep web search engine for adoption records searches is a registry search tool called Adoptee Connect.

The listings themselves are free to browse or search, but to see more of the details (such as contact info) of the poster, you’ll need to sign up for a free membership. A basic free membership provides you with 5 free entries into the database, and free searching. For more entries, you’ll need to upgrade your account.

2.2.2 Background Check Websites

Whether you’re a landlord looking to ensure your future tenant isn’t a criminal, or you just met someone new at the local dance club and want to make sure they’re not a creep, searching someone’s background on the Internet is exceedingly easy.

There are a number of websites that will provide you with information about a person’s location, online interests and even the names of their family members for absolutely free. Many of these offer limited information with a paid premium service to see all of the details.

There are a lot of services out there, like Peoplefinders, which provide you with a free listing of possible matches in a certain area, when you search for specific names.

deep-web31.jpg

It even provides the town where the name was located in public records, and a list of potentially related names. Many times these names are actually people who lived in the same place as that person, but are not actually relatives — so the service is not perfect.

A similar service to this is Intelius, which provides similar information, as well as a history of most recent places the person has lived. It isn’t always easy to identify the actual person you’re interested in, especially if the name is fairly common.

There are some more advanced free services that do more than just provide basic listings from public records databases, but actually use custom Internet searches to dig up whatever information exists about the person across websites, blogs and social networks throughout the Internet.

One example of this is a site called PeekYou, where you can search for a name in a specific region across the world, and then review profile information that PeekYou has collected about the person based on their activities on Twitter, Facebook, forums and other activities across the net.

deep-web32.jpg

Another site like this is Pipl, which provides you with search results that span different people search services across the net, as well as social network activity and regular search results.

deep-web33.jpg

If you are concerned that the person you’re dealing with specifically might be a sex offender, there is a National Sex Offender registryquick search available (U.S. only) provided by the U.S. Department of Justice, that will show you whether that person’s name appears in any State’s registry anywhere in the United States.

deep-web34.jpg

There are plenty of paid services that will perform a criminal background check for you, but the truth is that in the U.S., if you know the State where a crime probably occurred, you can usually do your own research right at the State website.

deep-web35.jpg

Just look for the state Criminal Justice Department website, or the Corrections Department website. These services are usually free and offered for the good of public safety.

If you are more interested in fast, paid services, the following options are available for criminal searches on people:

  • Criminal Searches– Public records criminal history search service.
  • Criminal Check– Search all state criminal records databases at once.
  • Black Book Online– Lets you search the records of criminal courts, prison inmate records, and even arrest warrants.
  • FBI– While you’re the only one who can request your own records, aside from the police, you can submit for an Identity Theft Summary from the FBI to determine if your “rap sheet” is accurate.

International/European services to search criminal records:


  • Verified Credentials– Performs an international background check, but you must be a registered business.
  • Interpol– Offers a search tool for searching whether someone is listed in the International list of Wanted Persons.
  • ICC(International Criminal Court) – Provides search tools for cases, panel discussions and news releases about past cases. This can turn up criminal cases regarding the person you’re researching.

2.2.3Phone DDirectories

Surprisingly, one of the most useful deep web research tools to find people is actually the simplest — phone directories. The old days of thick paper phone directories being delivered door-to-door are pretty much over.

Now, you can pretty much go online and so long as you know the name of the person you’re looking for and the town where they live, you can probably get their phone number and street address – assuming they haven’t specifically requested that their information be kept private (which usually requires a fee paid to the phone company).

The White Pages Neighbors look-up toolis an excellent example of this. A quick search for my info turned up my full name, phone number, and street address.

deep-web36.jpg

It got my age just a tiny bit off – but hey, I’m not complaining!

Other yellow & white page online directories where you can do the same kind of look-up with similar results include:

  • WhoWhere.com– U.S. based search that includes a mobile app.
  • AnyWho.com– Lets you search for both people and businesses.
  • WhitePages International– Use the International directories listing to search phone directories for other countries across the world.
  • Reverse Phone Directory– Provides a “people search” option to look up addresses and phone numbers.
  • New Ultimates– Lets you search 10 phone directory databases at once from a single page.
  • Zaba Search– One of the few phone directory search engines that lets you search names in all 50 U.S. States at once.

2.2.4Veteran & Military Information

Are you looking for information about veterans in your family or want to dig into historical research? There is a surprising wealth of veteran information in the deep web, buried behind uncrawlable military database search tools.

The most impressive, free deep web directory for veteran information is the Veterans History Project.

deep-web37.jpg

This is a tremendous historic database filled with volumes of veteran service information, and a very useful resource if you’re looking for information about a specific service member.

Other deep web resources for finding information about veterans include:

  • National Archives– At this site you can locate historic military service records and documents online, plus you can request specific veterans records like personnel and medical records.
  • VetFriends– A service that helps veterans reunite, is also a great deep web search tool for searching through over 10,000 units and over 1.5 million military names. Search is limited unless you join as a member.
  • Grave Locator– An excellent resource for veterans who fought alongside and lost friends in battle. The service is offered by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, and you can locate the graves of soldiers by name and date or birth or death.
  • Find a Grave in Scotland– Similar to Grave Locator, except this is focused on graves in Scotland and includes citizens as well as soldiers.
  • Ancestry.co.uk– Provides you with a search form to find soldier, veteran and prisoner lists from the past.

3. Tor – The Dark Web

After traversing the fields of the deep web, you’ve now arrived at the entrance to a cave. This cave is a deep, dark one where the potential for danger is great, but so is the possibility of finding treasure.

Presenting the Tor network, also known as “Onion sites”, due to the fact that the sites that are hidden away on the network often have the extension of “.onion”.

The Tor network is essentially an Internet within the Internet. You need special software to visit the pages hidden there, and since sites hosted on that network do not use an IP (Internet Protocol), they are not only uncrawlable by search engines, but it is extremely difficult for law enforcement to track down and prosecute sites there with illegal content.

If you dare to enter this deep domain, the first step is to download the Tor Browser Bundle.

deep-web38.jpg

Once you’ve installed the Tor browser, your next task is to find all that hidden content. How do you find hidden websites? Well, think back to the early days of the Internet when there were no magical search engines crawling the net and returning results automatically. There were hundreds of “directories” available where you could find what you were looking for.

That is precisely the case here, with directories known as .onion link lists. The three most common of these – and excellent starting points for your journey into this dark land – are the following (access these links with your Tor browser.

  • TorLinks– A categorized list covering everything from financial services and drugs to warez, media, political and erotic links.
  • The Hidden Wiki– This Wiki page is a frequently updated directory covering all sorts of content like media, books, whistleblower sites and more.
  • Deep Web Links– Lots of valuable links to be found on this directory, with an over-arching theme of freedom of speech.

These are starting points for exploring the darker hidden web of Tor, but they are most certainly not the only places to go. Many of the sites hidden away on the Tor network are provided via word of mouth and through communities of people who are also interested in the same content. Many of this “sharing” takes place on the regular Internet on websites and forums.

Some places to check for onion links thrown out into the public where you may discover them:

  • Reddit /r/onions– A dedicated area devoted to Onion sites.
  • The Hidden Wiki– This site has a frequently updated blog of new onion links, but you’ll also find user-generated comments throughout, where you might also discover interesting onion links.
  • DeepDotWeb– Deep Dot Web is a popular blog that stays on top of not only deep web links and news, but also anything to do with bitcoin, since the two topics and communities are usually tightly intertwined.
  • Pastebin– Search this directory frequently for anonymously posted onion links.
  • Anonbin– Another popular dropping point for anonymously shared onion sites.

Once you’ve installed Tor and you’ve warmed up your taste buds for all of these interesting deep web links, your final mission – if you choose to accept it – is to read the MakeUseOf Tor Guide, and really start exploring this mysterious area of the Internet.

What Are Your Favourite Deep Web Resources?

There are countless other interesting places to explore in the deep web. What are the best research resources you know of?

Author : Ryan Dube

Source : http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/journey-into-the-hidden-web-a-guide-for-new-researchers/

Categorized in Deep Web

There is no law enforcement presence in the Dark Web. 80% of its hits are reportedly connected to child pornography

The Internet is massive. Millions of web pages, databases and servers all run 24 hours a day, seven days a week. But the so-called “visible” Internet — sites that can be found using search engines like Google and Yahoo — is just the tip of the iceberg. Below the surface is the Deep Web, which accounts for approximately 90 per cent of all websites. In fact, this hidden Web is so large that it is impossible to discover exactly how many pages or sites are active at any given time. This Web was once the province of hackers, law enforcement officers and criminals. However, new technology like encryption and the anonymisation browser software, Tor, now makes it possible for anyone to dive deep if they are interested.

What is the Dark Web?

There are a number of terms surrounding the non-visible Web, but it is worth knowing how they differ if you are planning to browse off the beaten path. The ‘Dark Web’ refers to sites with criminal intent or illegal content, and ‘trading’ sites where users can purchase illicit goods or services. In other words, the Deep covers everything under the surface that is still accessible with the right software, including the Dark Web. There is also a third term, “Dark Internet” that refers to sites and databases that are not available over public Internet connections, even if you are using Tor. Often, Dark Internet sites are used by companies or researchers to keep sensitive information private.

How is it accessed?

Most people who wish to access the Deep Web use Tor, a service originally developed by the United States Naval Research Laboratory. Think of Tor as a Web browser like Google Chrome or Firefox. The main difference is that, instead of taking the most direct route between your computer and the deep parts of the Web, the Tor browser uses a random path of encrypted servers, also known as “nodes.” This allows users to connect to the Deep Web without fear of their actions being tracked or their browser history being exposed. Sites on the Deep also use Tor (or similar software such as I2P) to remain anonymous, meaning you will not be able to find out who is running them or where they are being hosted.

Many users now leverage Tor to browse both the public Internet and the Deep. Some simply do not want government agencies or even Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to know what they are looking at online, while others have little choice — users in countries with strict access and usage laws are often prevented from accessing even public sites unless they use Tor clients and virtual private networks (VPNs). The same is true for government critics and other outspoken advocates who fear backlash if their real identities were discovered. Of course, anonymity comes with a dark side since criminals and malicious hackers also prefer to operate in the shadows.

Use and misuse

For some users, the Deep Web offers the opportunity to bypass local restrictions and access TV or movie services that may not be available in their local areas. Others go deep to download pirated music or grab movies that are not yet in theatres. At the dark end of the Web, meanwhile, things can get scary, salacious and just plain...strange. As noted by The Guardian, for example, credit card data is available on the Dark Web for just a few dollars per record, while ZDNet notes that anything from fake citizenship documents to passports and even the services of professional hitmen are available if you know where to look. Interested parties can also grab personal details and leverage them to blackmail ordinary Internet users. Consider the recent Ashley Madison hack — vast amounts of account data, including real names, addresses and phone numbers — ended up on the Dark Web for sale.

This proves that, even if you do not surf the murky waters of the Dark Web, you could be at risk of blackmail (or worse) if sites you regularly use are hacked.

Illegal drugs are also a popular draw on the Dark Web. As noted by Motherboard, drug marketplace Silk Road — which has been shut down, replaced, shut down again and then rebranded — offers any type of substance in any amount to interested parties. Business Insider, meanwhile, details some of the strange things you can track down in the Deep, including a DIY vasectomy kit and a virtual scavenger hunts that culminated in the “hunter” answering a NYC payphone at 3 am.

What are the real risks of the Dark Web?

Thanks to the use of encryption and anonymisation tools by both users and websites, there is virtually no law enforcement presence down in the Dark. This means anything — even material well outside the bounds of good taste and common decency — can be found online. This includes offensive, illegal “adult” content that would likely scar the viewer for life. A recent Wired article, for example, reports that 80 per cent of Dark Web hits are connected to paedophilia and child pornography. Here, the notion of the Dark as a haven for privacy wears thin and shores up the notion that if you do choose to go Deep, always restrict access to your Tor-enabled device so that children or other family members are not at risk of stumbling across something no one should ever see. Visit the Deep Web if you are interested, but do yourself a favour: do not let kids anywhere near it and tread carefully — it is a long way down.

Altaf Halde is Managing Director, Kaspersky Lab — South Asia, and is an industry veteran in cyber security.

Author : ALTAF HALDE

Source : http://www.dnaindia.com/analysis/column-the-secrets-of-the-dark-web-2296778

Categorized in Deep Web

The internet is much more than just the publicly available, Google-able web services most online users frequent – and that’s good for free expression. Companies frequently create private networks to enable employees to use secure corporate servers, for example. And free software allows individuals to create what are called “peer-to-peer” networks, connecting directly from one machine to another.

Unable to be indexed by current search engines, and therefore less visible to the general public, subnetworks like these are often called “darknets, or collective as the singular darknet.” These networks typically use software, such as Tor, that anonymizes the machines connecting to them, and encrypts the data traveling through their connections.

Some of what’s on the darknet is alarming. A 2015 story from Fox News reads:

Perusing the darknet offers a jarring jaunt through jaw-dropping depravity: Galleries of child pornography, videos of humans having sex with animals, offers for sale of illegal drugs, weapons, stolen credit card numbers and fake identifications for sale. Even human organs reportedly from Chinese execution victims are up for sale on the darknet.

But that’s not the whole story – nor the whole content and context of the darknet. Portraying the darknet as primarily, or even solely, for criminals ignores the societal forces that push people toward these anonymous networks. Our research into the content and activity of one major darknet, called Freenet, indicates that darknets should be understood not as a crime-ridden “Wild West,” but rather as “wilderness,” spaces that by design are meant to remain unsullied by the civilizing institutions – law enforcement, governments and corporations – that have come to dominate the internet.

There is definitely illegal activity on the darknet, as there is on the open internet. However, many of the people using the darknet have a diverse range of motives and activities, linked by a common desire to reclaim what they see as major benefits of technology: privacy and free speech.

Describing Freenet

Our research explored Freenet, an anonymous peer-to-peer network accessed via a freely downloadable application. In this type of network, there are no centralized servers storing information or transferring data. Rather, each computer that joins the network takes on some of the tasks of sharing information.

When a user installs Freenet, her computer establishes a connection to a small group of existing Freenet users. Each of these is connected in turn to other Freenet users’ computers. Through these connections, the entire contents of the network are available to any user. This design allows Freenet to be decentralized, anonymous and resistant to surveillance and censorship.

Freenet’s software requires users to donate a portion of their local hard drive space to store Freenet material. That information is automatically encrypted, so the computer’s owner does not know what files are stored or the contents of those files. Files shared on the network are stored on numerous computers, ensuring they will be accessible even if some people turn off their machines.

Joining the network

As researchers, we played the role of a novice Freenet user. The network allows many different types of interaction, including social networking sites and even the ability to build direct relationships with other users. But our goal was to understand what the network had to offer to a new user just beginning to explore the system.

There are several Freenet sites that have used web crawlers to index the network, offering a sort of directory of what is available. We visited one of these sites to download their list. From the 4,286 total sites in the index we chose, we selected a random sample of 427 sites to visit and study more closely. The sites with these indexes are a part of the Freenet network, and therefore can be accessed only by users who have downloaded the software. Standard search engines cannot be used to find sites on Freenet.

An introductory page on Freenet.
An introductory page on Freenet.

Finding a ‘hacker ethic’

What we found indicated that Freenet is dominated by what scholars call a “hacker ethic.” This term encompasses a group of progressive and libertarian beliefs often espoused by hackers, which are primarily concerned with these ideals:

  • Access to information should be free;
  • Technology can, and should, improve peoples lives;
  • Bureaucracy and authority are not to be trusted;
  • A resistance to conventional and mainstream lifestyles

Some of that may be because using darknet technology often requires additional technical understanding. In addition, people with technical skillsmay be more likely to want to find, use and even create services that have technological protections against surveillance.

Our reading of hacking literature suggests to us that the philosophical and ideological beliefs driving darknet users are not well-known. But without this context, what we observed on Freenet would be hard to make sense of.

There were Freenet sites for sharing music, e-books and video. Many sites were focused around personal self-expression, like regular internet blogs. Others were dedicated to promoting a particular ideology. For example, socialist and libertarian content was common. Still other sites shared information from whistle-blowers or government documents, including a copy of the Wikileaks website’s data, complete with its “Afghan War Diary” of classified documents about the United States military invasion of Afghanistan following the Sept. 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.

With the hacker ethic as a guide, we can understand that most of this content is from individuals who have a deep mistrust of authority, reject gross materialism and conformity, and wish to live their digital lives free of surveillance.

What about crime?

There is criminal activity on Freenet. About a quarter of the sites we observed either delivered or linked to child pornography. This is alarming, but must be seen in the proper context. Legal and ethical limits on researchers make it very hard to measure the magnitude of pornographic activity online, and specifically child pornography.

Once we came upon a site that purported to have child pornography, we left the site immediately without investigating further. For example, we did not seek to determine whether there was just one image or an entire library or marketplace selling pornographic content. This was a good idea from the perspectives of both law and ethics, but did not allow us to gather any real data about how much pornography was actually present.

Other research suggests that the presence of child pornography is not a darknet or Freenet problem, but an internet problem. Work from the Association for Sites Advocating Child Protection points to pervasive sharing of child pornography well beyond just Freenet or even the wider set of darknets. Evaluating the darknet should not stop just at the presence of illegal material, but should extend to its full content and context.

A pie chart shows the share of Freenet sites devoted to particular types of content.
A pie chart shows the share of Freenet sites devoted to particular types of content. 

With this new information, we can look more accurately at the darknet. It contains many distinct spaces catering to a wide range of activities, from meritorious to abhorrent. In this sense, the darknet is no more dangerous than the rest of the internet. And darknet services do provide anonymity, privacy, freedom of expression and security, even in the face of a growing surveillance state.

Author : Roderick S. Graham and Brian Pitman

Source : https://www.inverse.com/article/26963-darknet-internet-networks-freedom-of-expression

Categorized in Deep Web

The internet is more than it appears. Its backdoor access to an underground and untraceable world creates an environment ripe for anonymous activity.

Two Colorado State University students opened up this week about their experiences with the deep web.

The deep web, or the dark web, is the expanse of the internet that goes beyond traditional search engines such as Google, and is completely untraceable. Because of this, the deep web is a hot spot for illegal activity, according to the Guardian.

According to the Guardian, the deep web is 400 to 550 times larger than the regular internet, which, when searched, only reveals .03 percent of the total web pages available.

The deep web can be accessed only through torrented web pages, which are downloaded by participants through anonymity browsers like Tor, or are sent to participants by those who already have access to them, according to PC Advisor.

The untraceable aspect of the deep web makes it a hot spot for all sorts of illegal activities, according toRolling Stone.

Drug market

Andrew, a CSU student, once used the deep web to buy drugs.

The student used a site called Dream Market, which is a world wide network for selling and buying illegal substances. Andrew said it is a main source for purchasing drugs that are used on the CSU campus, and that he knows quite a few people who have bought drugs off of it.

Each seller has a rating which dictates how good their products are and whether or not they scam their buyers. The drugs for purchase range from Adderall to ecstasy, and they even sell drugs for weight loss.

“I have mostly used the dream market to buy molly, but you can buy almost anything, they even have tapeworms you can buy for weight loss,” Andrew said.

Online currency, called Bitcoin, is used for the transactions. Participants buy the Bitcoin and then upload it to their accounts.

“Bitcoin is super easy to get, you can download an app and buy it,” Andrew said. “Plus it is legal, you just send it to your account and there is no way to trace it since the website uses encryption.”

Andrew can then choose whether or not to send the money first, or to send it when the package is in the mail.

The seller lists their requirements on the page and has a encrypted code used to insert the address.

Andrew said the drugs can also be bought in any quantity requested for a price almost always cheaper than market value.

To evade any investigation into the purchase, most participants use a P.O. box instead of home addresses.

On only one occasion has the interviewee had interception with the post office.

“I ordered some zanes and I got a letter instead of my package from the post office and FedEx that said your package has been confiscated,” he said, referring to the drug Xanax. “It then said you could come pick it up; I chose not to because that is sketchy, but they had no way to trace it back to me.”

When the packages arrive the drugs come hidden in objects to be less detectable, he said.

“I’ve got some coke once that came inside of a nice pen, some acid that was hidden in a birthday card and some zanes that came inside of a toy car,” he said.

This market also has access to a variety of products and services including hacking, fake IDs and fake passports.

Although the Dream Market is widely used, it barely skims the surface of what is available on the web.

Protected information

Another CSU student, Marsha, was working on a project about biological warfare when she found that most pages that explained it were blocked. The most she could gain access to was a Wikipedia page.

Determined to learn more about her topic and why the pages were blocked, the student accessed the deep web.

It was then she discovered the in-depth search ability that the deep web enables. Marsha searched the pages that were previously blocked on the normal search engines.

The pages requested government logins and similar blocking agents, which prevented her from discovering more information.

Still determined, Marsha attempted to make a login to one of the websites, but the webpage began to download something onto her laptop.

“I wasn’t able to delete the entire program, and then it started kind of killing my computer,” she said. “It began to delete some things I stored on my computer like images and documents. I disconnected it from the internet but then it worked through my laptop and deleted everything. Then eventually it erased the computer’s start up protocol.”

The laptop then became completely unusable, Marsha said.

Author : Logan Crizer

Source : https://collegian.com/2017/01/students-speak-about-experience-on-deep-web/

Categorized in Deep Web

The internet is much more than just the publicly available, Google-able web services most online users frequent – and that’s good for free expression. Companies frequently create private networks to enable employees to use secure corporate servers, for example. And free software allows individuals to create what are called “peer-to-peer” networks, connecting directly from one machine to another.

Unable to be indexed by current search engines, and therefore less visible to the general public, subnetworks like these are often called “darknets,” or collective as the singular “darknet.” These networks typically use software, such as Tor, that anonymizes the machines connecting to them, and encrypts the data traveling through their connections.

Some of what’s on the darknet is alarming. A 2015 story from Fox News reads:

“Perusing the darknet offers a jarring jaunt through jaw-dropping depravity: Galleries of child pornography, videos of humans having sex with animals, offers for sale of illegal drugs, weapons, stolen credit card numbers and fake identifications for sale. Even human organs reportedly from Chinese execution victims are up for sale on the darknet.”

But that’s not the whole story – nor the whole content and context of the darknet. Portraying the darknet as primarily, or even solely, for criminals ignores the societal forces that push people toward these anonymous networks. Our research into the content and activity of one major darknet, called Freenet, indicates that darknets should be understood not as a crime-ridden “Wild West,” but rather as “wilderness,” spaces that by design are meant to remain unsullied by the civilizing institutions – law enforcement, governments and corporations – that have come to dominate the internet.

There is definitely illegal activity on the darknet, as there is on the open internet. However, many of the people using the darknet have a diverse range of motives and activities, linked by a common desire to reclaim what they see as major benefits of technology: privacy and free speech.

Describing Freenet

Our research explored Freenet, an anonymous peer-to-peer network accessed via a freely downloadable application. In this type of network, there are no centralized servers storing information or transferring data. Rather, each computer that joins the network takes on some of the tasks of sharing information.

When a user installs Freenet, her computer establishes a connection to a small group of existing Freenet users. Each of these is connected in turn to other Freenet users’ computers. Through these connections, the entire contents of the network are available to any user. This design allows Freenet to be decentralized, anonymous and resistant to surveillance and censorship.

Freenet’s software requires users to donate a portion of their local hard drive space to store Freenet material. That information is automatically encrypted, so the computer’s owner does not know what files are stored or the contents of those files. Files shared on the network are stored on numerous computers, ensuring they will be accessible even if some people turn off their machines.

Joining the network

As researchers, we played the role of a novice Freenet user. The network allows many different types of interaction, including social networking sites and even the ability to build direct relationships with other users. But our goal was to understand what the network had to offer to a new user just beginning to explore the system.

There are several Freenet sites that have used web crawlers to index the network, offering a sort of directory of what is available. We visited one of these sites to download their list. From the 4,286 total sites in the index we chose, we selected a random sample of 427 sites to visit and study more closely. The sites with these indexes are a part of the Freenet network, and therefore can be accessed only by users who have downloaded the software. Standard search engines cannot be used to find sites on Freenet.

An introductory page on Freenet. Roderick Graham and Brian Pitman, CC BY-ND

Finding a ‘hacker ethic’

What we found indicated that Freenet is dominated by what scholars call a “hacker ethic.” This term encompasses a group of progressive and libertarian beliefs often espoused by hackers, which are primarily concerned with these ideals:

  • Access to information should be free;
  • Technology can, and should, improve people’s lives;
  • Bureaucracy and authority are not to be trusted;
  • A resistance to conventional and mainstream lifestyles

Some of that may be because using darknet technology often requires additional technical understanding. In addition, people with technical skills may be more likely to want to find, use and even create services that have technological protections against surveillance.

Our reading of hacking literature suggests to us that the philosophical and ideological beliefs driving darknet users are not well-known. But without this context, what we observed on Freenet would be hard to make sense of.

There were Freenet sites for sharing music, e-books and video. Many sites were focused around personal self-expression, like regular internet blogs. Others were dedicated to promoting a particular ideology. For example, socialist and libertarian content was common. Still other sites shared information from whistle-blowers or government documents, including a copy of the Wikileaks website’s data, complete with its “Afghan War Diary” of classified documents about the United States military invasion of Afghanistan following the Sept. 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.

With the hacker ethic as a guide, we can understand that most of this content is from individuals who have a deep mistrust of authority, reject gross materialism and conformity, and wish to live their digital lives free of surveillance.

What about crime?

There is criminal activity on Freenet. About a quarter of the sites we observed either delivered or linked to child pornography. This is alarming, but must be seen in the proper context. Legal and ethical limits on researchers make it very hard to measure the magnitude of pornographic activity online, and specifically child pornography.

Once we came upon a site that purported to have child pornography, we left the site immediately without investigating further. For example, we did not seek to determine whether there was just one image or an entire library or marketplace selling pornographic content. This was a good idea from the perspectives of both law and ethics, but did not allow us to gather any real data about how much pornography was actually present.

Other research suggests that the presence of child pornography is not a darknet or Freenet problem, but an internet problem. Work from the the Association for Sites Advocating Child Protection points to pervasive sharing of child pornography well beyond just Freenet or even the wider set of darknets. Evaluating the darknet should not stop just at the presence of illegal material, but should extend to its full content and context.

A pie chart shows the share of Freenet sites devoted to particular types of content. Roderick Graham and Brian Pitman, CC BY-ND

With this new information, we can look more accurately at the darknet. It contains many distinct spaces catering to a wide range of activities, from meritorious to abhorrent. In this sense, the darknet is no more dangerous than the rest of the internet. And darknet services do provide anonymity, privacy, freedom of expression and security, even in the face of a growing surveillance state.

The Conversation

The authors do not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organization that would benefit from this article, and have disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond the academic appointment above.

Source : http://siouxcityjournal.com/opinion/columnists/far-beyond-crime-ridden-depravity-darknets-are-key-strongholds-of/article_03394871-e577-510a-82b2-e23102e327d5.html

Categorized in Deep Web

In today’s data-rich world, companies, governments and individuals want to analyze anything and everything they can get their hands on – and the World Wide Web has loads of information. At present, the most easily indexed material from the web is text. But as much as 89 to 96 percent of the content on the internet is actually something else – images, video, audio, in all thousands of different kinds of nontextual data types.

Further, the vast majority of online content isn’t available in a form that’s easily indexed by electronic archiving systems like Google’s. Rather, it requires a user to log in, or it is provided dynamically by a program running when a user visits the page. If we’re going to catalog online human knowledge, we need to be sure we can get to and recognize all of it, and that we can do so automatically.

How can we teach computers to recognize, index and search all the different types of material that’s available online? Thanks to federal efforts in the global fight against human trafficking and weapons dealing, my research forms the basis for a new tool that can help with this effort.

Understanding what’s deep

The “deep web” and the “dark web” are often discussed in the context of scary news or films like “Deep Web,” in which young and intelligent criminals are getting away with illicit activities such as drug dealing and human trafficking – or even worse. But what do these terms mean?

The “deep web” has existed ever since businesses and organizations, including universities, put large databases online in ways people could not directly view. Rather than allowing anyone to get students’ phone numbers and email addresses, for example, many universities require people to log in as members of the campus community before searching online directories for contact information. Online services such as Dropbox and Gmail are publicly accessible and part of the World Wide Web – but indexing a user’s files and emails on these sites does require an individual login, which our project does not get involved with.

The “surface web” is the online world we can see – shopping sites, businesses’ information pages, news organizations and so on. The “deep web” is closely related, but less visible, to human users and – in some ways more importantly – to search engines exploring the web to catalog it. I tend to describe the “deep web” as those parts of the public internet that:

  1. Require a user to first fill out a login form,
  2. Involve dynamic content like AJAX or Javascript, or
  3. Present images, video and other information in ways that aren’t typically indexed properly by search services.

What’s dark?

The “dark web,” by contrast, are pages – some of which may also have “deep web” elements – that are hosted by web servers using the anonymous web protocol called Tor. Originally developed by U.S. Defense Department researchers to secure sensitive information, Tor was released into the public domain in 2004.

Like many secure systems such as the WhatsApp messaging app, its original purpose was for good, but has also been used by criminals hiding behind the system’s anonymity. Some people run Tor sites handling illicit activity, such as drug traffickingweapons and human trafficking and even murder for hire.

The U.S. government has been interested in trying to find ways to use modern information technology and computer science to combat these criminal activities. In 2014, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (more commonly known as DARPA), a part of the Defense Department, launched a program called Memex to fight human trafficking with these tools.

Specifically, Memex wanted to create a search index that would help law enforcement identify human trafficking operations online – in particular by mining the deep and dark web. One of the key systems used by the project’s teams of scholars, government workers and industry experts was one I helped develop, called Apache Tika.

The ‘digital Babel fish’

Tika is often referred to as the “digital Babel fish,” a play on a creature called the “Babel fish” in the “Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy” book series. Once inserted into a person’s ear, the Babel fish allowed her to understand any language spoken. Tika lets users understand any file and the information contained within it.

When Tika examines a file, it automatically identifies what kind of file it is – such as a photo, video or audio. It does this with a curated taxonomy of information about files: their name, their extension, a sort of “digital fingerprint. When it encounters a file whose name ends in ”.MP4,“ for example, Tika assumes it’s a video file stored in the MPEG-4 format. By directly analyzing the data in the file, Tika can confirm or refute that assumption – all video, audio, image and other files must begin with specific codes saying what format their data is stored in.

Once a file’s type is identified, Tika uses specific tools to extract its content such as Apache PDFBox for PDF files, or Tesseract for capturing text from images. In addition to content, other forensic information or "metadata” is captured including the file’s creation date, who edited it last, and what language the file is authored in.

From there, Tika uses advanced techniques like Named Entity Recognition (NER) to further analyze the text. NER identifies proper nouns and sentence structure, and then fits this information to databases of people, places and things, identifying not just whom the text is talking about, but where, and why they are doing it. This technique helped Tika to automatically identify offshore shell corporations (the things); where they were located; and who (people) was storing their money in them as part of the Panama Papers scandal that exposed financial corruption among global political, societal and technical leaders.

Tika extracting information from images of weapons curated from the deep and dark web. Stolen weapons are classified automatically for further follow-up.

Identifying illegal activity

Improvements to Tika during the Memex project made it even better at handling multimedia and other content found on the deep and dark web. Now Tika can process and identify images with common human trafficking themes. For example, it can automatically process and analyze text in images – a victim alias or an indication about how to contact them – and certain types of image properties – such as camera lighting. In some images and videos, Tika can identify the people, places and things that appear.

Additional software can help Tika find automatic weapons and identify a weapon’s serial number. That can help to track down whether it is stolen or not.

Employing Tika to monitor the deep and dark web continuously could help identify human- and weapons-trafficking situations shortly after the photos are posted online. That could stop a crime from occurring and save lives.

Memex is not yet powerful enough to handle all of the content that’s out there, nor to comprehensively assist law enforcement, contribute to humanitarian efforts to stop human trafficking and even interact with commercial search engines.

It will take more work, but we’re making it easier to achieve those goals. Tika and related software packages are part of an open source software library available on DARPA’s Open Catalog to anyone – in law enforcement, the intelligence community or the public at large – who wants to shine a light into the deep and the dark.

Author : Christian Mattmann

Source : http://theconversation.com/searching-deep-and-dark-building-a-google-for-the-less-visible-parts-of-the-web-58472

Categorized in Deep Web

As the world looks ahead to 2017, many astronomers and sky gazers are looking up, with a litany of space-related events and missions peppering the months ahead. We've chronicled a handful of the most exciting to circle on your calendar. Let's all hope for clear skies.

Comet 45P/HMP

Comet 45P/Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova

Comet 45P/Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova, discovered simultaneously in 1948 by Japanese astronomer Minoru Honda and Czechoslovakian astronomers Antonin Mrkos and Ludmila Pajdusakova, is a periodic comet that returns to the inner solar system every five years.While this is the same comet that put on a show to those with telescopes or strong binoculars on New Year's Eve 2016, the real time to catch this sungrazer is on its return trip back through the solar system. On Feb. 11, Comet 45P will make its closest approach to Earth, coming within 7.7 million miles and brightening to a predicted magnitude of +6. This is just on the edge of viewing with the naked eye. Look for it near the constellation Hercules just before dawn.

SpaceX's Falcon Heavy test

Sometime in the first half of 2017, SpaceX is expected to proceed with the inaugural launch of its Falcon Heavy rocket. Consisting of three Falcon 9 cores, this 27 engine rocket will (if successful) become the most powerful operational booster in the world. In addition to being able to lift more than 119,000 pounds into orbit, the Falcon Heavy is also expected to operate at one-third the cost of the next closest heavy booster.The launch of the Falcon Heavy will also hold special significance for the future of humanity's exploration of deep space, including a potential manned mission to Mars."Falcon Heavy was designed from the outset to carry humans into space and restores the possibility of flying missions with crew to the moon or Mars," the company states on its website.When SpaceX founder Elon Musk does announce the first launch date, you can bet it will quickly become one of the more nail-biting space-related events of 2017.

The Great American Eclipse

Total solar eclipse

On Aug. 21, the first total solar eclipse visible from the contiguous United States in more than three decades will dazzle from sea to shining sea. To see the moon fully pass in front of the sun, however, you'll need to be within a 75-mile wide band that stretches across the U.S. between Oregon and South Carolina. Those outside this special band will still witness quite a shot, as the sun takes on a crescent shape for between one to two minutes.The place to head to if you're really eager to embrace this event? Glendo, Wyoming. Never heard of it? That's not surprising, as the town is home to only 205 people. That population is expected to dramatically increase as Glendo's location is in the bulls-eye of the moon's shadow on Aug. 21. As a result, it will experience the totality of the solar eclipse for just under three minutes."Plan a trip to see this total solar eclipse," writes astronomer Dean Regas. "Call in sick to work. Play hooky from school. If you need an astronomer’s note, I can provide one. A total solar eclipse will be a sight you will never forget."

Saturn's rings on display

Saturn Cassini

For much of 2017, the planet Saturn will shine at its brightest since 2002. This is because its beautiful rings, which contribute greatly to its ability to be seen with the naked eye, will be "wide open," with Saturn's northern hemisphere tipped in our direction. In fact, the planet won't look this good again until at least 2030.The ringed planet will be at its brightest in the evening sky on June 15, when it makes its closest approach to Earth. A medium-sized or larger telescope will allow you to view Saturn's rings and a few of its brightest moons.

China's moon mission

Chang'e 5 lander

In the fall of 2017, China will launch its new Chang’e 5 lander on a mission to land on the moon and return 4.5 pounds of lunar samples back to Earth. If successful, it would mark the first time in more than 40 years that a sample from the moon has been made available for scientific study."We are ready. Every lab is ready," chief scientist Ouyang Ziyuan told reporters in October 2016. "Once the samples are back, we can begin our analysis right away."In addition to Chang’e 5, China is also planning a 2018 mission to make the first-ever soft-landing on the far side of the moon. The lander would include a 37-pound rover to explore the moon's surface and relay scientific data, pictures, and video back to China's mission control.

Geminid meteor shower

Campers take in the 2014 Geminids meteor shower.

While the Perseid meteor shower each August offers a fantastic opportunity to witness shooting stars, this year's event will unfortunately be washed out by a waning gibbous moon. Thankfully, with the holiday season in full swing, the Geminid meteor shower on Dec. 14 will pick up the slack. With the moon a waning crescent rising before dawn, the evening will be perfectly tuned to allow skygazers to spot as many as 100 meteors per hour.

Cassini crashes into Saturn

cassini spacecraft

On Sept. 17, the Cassini spacecraft in orbit around Saturn will make a dramatic death plunge into the planet. The maneuver, designed to prevent a future fuel-spent Cassini from crashing into (and potentially contaminating) two moons around Saturn thought to harbor life, will record unprecedented data on the ringed world."It’s inspiring, adventurous and romantic — a fitting end to this thrilling story of discovery," NASA writes.The dramatic finale will cap a mission by Cassini spanning more than 20 years in space. Discoveries, some of which we've profiled here, have included everything from landing a probe on the moon of Titan to spotting a giant hurricane spanning more than 1,200 miles in Saturn's atmosphere.

Source:  http://www.mnn.com/earth-matters/space/blogs/space-skywatching-events-2017

Categorized in Science & Tech

ON THE WEST coast of Australia, Amanda Hodgson is launching drones out towards the Indian Ocean so that they can photograph the water from above. The photos are a way of locating dugongs, or sea cows, in the bay near Perth—part of an effort to prevent the extinction of these endangered marine mammals. The trouble is that Hodgson and her team don’t have the time needed to examine all those aerial photos. There are too many of them—about 45,000—and spotting the dugongs is far too difficult for the untrained eye. So she’s giving the job to a deep neural network.

Neural networks are the machine learning models that identify faces in the photos posted to your Facebook news feed. They also recognize the questions you ask your Android phone, and they help run the Google search engine. Modeled loosely on the network of neurons in the human brain, these sweeping mathematical models learn all these things by analyzing vast troves of digital data. Now, Hodgson, a marine biologist at Murdoch University in Perth, is using this same technique to find dugongs in thousands of photos of open water, running her neural network on the same open-source software, TensorFlow, that underpins the machine learning services inside Google.

As Hodgson explains, detecting these sea cows is a task that requires a particular kind of pinpoint accuracy, mainly because these animals feed below the surface of the ocean. “They can look like whitecaps or glare on the water,” she says. But that neural network can now identify about 80 percent of dugongs spread across the bay.

The project is still in the early stages, but it hints at the widespread impact of deep learning over past year. In 2016, this very old but newly powerful technology helped a Google machine beat one of the world’s top players at the ancient game of Go—a feat that didn’t seem possible just a few months before. But that was merely the most conspicuous example. As the year comes to a close, deep learning isn’t a party trick. It’s not niche research. It’s remaking companies like Google, Facebook, Microsoft, and Amazon from the inside out, and it’s rapidly spreading to the rest of the world, thanks in large part to the open source software and cloud computing services offered by these giants of the internet.

The New Translation

In previous years, neural nets reinvented image recognition through apps like Google Photos, and they took speech recognition to new levels via digital assistants like Google Now and Microsoft Cortana. This year, they delivered the big leap in machine translation, the ability to automatically translate speech from one language to another. In September, Google rolled out a new service it calls Google Neural Machine Translation, which operates entirely through neural networks. According to the company, this new engine has reduced error rates between 55 and 85 percent when translating between certain languages.

Google trains these neural networks by feeding them massive collections of existing translations. Some of this training data is flawed, including lower quality translations from previous versions of the Google Translate app. But it also includes translations from human experts, and this buoys the quality of the training data as a whole. That ability to overcome imperfection is part of deep learning’s apparent magic: given enough data, even if some is flawed, it can train to a level well beyond those flaws.

Mike Schuster, a lead engineer on Google’s service, is happy to admit that his creation is far from perfect. But it still represents a breakthrough. Because the service runs entirely on deep learning, it’s easier for Google to continue improving the service. It can concentrate on refining the system as a whole, rather than juggling the many small parts that characterized machine translation services in the past.

Meanwhile, Microsoft is moving in the same direction. This month, it released a version of its Microsoft Translator app that can drive instant conversations between people speaking as many as nine different languages. This new system also runs almost entirely on neural nets, says Microsoft vice president Harry Shum, who oversees the company’s AI and research group. That’s important, because it means Microsoft’s machine translation is likely to improve more quickly as well.

The New Chat

In 2016, deep learning also worked its way into chatbots, most notably the new Google Allo. Released this fall, Allo will analyze the texts and photos you receive and instantly suggest potential replies. It’s based on an earlier Google technology called Smart Reply that does much the same with email messages. The technology works remarkably well, in large part because it respects the limitations of today’s machine learning techniques. The suggested replies are wonderfully brief, and the app always suggests more than one, because, well, today’s AI doesn’t always get things right.

Inside Allo, neural nets also help respond to the questions you ask of the Google search engine. They help the company’s search assistant understand what you’re asking, and they help formulate an answer. According to Google research product manager David Orr, the app’s ability to zero in on an answer wouldn’t be possible without deep learning. “You need to use neural networks—or at least that is the only way we have found to do it,” he says. “We have to use all of the most advanced technology we have.”

What neural nets can’t do is actually carry on a real conversation. That sort of chatbot is still a long way off, whatever tech CEOs have promised from their keynote stages. But researchers at Google, Facebook, and elsewhere are exploring deep learning techniques that help reach that lofty goal. The promise is that these efforts will provide the same sort of progress we’ve seen with speech recognition, image recognition, and machine translation. Conversation is the next frontier.

The New Data Center

This summer, after building an AI that cracked the game of Go, Demis Hassabis and his Google DeepMind lab revealed they had also built an AI that helps operate Google’s worldwide network of computer data centers. Using a technique called deep reinforcement learning, which underpins both their Go-playing machine and earlier DeepMind services that learned to master old Atari games, this AI decides when to turn on cooling fans inside the thousands of computer servers that fill these data centers, when to open the data center windows for additional cooling, and when to fall back on expensive air conditioners. All told, it controls over 120 functions inside each data center

As Bloomberg reported, this AI is so effective, it saves Google hundreds of millions of dollars. In other words, it pays for the cost of acquiring DeepMind, which Google bought for about $650 million in 2014. Now, Deepmind plans on installing additional sensors in these computing facilities, so it can collect additional data and train this AI to even higher levels.

The New Cloud

As they push this technology into their own products as services, the giants of the internet are also pushing it into the hands of others. At the end of 2015, Google open sourced TensorFlow, and over the past year, this once-proprietary software spread well beyond the company’s walls, all the way to people like Amanda Hodgson. At the same time, Google, Microsoft, and Amazon began offering their deep learning tech via cloud computing services that any coder or company can use to build their own apps. Artificial intelligence-as-a-service may wind up as the biggest business for all three of these online giants.

Over the last twelve months, this burgeoning market spurred another AI talent grab. Google hired Stanford professor Fei-Fei Li, one of the biggest names in the world of AI research, to oversee a new cloud computing group dedicated to AI, and Amazon nabbed Carnegie Mellon professor Alex Smolna to play much the same role inside its cloud empire. The big players are grabbing the world’s top AI talent as quickly as they can, leaving little for others. The good news is that this talent is working to share at least some of the resulting tech they develop with anyone who wants it.

As AI evolves, the role of the computer scientist is changing. Sure, the world still needs people who can code software. But increasingly, it also needs people who can train neural networks, a very different skill that’s more about coaxing a result from the data than building something on your own. Companies like Google and Facebook are not only hiring a new kind of talent, but also reeducating their existing employees for this new future—a future where AI will come to define technology in the lives of just about everyone.

Author:  CADE METZ

Source:  https://www.wired.com/2016/12/2016-year-deep-learning-took-internet

Categorized in Deep Web

airs logo

Association of Internet Research Specialists is the world's leading community for the Internet Research Specialist and provide a Unified Platform that delivers, Education, Training and Certification for Online Research.

Get Exclusive Research Tips in Your Inbox

Receive Great tips via email, enter your email to Subscribe.

Follow Us on Social Media