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[Source: This article was published in technadu.com By Sydney Butler - Uploaded by the Association Member: Dana W. Jimenez]

The Dark Web, as part of the Deep Web, is defined largely by the fact that search engines can’t index it. Yet, people need to find onion sites in order to use them and many onion sites would be pretty pointless if no one ever visited them.

Which brings us to the idea of Dark Web “search engines”. Is there such a thing? How do they work? It’s a little more complicated than simply making a “Google for the Dark Web”, but in this article, you’ll learn about some of the best “search engines”, right after we explain what the special meaning of that term is in this context.

What Are Dark Web Search Engines?

Many so-called Dark Web search engines are really just repositories of links. This is actually how early search engines on the internet worked. More like a giant phone book than a web crawler that indexed the contents of sites.

Then, of course, there are search engines on the Dark Web that search the surface web. In other words, they provide a super-secure way to search for things on the regular internet that you don’t want to be attached to your history or identity. So adjust your expectations a little of what it means for something on the Dark Web to be a search engine and feast your eyes on these excellent Dark Web destinations, in your search for hidden network content.

DuckDuckGo

DuckDuckGo

DuckDuckGo is easily accessible via the surface web, you just have to type its URL into any browser. It also offers an onion domain, which means that it counts as a Dark Web search engine, although it’s not really an engine that searches the Dark Web itself. You can search for onion links using this tool, but your mileage may vary.

What makes DuckDuckGo special is its ability to return relevant search results almost as good as those provided by Google. Yet, it does not need to store any information about you or your search history in order to do it. It’s one of the best privacy-focused search engines in existence and its presence on the Dark Web just adds another strong layer of security.

Torch

Torch

Torch is one of the oldest onion site indexes in existence. While no one knows for sure how much info is stored on the site, Torch itself claims that there are more than a million pages in its index. If something you’ve heard of exists on the Dark Web, Torch is probably your best chance of finding it.

The Onion URL Repository

Just as the name suggests, the Onion URL directory is another massive dump of onion sites with descriptions. More than a million sites by all accounts. That’s a lot of possible destinations to sift through, although no one knows how much of it overlaps with a site like Torch and how much is unique to this repository. Unfortunately, we weren’t actually able to find a working link to this one at the time of writing.

notEvil

notEvil

notEvil is the closest thing to a Google experience you may get on the Dark Web. The design of the site and how it appears to work is very reminiscent of the search giant. The name of this search tool is also a direct reference to Google since the company once had the motto “don’t be evil”, although that has been quietly retired.

notEvil provides some of the most relevant results and is probably the best “proper” search engine on the Dark Web.

Ahmia.fi

Ahmia.fi

OK, Ahmia is something a little different to the other sites listed here. Instead of being a search engine that resides on the Dark Web, this is actually an engine that searches the Tor Hidden Services network from the surface web. It also has an onion service and to actually visit any of the sites listed you’ll need Tor, but it’s pretty awesome that you can look for onion sites from any computer, not just one that has access to Tor.

Candle

Candle

Candle is a fairly new project that was first announced on r/onions/ three years ago. It’s a hobby project from the creator, trying to make a Google-like search engine for Tor. So Candle has actually been indexing onion sites and when it was announced there were already more than 100,000 pages.

Categorized in Deep Web

[Source: This article was Published in mashable.com BY KARISSA BELL - Uploaded by the Association Member: Deborah Tannen]

Here's something you might want to think about next time you check your email: chances are, at least some of your messages are being tracked.

From how many times you open a message, the time of day, and even what city you're in, the very act of reading an email can send a surprising amount of data back to the sender, even if you never respond. 

That unsettling fact was recently thrust back into the spotlight thanks to a much-hyped email startup called Superhuman. The $30/month invite-only email software beloved by Silicon Valley VCs and "inbox zero" adherents are so hyped, there's currently a waiting list more than 180,000 people long, according to The New York Times.

Then Mike Davidson, a VP at design platform Invision, pointed out that the email app had originally enabled its users to track who is opening their emails by default. The feature, which Superhuman dubbed "read receipts," allows message senders to see exactly when their messages are opened, what kind of device recipients are using, and where they are. And unlike, say, iMessage read receipts, which are opt-in, Superhuman's feature is enabled by default.

Davidson, who was previously VP of design at Twitter, penned a lengthy critique of Superhuman's "spying" on his personal blog, saying Superhuman "has mistaken taking advantage of people for good design." 

In response to criticism from Davidson and others, Superhuman CEO Rahul Vohra said the company would update its software so “read receipts” would no longer be enabled by default and location information would be removed. 

But the fact is, Superhuman is far from from the only company quietly surveilling your email habits. Though it's relatively unheard of for an email platform to offer this level of tracking by default, it's astonishingly easy to embed tracking software into emails.

What is pixel tracking?

Most email-tracking programs use something called pixel tracking. Here's how email marketing company SendGrid explains its version of the feature:

Open Tracking adds an invisible, one pixel image at the end of the email which can track email opens. If the email recipient has images enabled on their email client and a request to SendGrid’s server for the invisible image is executed, then an open event is logged.

So when one of these "invisible" images is added into an email, the person who sent it is able to keep track of how often you open the message. It's also common to track whether or not you click on any links in the email. 

Marketers love these kinds of tools for obvious reasons, but there are a ton of similar tools out there that anyone can start using. But just because it's commonplace doesn't make it any less creepy or less of a massive privacy invasion. 

And while you might expect these tactics from email marketers, there's something even more troubling when you consider the implications of people using these in their personal lives. As Davidson outlines in his blog post, email tracking could in some cases pose a safety risk to people who don't realize they are being tracked just by opening their inbox.

Luckily, there are a few ways to block this type of tracking without ignoring your emails entirely.

Image blocking is your friend

One of the most straightforward ways to prevent email tracking software from working is to block images from displaying by default. This is a setting you can enable in just about every email service., though you should note that it means loading images in your email will require an extra click.

Prevent images from automatically loading in Gmail.

In Gmail, click on the settings gear to open up your email preferences. From the "general" tab, scroll down to images and check the box that says "Ask before displaying external images." Scroll down to the bottom of the page and click "save changes."

If you use a non-Gmail email provider, you should be able to find a similar setting. Just look for something that says something like "ask before displaying external images." 

It's also important to note that if you use a third-party email client like Outlook or Apple's Mail app to check your email, you'll need to enable this setting in that email app as well. Again, you can typically do this in the app's settings. 

How to block external images in Apple's Mail app.

In Apple's Mail app for iOS, you can disable images by going to the main Settings app, selecting "Mail," and scrolling down to "load remote images." (Instructions for disabling images in the MacOS Mail app can be found here.)

Track the trackers

If fiddling with your email settings is too inconvenient, or you're extra curious about who might be keeping tabs on how often you're reading your emails, there's another option available as well. There are a number of browser extensions that will also block the tracking pixels while alerting you to which emails contain trackers. 

PixelBlock is a simple Chrome extension that blocks images from loading and displays a red eye at the top of messages when it detects a tracker.

Similarly, Trocker, which is available for Chrome and Firefox, will show you pixel trackers and identify links that are being tracked. 

And Chrome extension Ugly Email, alerts you to the presence of possible trackers in your inbox before you even open a message. 

Even with extensions, some trackers may still be able to slip through, but they tend to be pretty adept at identifying the most obvious offenders. Using these is also a pretty eye-opening look at just how commonplace email tracking is:

Categorized in Internet Privacy

[This article is originally published in cointelegraph.com written by Connor Blenkinsop - Uploaded by AIRS Member: Deborah Tannen]

cryptocurrency exchange says it is prioritizing the privacy of its users — eliminating the “tedious” registration steps imposed by other websites.

BitConvert argues that some rival platforms ask for too many personal details when they are bringing new users on board and says this can make consumers uncomfortable when they are in pursuit of absolute anonymity.

The company also claims such excessive registration procedures actively undermine the purpose of coins that were designed to deliver privacy.

According to BitConvert, its users have the ability to “instantly exchange coins” without being required to register an account with the website. At present, it supports the exchange of Bitcoin and ZCash (ZEC).

ZCash — which, at the time of writing, is the 22nd-largest cryptocurrency in terms of market capitalization, according to CoinMarketCap — describes itself as a “privacy protecting digital currency built on strong science.” The coin’s founders say that its infrastructure ensures personal details remain completely confidential — all without compromising transaction data being posted to a public blockchain. “Selective disclosure features” also enable consumers to share transaction details for audit or compliance purposes.

BitConvert says that it plans to support more cryptocurrencies in the not-too-distant future, all while remaining loyal to its mantra of “anonymous, fast, safe.” Ethereum — along with Monero, another coin that places an emphasis on privacy — are specifically named as two coins that are in the pipeline.

Quick transactions

The privacy-led exchange says that most transactions can be fully completed and confirmed within an hour — and in many cases, execution times can be as little as five to 30 minutes. While two block confirmations are required for Bitcoin, a total of five are needed for ZCash.

BitConvert stresses that its rationale behind eliminating the need for creating a user account is to “fully protect privacy” — and to this end, no personal information is collected when a transaction is taking place, including IP addresses. The company says that it promises these features will not change “so long as our platform is operating,” in an attempt to build trust among users. Data such as the transaction hash, address and amount are kept on record — but this is only to ensure that support can be provided to the consumer in the event there is a complication with a payment.

The company says it hopes to blend anonymity with simplicity. It monitors the best rates for Bitcoin and ZCash on a plethora of other platforms, such as Binance and Bitfinex, to ensure its users get the best deal.

Given how BitConvert users do not have their own account, the platform says it has taken a strong stance on security — making sure that its services are protected using strong security protocols, while also striking partnerships with dependable trading platforms.

Send and go

BitConvert sets out the procedure for using its exchange in three simple steps. Firstly, users select the crypto trading pair they wish to use (at present, it is limited to Bitcoin and ZCash). From here, they set out how much crypto they wish to convert along with their wallet address. Finally, the user can send their funds to BitConvert and complete the exchange. When it comes to the destination for converted coins, the company recommends its clients “only use trusted services in order to avoid losing their funds.”

Privacy has long been a buzzword in the crypto world — and contrary to popular belief, Bitcoin does not necessarily offer its users the anonymity they might expect. Instead, the leading cryptocurrency delivers something known as “pseudonymity,” meaning that consumers only have the opportunity to obfuscate their real identities rather than hide them altogether.

Categorized in Internet Privacy

[This article is originally published in fastcompany.com written by KATHARINE SCHWAB - Uploaded by AIRS Member: Wushe Zhiyang]

You’re probably sick of hearing about data and privacy by now–especially because, if you live in the United States, you might feel like there’s very little you can do to protect yourself from giant corporations feeding off your time, interests, and personal information.

So how do you walk the line between taking advantage of the internet’s many benefits while protecting yourself from the corporate interests that aim to use your data for gain? This is the push-and-pull I’ve had with myself over the past year, as I’ve grappled with the revelations that Cambridge Analytica has the personal data of more than 50 million Americans, courtesy of Facebook, and used it to manipulate people in the 2016 elections. I’ve watched companies shut down their European branches because Europe’s data privacy regulations invalidate their business models. And given the number of data breaches that have occurred over the past decade, there’s a good chance that malicious hackers have my info–and if they don’t, it’s only a matter of time.

Mozilla

While the amount of data about me may not have caused harm in my life yet–as far as I know–I don’t want to be the victim of monopolistic internet oligarchs as they continue to cash in on surveillance-based business models. What’s a concerned citizen of the internet to do? Here’s one no-brainer: Stop using Chrome and switch to Firefox.

Google already runs a lot of my online life–it’s my email, my calendar, my go-to map, and all my documents. I use Duck Duck Go as my primary search engine because I’m aware of how much information about myself I voluntarily give to Google in so many other ways. I can’t even remember why I decided to use Chrome in the first place. The browser has become such a default for American internet users that I never even questioned it. Chrome has about 60% of the browser market, and Firefox has only 10%. But why should I continue to use the company’s browser, which acts as literally the window through which I experience much of the internet, when its incentives–to learn a lot about me so it can sell advertisements–don’t align with mine?

Firefox launched in 2004. It’s not a new option among internet privacy wonks. But I only remembered it existed recently while reporting on data privacy. Unlike Chrome, Firefox is run by Mozilla, a nonprofit organization that advocates for a “healthy” internet. Its mission is to help build an internet in an open-source manner that’s accessible to everyone–and where privacy and security are built in. Contrast that to Chrome’s privacy policy, which states that it stores your browsing data locally unless you are signed in to your Google account, which enables the browser to send that information back to Google. The policy also states that Chrome allows third-party websites to access your IP address and any information that the site has tracked using cookies. If you care about privacy at all, you should ditch the browser that supports a company using data to sell advertisements and enabling other companies to track your online movements for one that does not use your data at all.

Though Mozilla itself is a nonprofit, Firefox is developed within a corporation owned by the nonprofit. This enables the Mozilla Corporation to collect revenue to support its development of Firefox and other internet services. Ironically, Mozilla supports its developers using revenue from Google, which pays the nonprofit to have Google Search as Firefox’s default search engine. That’s not its sole revenue: Mozilla also has other agreements with search engines around the world, like Baidu in China, to be the default search engine in particular locations. But because it relies on these agreements rather than gathering user data so it can sell advertisements, the Mozilla Corporation has a fundamentally different business model than Google. Internet service providers pay Mozilla, rather than Mozilla having to create revenue out of its user base. It’s more of a subscription model than a surveillance model, and users always have the choice to change their search engine to whichever they prefer.

I spoke to Madhava Enros, the senior director of Firefox UX, and Peter Dolanjski, a product manager for Firefox, to learn more about how Mozilla’s browser builds privacy into its architecture. Core to their philosophy? Privacy and convenience don’t have to be mutually exclusive.

Instead, Firefox’s designers and developers try to make the best decision on behalf of the user, while always leaning toward privacy first. “We put the user first in terms of privacy,” Dolanjski says. “We do not collect personally identifiable data, not what you do or what websites you go to.”

That’s not just lip service like it often is when companies like Facebook claim that users are in control of their data. For instance, Firefox protects you from being tracked by advertising networks across websites, which has the lovely side effect of making sites load faster. “As you move from website to website, advertising networks essentially follow you so they can see what you’re doing so they can serve you targeted advertisements,” Dolanjski says. “Firefox is the only [major] browser out of the box that prevents that from happening.” The browser’s Tracking Protection feature automatically blocks a list of common trackers in private browsing mode and can be enabled to run all the time, something you need a specific, third-party browser extension to do on Chrome.

The “out of the box” element of Firefox’s privacy protection is crucial. Chrome does give you many privacy controls, but the default for most of them is to allow Google to collect the greatest amount of information about you as possible. For instance, Google Chrome gives users the option to tell every website you go to not to track you, but it’s not automatically turned on. Firefox offers the same function to add a “Do Not Track” tag to every site you visit–but when I downloaded the browser, the default was set to “always.”

Firefoxs privacy protection

Because Chrome settings that don’t encourage privacy are the default, users are encouraged to leave them as they are from the get-go, and likely don’t understand what data Google vacuums up. Even if you do care, reading through Google Chrome’s 13,500-word privacy white paper, which uses a lot of technical jargon and obfuscates exactly what data the browser is tracking, isn’t helpful either. When I reached out to Google with questions about what data Chrome tracks, the company sent me that white paper but didn’t answer any of my specific questions.

One downside to using Firefox is that many browser extensions are built primarily for Chrome–my password manager luckily has a Firefox extension but it often causes the browser to crash. However, Mozilla also builds extensions you can use exclusively on Firefox. After the Facebook and Cambridge Analytica firestorm, Firefox released an extension called the Facebook Container, which allows you to browse Facebook or Instagram normally, but prevents Facebook from tracking where you went when you left the site–and thus stops the company from tracking you around the web and using that information to build out a more robust personal profile of you.

Mozilla Firefox released an extension called the Facebook Container

Firefox isn’t even Mozilla’s most private browser. The nonprofit also has a mobile-only browser called Firefox Focus that basically turns Firefox’s private browsing mode (akin to incognito browsing on Chrome, but with much less data leakage) into a full-fledged browser on its own. Privacy is built right into Focus’s UX: There’s a large “erase” button on every screen that lets you delete all of your histories with a single tap.

Firefox’s private browsing mode also has a feature called “origin referrer trimming,” where the browser automatically deletes the information about which site you’re coming from when you land on the next page. Focus also blocks any analytics services that would take this information. “The user doesn’t need to think about that,” Dolanjski says. “It’s not heavily advertised, but it’s the little decisions we make along the way that meant the user doesn’t have to make the choice”–or even know what origin referrer trimming is in the first place.

Firefoxs private browsing mode

Many of these decisions, both in Firefox and in Focus, are to guard against what Enros calls the “uncanny valley” of internet browsing–when ads follow you around the internet for weeks. “I buy a toaster, and now it feels like the internet has decided I’m a toaster enthusiast and I want to hear about toasters for the rest of my life,” he says. “It’s not a scary thing. I’m not scared of toasters, but it’s in an uncanny valley in which I wonder what kinds of decisions they’re making about me.”

Ultimately, Firefox’s designers have the leeway to make these privacy-first decisions because Mozilla’s motivations are fundamentally different from Google’s. Mozilla is a nonprofit with a mission, and Google is a for-profit corporation with an advertising-based business model. To a large degree, Google’s business model relies on users giving up their data, making it incompatible with the kind of internet that Firefox is mission-bound to build. It comes back to money: While Firefox and Chrome ultimately perform the same service, the browsers’ developers approached their design in a radically different way because one organization has to serve a bottom line, and the other doesn’t.

That also means Firefox’s mission is aligned with its users. The browser is explicitly designed to help people like me navigate the convenience versus privacy conundrum. “To a great degree, people like us need solutions that aren’t going to detrimentally impact our convenience. This is where privacy is often difficult online,” Dolanjski says. “People say, go install this VPN, do this and do that, and add all these layers of complexity. The average user or even tech-savvy user that doesn’t have the time to do all these things will choose convenience over privacy. We try to make meaningful decisions on behalf of the user so we don’t need to put something else in front of them.”

When GDPR, the most sweeping privacy law in recent years, went into effect last week, we saw firsthand how much work companies were requiring users to do–just think of all those opt-in emails. Those emails are certainly a step toward raising people’s awareness about privacy, but I deleted almost all of them without reading them, and you probably did, too. Mozilla’s approach is to make the best decision for users’ privacy in the first place, without requiring so much effort on the users’ part.

Because who really spends any time in their privacy settings? Settings pages aren’t a good UX solution to providing clear information about how data is used, which is now required in Europe because of GDPR. “Control can’t mean the responsibility to scrutinize every possible option to keep yourself safe,” Enros says. “We assume a position to keep you safe, and then introducing more controls for experts.”

Firefox doesn’t always work better than Chrome–sometimes it’ll freeze on my older work computer, and I do need to clear my history more frequently so the browser doesn’t get too slow. But these are easy trade-offs to make, knowing that by using Firefox, my data is safe with me.

Categorized in Internet Privacy

[This article is originally published in help123.sg - Uploaded by AIRS Member: Dorothy Allen]

The internet is full of websites that are fake or fraudulent, and we understand that it can be challenging to determine if a website is credible. Here are some tips you can use to find out if a website is legitimate:

1) Ensure that the contact information is valid

Credible websites provide updated and accurate contact information. Legitimate companies will always list ways you can get in touch with them. Always validate the contact information provided if you are unsure of its credibility.

2) Look out for spelling or grammatical mistakes

Spelling mistakes and grammatical inconsistencies in a website is an indication that the site may not be credible. Legitimate companies or website owners take effort to present information in a clear and error-free manner.

3) Double-check the web address to make sure it is the original

The website address bar contains vital information about where you are on the internet and how secure the page is. Paying attention to these details can minimize the risk of falling into a phishing scam or any other form of scams which hackers or cybercriminals have created to dupe web users.

Many fraudulent websites use domain names that reference well-known brands to trick unknowing users into providing sensitive personal information. It is good to always practice caution when visiting websites to make sure it is the official website you are visiting.

4) Ensure that the website is secure

Another piece of vital information that can be picked up from the website address bar is the website's connection security indicator. A secure website is indicated by the use of "HTTPS" instead of "HTTP", which means that the website's connection is secure and any information exchanged between you and the website is encrypted and safe.

5) Is the offer too good to be true?

Fraudulent and scam websites use low prices or deals that are too good to be true to lure internet users or shoppers to purchase fake, counterfeit, or even non-existent products. If you encounter a website which offers prices that sounds too good to be true, be suspicious about it. Always ensure that the website is legitimate before making any purchase!

Categorized in Internet Privacy

Source: This article was usa.kaspersky.com - Contributed by Member: Barbara Larson

Even though computers have become a constant feature of modern life, many people still don't realize the enormous risks that come from constant interaction with technology. 

Computer viruses are one of the oldest forms of malware — in other words, malicious software designed to do harm — but their ability to avoid detection and replicate themselves means that these programs will always be cause for worry. Understanding just what a virus can do to your computer is the first step to securing your system and protecting your family from attack.

A Computer Virus' Potential

The only real qualification for a piece of software to be labeled a "virus" is that the program has the ability to replicate itself onto other machines. This means that not all viruses pose a direct threat to your computer, but often even latent viruses will allow cyberthieves and hackers to install more damaging programs like worms and Trojans. 
Regardless of the intention of the computer virus, the program will take up some system resources while it runs. This slows down your system, even bringing your computer to an abrupt halt if the virus hogs enough resources or if there are many viruses running at the same time.

More often, the computer virus has some kind of malicious intent, either written into the virus itself or from the other pieces of malware that the virus installs. This software can take a number of harmful actions, like opening up a back door to the computer where hackers can take control of the system, or stealing confidential personal information like online banking credentials or credit card numbers. It could also direct your Web browser to unwanted, often pornographic, sites, or even lock the computer down and ask for a ransom to open it back up again. In the most severe cases, viruses can corrupt important computer files, rendering the system useless. Windows OS products are often targets of these types of vulnerabilities so be sure you're secure whether you are running the newest OS , XP, or Windows 8 - security is essential.

How to be a Savvy Computer-User

So with all the damage that a virus can do, you're sure to wonder how you can protect yourself and your family from these threats. The first step is the most obvious, and it all comes down to using your computer in a smart way. 
Ensure all your programs have the latest version of antivirus software installed. This is especially true for things like your operating system, security software and Web browser, but also holds true for just about any program that you frequently use. Viruses often take advantages of bugs or exploits in the code of these programs to propagate to new machines, and while the companies that make the programs are usually quick to fix the holes, those fixes only work if they have been downloaded to your computer. 


It's also important to avoid taking actions that could put your computer at risk. These include opening unsolicited email attachments, visiting unknown websites or downloading software from untrustworthy websites or peer-to-peer file transfer networks. To ensure that the entire family understands the risks, these procedures should be taught to everyone, and children should have their Internet use monitored to ensure they aren't visiting suspect websites or downloading random programs or files.

How to Install Virus Prevention and Detection Software

The next important step in protecting your computer and your family is to install trusted computer security software that can actively scan your system and provide virus protection. You should be warned, however, that not all security solutions are the same. 
Free antivirus software abounds on the Internet, but much of it isn't robust enough to offer complete protection or updated frequently enough to be of much use. Horrifyingly, some of this free software doesn't do anything at all and instead installs viruses, adware, spyware or Trojans when you try to download and install the program. 
If the price is a factor, the best option is to find a competitively priced Internet security solution that offers a free antivirus trial, so that you can see the software in action, and how your computer responds after being cleaned, before you make a purchasing decision. 
The hardest part about all of this is that while each day many threats are neutralized, more are then created in their place. This means that as long as there's an Internet, computer viruses will continue to be a problem. Ignoring the issue or thinking that it won't affect you is a sure way to get your computer compromised, and put your family's information or peace of mind at risk.

Categorized in Internet Privacy

Source: This article was published lawjournalnewsletters.com By JONATHAN BICK - Contributed by Member: Barbara Larson

Internet professional responsibility and client privacy difficulties are intimately associated with the services offered by lawyers. Electronic attorney services result in data gathering, information exchange, document transfers, enhanced communications and novel opportunities for marketing and promotion. These services, in turn, provide an array of complicated ethical issues that can present pitfalls for the uninitiated and unwary.

Since the Internet interpenetrates every aspect of the law, Internet activity can result in a grievance filed against attorneys for professional and ethical misconduct when such use results in communication failure, conflicts of interest, misrepresentation, fraud, dishonesty, missed deadlines or court appearances, advertising violations, improper billing, and funds misuse. While specific Internet privacy violation rules and regulations are rarely applied to attorney transactions, attorneys are regularly implicated in unfair and deceptive trade practices and industry-specific violations which are often interspersed with privacy violation facts.

Attorneys have a professional-responsibility duty to use the Internet, and it is that professional responsibility which results in difficulties for doing so. More specifically, the Model Rules of Professional Conduct Rule 1.1 (competence) paragraph 8 (maintenance) has been interpreted to require the use of the Internet, and Rules 7.1 – 7.5 (communications, advertising and soliciting) specifically charge attorneys with malfeasance for using the Internet improperly.

Internet professional conduct standards and model rules/commentary cross the full range of Internet-related concerns, including expert self-identification and specialty description; the correct way to structure Internet personal profiles; social media privacy settings; the importance and use of disclaimers; what constitutes “communication”; and the establishment of an attorney-client relationship. Additionally, ethics rules address “liking,” “friending” and “tagging” practices.

The application of codes of professional conduct is faced with a two-fold difficulty. First, what is the nature of the attorney Internet activity? Is the activity of publishing, broadcasting or telecommunications? Determining the nature of the attorney Internet activity is important because different privacy and ethic cannons apply. Additionally, the determination of the nature of the attorney activity allows practitioners to apply analogies. For example, guidance with respect to attorney Internet-advertising professional conduct is likely to be judged by the same standards as traditional attorney advertising.

The second difficulty is the location where activity occurs. Jurisdictions have enacted contrary laws and professional-responsibility duties.

Options for protecting client privacy and promoting professional responsibility include technical, business and legal options. Consider the following specific legal transactions.

A lawyer seeking to use the Internet to attract new clients across multiple jurisdictions frequently is confronted with inconsistent rules and regulations. A number of jurisdictions have taken the position that Internet communications are a form of advertising and thus subject to a particular state bar’s ethical restrictions. Such restrictions related to Internet content include banning testimonials; prohibitions on self-laudatory statements; disclaimers; and labeling the materials presented as advertising.

Other restrictions relate to content processing, such as requiring that advance copies of any advertising materials be submitted for review by designated bar entities prior to dissemination, and requiring that attorneys keep a copy of their website and any changes made to it for three years, along with a record of when and where the website was used. Still, other restrictions relate to distribution techniques, such as unsolicited commercial emailing (spam). Spam is considered by some states as overreaching, on the same grounds as ethical bans on in-person or telephone solicitation.

To overcome these difficulties and thus permit the responsible use of the Internet for attorney marketing, both technical and business solutions are available. The technical solution employs selectively serving advertisements to appropriate locations. For this solution, the software can be deployed to detect the origin of an Internet transaction. This software will serve up advertising based on the location of the recipient. Thus, attorneys can ameliorate or eliminate the difficulties associated with advertising and marketing restrictions without applying the most restrictive rule to every state.

Alternatively, a business solution may be used. Such a business solution would apply the most restrictive rules of each state to every Internet advertising and marketing communication.

Another legal difficulty associated with attorney Internet advertising and marketing is the unauthorized practice of law. All states have statutes or ethical rules that make it unlawful for persons to hold themselves out as attorneys or to provide legal services unless admitted and licensed to practice in that jurisdiction.

There are no reported decisions on this issue, but a handful of ethics opinions and court decisions take a restrictive view of unauthorized practice issues. For example, the court in Birbower, Montalbano, Condon & Frank v. Superior, 949 P.2d 1(1998), relied on unauthorized practice concerns in refusing to honor a fee agreement between a New York law firm and a California client for legal services provided in California, because the New York firm did not retain local counsel and its attorneys were not admitted in California.

The software can detect the origin of an Internet transaction. Thus, attorneys can ameliorate or eliminate the unauthorized practice of law by identifying the location of a potential client and only interacting with potential clients located in the state where an attorney is authorized to practice. Alternatively, an attorney could use a net nanny to prevent communications with potential clients located in the state where the attorney is not authorized to practice.

Preserving clients’ confidences is of critical importance in all aspects of an attorney’s practice. An attorney using the Internet to communicate with a client must consider the confidentiality of such communications. Using the Internet to communicate with clients on confidential matters raises a number of issues, including whether such communications: might violate the obligation to maintain client confidentiality; result in a waiver of the attorney-client privilege if intercepted by an unauthorized party; and create possible malpractice liability.

Both legal and technological solutions are available. First, memorializing informed consent is a legal solution.

Some recent ethics opinions suggest a need for caution. Iowa Opinion 96-1 states that before sending client-sensitive information over the Internet, a lawyer should either encrypt the information or obtain the client’s written acknowledgment of the risks of using this method of communication.

Substantial compliance may be a technological solution because the changing nature of Internet difficulties makes complete compliance unfeasible. Some attorneys have adopted internal measures to protect electronic client communications, including asking clients to consider alternative technologies; encrypting messages to increase security; obtaining written client authorization to use the Internet and acknowledgment of the possible risks in so doing, and exercising independent judgment about communications too sensitive to share using the Internet. While the use of such technology is not foolproof, if said use is demonstrably more significant than what is customary, judges and juries have found such efforts to be sufficient.

Finally, both legal and business options are available to surmount Internet-related client conflicts. Because of the business development potential of chat rooms, bulletin boards, and other electronic opportunities for client contact, many attorneys see the Internet as a powerful client development tool. What some fail to recognize, however, is that the very opportunity to attract new clients may be a source of unintended conflicts of interest.

Take, for example, one of the most common uses of Internet chat rooms: a request seeking advice from attorneys experienced in dealing with a particular legal problem. Attorneys have been known to prepare elaborate and highly detailed responses to such inquiries. Depending on the level and nature of the information received and the advice provided, however, attorneys may be dismayed to discover that they have inadvertently created an attorney-client relationship with the requesting party. At a minimum, given the anonymous nature of many such inquiries, they may face the embarrassment and potential client relations problem of taking a public position or providing advice contrary to the interests of an existing firm client.

An acceptable legal solution is the application of disclaimers and consents. Some operators of electronic bulletin boards and online discussion groups have tried to minimize the client conflict potential by providing disclaimers or including as part of the subscription agreement the acknowledgment that any participation in online discussions does not create an attorney-client relationship.

Alternatively, the use of limited answers would be a business solution. The Arizona State Bar recently cautioned that lawyers probably should not answer specific questions posed in chat rooms or newsgroups because of the inability to screen for potential conflicts with existing clients and the danger of disclosing confidential information.

Because the consequences of finding an attorney-client relationship are severe and may result in disqualification from representing other clients, the prudent lawyer should carefully scrutinize the nature and extent of any participation in online chat rooms and similar venues.

Categorized in Internet Ethics

Source: This article was published insights.speakwithageek.com - Contributed by Member: Deborah Tannen

What Is Micro-VPN?

Micro-VPNs are the smaller quantum of VPNs, at the level of an application or collection of applications. These are known as trusted applications; each of these trusted applications has a token that is authenticated before the tunnel is opened for the user utilizing a Micro VPN.

VPN And Security Concerns

In today's IT world, many workers often use their personal devices to get their work completed. This turns out to be a time-saving process for employees and company. Even though these devices help them, there are critical security concerns that arise with using your own device.

An old-style VPN approach is the most commonly used remote connectivity among organizations, to check emails and documents by an employee. The VPN tunnel that is established is device-wide, and once they are connected, any application on the personal device can navigate this tunnel, and get access to corporate resources. This means that if the employee’s device is infected with malware or malignant applications, these can potentially gain access to the tunnel. The above said security downside can be avoided, through the use of micro-VPNs, which are specific to an application instead of a device.

Security Advantages

The following are the certain advantages of using micro-VPN:

  • Takes virtual private network client from the device to the application and authenticates the user.
  • Provides access to specific corporate content without having to do a full-scale VPN on the device.
  • Acts as a security wrapper for the mobile device around an enterprise application by providing a token for successful VPN tunnel.
  • Administers mobile control policies on the application that connects to the corporate network.
  • The micro-VPN application and the corporate network can see one another; however, remaining of the device is not opened to/accessible by the client network. In addition, the user cannot access company resources from the non-enterprise application.

Citrix Solutions

Citrix XenMobile’ product, NetScaler Gateway, is based on the idea of micro-VPNs through logical VPN tunnels. NetScaler Gateway helps in creating different TCP sessions for different applications automatically.

Currently, micro-VPNs are one of the trustworthy solutions that can be deployed by the IT departments on employee’s devices to avoid exposure to unknown elements.

Find out today why you may need a VPN with help choosing the right VPN Provider.

Categorized in Internet Privacy

A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is one of the most effective and cheapest ways of protecting communications, as well as identity, on the internet. A VPN will effectively hide all the details of communications from being visible to anyone.

After connecting to the VPN, the only information visible to others is that a user is connected to a VPN server and nothing else. All other information, such as your IP address and sites you visited, is encrypted by the VPN’s security protocols. Not only this but VPNs also protect your data and communications.

VPNs are becoming increasingly popular. From the simplest to the most user-friendly and most functional, VPNs can save you from a world of troubles and help internet users to browse the internet without being tracked. It can also unlock many doors to give you access to geo-restricted content.

And that is exactly why I thought it’s high time to write about the best VPNs for complete internet security and privacy. So, without any further ado, here is a list of top 10 VPNs:

1. Ivacy

ivacy vpn

Ivacy gives you everything you want in a VPN and more - advanced data encryption for that added layer of online security and privacy, optimized servers for quicker download and buffer-free streaming!

With more than 200 optimized servers in 50+ countries, it gives you unrestricted access to geo-locked content anywhere in the world. It also boasts compatibility with a wide range of devices and operating systems and often gets cited as the best VPN, especially for Kodi by users across the globe.

It also has a whole arsenal of user-friendly features like internet kill switch, multi-login, split-tunneling and much more. At roughly half the price of any other industry-leading VPN for its recent 1+1 year plan, Ivacy isn’t just a good deal, it’s literally a steal!

2. Private Internet Access

IPVanish Logo

When concerned about your online security and privacy, IPVanish is often the first name that a lot of internet users around the world recall. Besides giving you foolproof security, this VPN also gives you unrestricted access to geo-restricted, region-locked or censored content anywhere in the world. It’s fast too, making streaming a positively buffer-free experience.

What ranks IPVanish as one of the leading VPNs in the world is its immaculate service and outstanding features which give you little (if at all) to complain about. Add the typical functional benefits with a ton of user-friendly features and you have your knight in shining armor prepared to protect you from all evil.

3. PureVPN

purevpn

This brand has established a strong and loyal clientele of customers by delivering outstanding service quality over the years. It gives advanced online protection and has a strict zero log policy on customer data.

It has nearly 800 servers that are spread across 141 countries and give you instant access to your favorite content from anywhere in the world with unlimited server-switching. It does not have a free trial but does offer a three-day VPN trial.

It is one of the few VPNs to actually have a browser plug-in for Chrome and Firefox. Although the service is impressive, it isn’t the first choice for people who want the best value for less money.

4. ExpressVPN

express VPN logo

ExpressVPN has a wide server spread with optimized servers located in more than 145 cities in 94 countries. This gives its users instant access to content from anywhere in the world.

Like many other industry-leading VPNs, Express is also known to provide unbreakable security with its advanced encryption protocols that make online threats like hacking and surveillance virtually impossible. Express is often cited as one of the leading VPNs for Netflix streaming. However, given that all leading VPN brands offer the same array of features for all subscription plans, Express may seem a bit on the higher side.

5. Private Internet Access

PIA VPN logo

A lot of internet users prefer Private Internet Access (PIA) because of its multi-gigabit VPN tunnel gateways. PIA is fast and reliable, offering impressive online security and privacy with equally impressive connection speed. So you get quick access to any content anywhere in the world at the click of a button.

It also happens to be one of the few VPNs that is modestly priced at below $40 ($39.95) for the yearly subscription plan.

6. NordVPN

NordVPN logo

Nord is a trusted name in cybersecurity and has been around for quite some time. With servers spread across the globe, Nord gives you instant access to your favorite content from all around the world. So accessing region-locked content is not something you should worry about if you have Nord VPN.

Often praised for its zero-logs policy, Nord is relatively cheap compared to other industry-leading VPNs like Express but its features and service are competitive, giving it an edge among many other brands.

7. VyprVPN

Vypr VPN

Besides boasting impressive speed as well as security, VyprVPN boasts an array of extra features that are packed into a highly intuitive and user-friendly app.

No matter which subscription plan you opt for, Vypr will give you the whole package with features like multi-login, unlimited server switching, and split tunneling. With more than 700 servers strategically spread across the globe, you don’t have to worry about accessing your favorite region-locked content ever again. However, Vypr does restrict certain security features on the basis of the subscription plan you opt for, which might or might not be a deal breaker, depending upon the mindset and the subscription plan in question.

8. TorGuard VPN

TorGuard VPN

Just like Tor Browser, TorGuard is a hack that gives you instant access to region-locked content anywhere in the world. However, since TorGuard is a VPN, it uses advanced encryption to protect your online privacy and identity.

With more than 3,000 servers spread across 55 countries, TorGuard really does make sure that you get instant access to content from around the world no matter where you do it from.

9. TunnelBear VPN

TunnelBear VPN

There’s little to worry about when you have an eight-foot-tall 500lb grizzly bear watching over you. TunnelBear has all the makings of a good VPN but perhaps it’s the cut-throat competition around it that has hindered its climb to the top.

It gives you foolproof online security and privacy with impressive connection and data transfer speeds. The subscriptions plans are moderately priced, keeping in mind the sensibilities of price-sensitive customers. All in all, TunnelBear is a good buy at the current price!

10. VPN Unlimited

vpn unlimited 

VPNUnlimited acts just like a DNS firewall, giving you total online security and privacy with lightning-fast unlimited access to region-locked content.

Although VPN Unlimited offers the same array of features and services as other brands operating in the industry such as multi-login and ISP-throttling, the price is a bit steep with the monthly subscription plan costing $8.99! So VPN Unlimited isn’t the “go to” brand of choice for many. However, for those who can afford the brand, VPN Unlimited is a safe bet.

Which VPN Is Right for You?

Your choice of VPN is going to come down to the features you need within your budget. That being said, you should now find it easier to determine which VPN best suits your purpose. Rest assured, each VPN listed above will meet and exceed your expectations and that is a fact.

If you are still wondering which VPN to get, visit this article which reviews VPN services based on the latest data, information, and customer reviews.

 Source: This article was published globalsign.com By Anas Baig

Categorized in Internet Privacy

What Are you trying to find out how to access the dark web and what is it?

Well, look no further, we have gone and done the research so we could show you step by step the best and safest way how to access the darknet.

We cover everything, from setting up Tor, how to choose a VPN, what not to do, finding the best sites to access, and extra steps to remain anonymous.

It is extremely easy to access the dark web and even easier to be detected on it if you don’t take precautions. If you are new to the darknet, this guide will help you on your way.

According to researchers, only 4% of the internet is visible to the general public.

Meaning that the remaining 96% of the internet is made up of “The Deep Web”.

Dark Web or DarkNet is a subset of the Deep Web where there are sites that sell drugs, hacking software, counterfeit money and more. We explain this further down the article if you are not up to speed.

If you are looking to access hidden marketplace’s or darknet websites (with a .onion domain) then dark web access is done using the TOR network with the TOR browser bundle. TOR is the most widely used dark web browser.

How To Access The Dark Web Guide

Step 1: Go and get yourself a good VPN (Virtual Private Network) here, use it ALL of the time, no matter if you are on TOR or not. This site here reviews the best VPN’s for use with TOR.

You should be taking your anonymity and security very seriously if you are visiting the Dark Net, especially if you are viewing any Darknet Markets.

Do not fool yourself and think that the ISP’s (Internet Service Providers) and Law Enforcement are not trying to track those who use Tor to access the Dark Web, they are, and they are good at it so don’t make it easy for them.

It should be brought to your attention that there was a recent Tor vulnerability which leaked your REAL IP address leading back to your real location. If you already have the Tor Browser then UPDATE it immediately. Vulnerabilities like these are happening more often to Tor.

VPN for Dark Web Access

By using the simple VPN app, your darknet activities will be hidden from your ISP and government agencies as all of your internet usages will be encrypted. No one will even know you are using TOR, let alone browsing for darknet markets.

What’s even better is that the VPN will give you a fake IP address, in another country if you like, so even if Tor is compromised then the trace just leads back to somewhere else that can’t be linked to you.

The other benefit of using a VPN is to prevent hackers stealing your identity and or personal files and photos from your computer.

You need to use a good VPN that keeps NO LOGS, fast performance, preferably accepts bitcoin as payment, has a kill switch for DNS leaks, and is compatible with TOR.

Then install your VPN, if you buy one of the better VPN’s then it is usually just a one-click install and one or two clicks to turn it on.

Step 2: You can’t access the deep web just using a common browser like Internet Explorer or Google Chrome. To get dark net access you will need to download the dark web browser called TOR browser bundle. Only get it from the official TOR website, never download it from anywhere else!

Now close all of your browsing windows and all apps connecting to the internet like Google Drive, Skype, OneDrive, iCloud etc.

Then open your VPN app and connect to another location other than where you are at, make sure to use the OpenVPN protocol as it is the most secure.

Open up your normal favorite browser and then download TOR

TOR Official Website: 

https://www.torproject.org/download/download.html

Tor Browser Download

Step 3: Install the TOR browser bundle on your PC or Mac. When the download is complete, double-click the downloaded file, choose the destination folder (the folder where you want to extract tor browser), and choose extract.

Step 4: Start TOR Browser. Open the folder where you extracted TOR browser and double-click “Start Tor Browser”. The TOR start page will open in a browser window (it’s actually a portable version of FireFox stripped down).

From here, you now have a good level of anonymity and security and you are able to gain access to .onion websites through your dark web browser.

tor-folder

Congratulations…

Next, you will want to visit a dark web site.

Now you have dark net access you should Click HERE to view the Darknet Market List so you can visit some of the best black market websites on the Deep Web.

silkroad
Silk Road ( Dark web screenshot )

If you do want to check out some dark net markets then you should follow the guide for that specific market as it will show you step by step what to do to sign up, browse etc.
If you are looking for the biggest list of hidden deep web links go here so you can find exactly what you are looking for. (some also call them dark web links). We have compiled one of the biggest lists of tested .onion sites on the darknet complete with a search function, website name, description, categories, site status and even a screenshot of the landing page so you can see if your site is online or dead.

Now we have shown you how to access the dark web we have some very important tips to share…

Bitcoin and Buying on the Dark Web:

If you are on the darknet to buy something, and most of us are, then you will need to use cryptocurrency to do so and Bitcoin is the most used cryptocurrency on the dark web.

Buying cryptocurrencies is another topic altogether, so we won’t go into it here but this site has made an easy to follow guide on buying bitcoin, but we will give you one GOLDEN tip on how to go under the radar and not have your crypto exchange account shut down and lose money.

NEVER send cryptocurrency directly from your exchange account (where you buy the coins) to a market or anywhere on the dark web, also never send coins directly from anywhere on the darknet to your exchange. They are onto this right away as they can tell where the coins came from and they WILL shut you down and you will be recorded in a list for sure.

You must send your coins from your exchange to a wallet (find out how to in the guides) then from the wallet to the dark web and vice-versa.

Bonus Security Steps For the Dark Net:
cyber-security

Step 5: DO NOT change the TOR browser window size unless you like living dangerously. The FEDS have programs that can match identities on random things such and match time online and other things with the browser window size, I shit you not. If you don’t change the size then it is the same as most other people.

Step 6: Please remember that TOR isn’t necessarily 100% anonymous, you should turn off JavaScript within the dark web browser settings to help.

tor-javascript-setting

Block Javascript in TOR Browser

Step 7: Disconnect your webcam or block the camera with some black tape. Hackers and governments have ways of getting into your computer and turning on the video and cameras.

You can have intimate images of you be used as blackmail or extortion, or even worse, used by the feds.

zuckerberg
Covered camera and mic?

Step 8: Disconnect your microphone or cover it with tape to muffle it good. The same goes for the microphone as the camera, the last thing you want is to be recorded saying incriminating things at home. It doesn’t even have to be while on the darknet. Even the Facebook creator Mark Zuckerberg does it as he knows the dangers.

Step 9: NEVER use your real name, photos, email, or even password that you have used before on the dark web. This is the fastest way to be tracked. Use an anonymous email account and aliases that have nothing to do with you that you have never used before.

Step 10: If you are using TOR on the dark web for anything other than looking at cute pictures of kittens, you should think seriously about your privacy and security. Jolly Roger has put together a comprehensive guide on how to stay safe on the deep web, view the guide here.

If you have read through this how to access the darknet guide and thought to yourself WTF? Then you are probably new to this and need a bit of background and information to get you up to speed. Please remember to share this post so everyone that wants to have a look on the Dark Web can do so and do it safely.

What is the Clear Web?

Firstly, there is the Clear Web/Clear Net. This is the normal internet where you do everyday things like check Gmail, Facebook, and Twitter and buy things from Amazon etc. All websites and web pages that a search engine like Google can find are on the Clear Net.

What is the Deep Web?

Then we have the Deep Web. This is a subset of the internet that cannot be indexed (found) by search engines like Google. This includes all web pages that are behind membership logins, all company and organization web pages used internally and other data. The majority of the deep web does not have anything illegal on it.

deep-web-dark-web-differences

Deep Web and Dark Web

What is the Dark Web (also called darknet)?

Then we have the Dark Web. This is a subset of the Deep Web that contains all sorts of websites, both legal and illegal. The types of sites include black markets that sell things like drugs, counterfeit goods, and weapons, you also have hacking sites, X-rated sites, bitcoin tumbling, and even sites for hitmen. The variety of sites on the Dark Web is quite astonishing. For now, there is no dark web search engine that works as well as Google does for the clarinet.

 Source: This article was published darkwebnews.com By Tarquin

Categorized in Deep Web
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