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Being online is part of daily life, with Wi-Fi hotspots, mobile internet, and broadband connections spanning almost all of Britain, US and other developed countries.

While this gives us an overwhelming amount of information at our fingertips, it also exposes surprisingly large amounts of our personal information to the rest of the online world.

Depending on the websites and services you use, all manner of data from your browsing habits through to your birthday, address and marital status can be harvested from your online presence.

Even if websites, connections and devices you use do their best to hide your personal information, there are still a myriad of risks to your online privacy; we’ve selected seven to watch out for over the next 12 months.

Browse the web for any amount of time and you’ll notice adverts following you from site to site that are filled with products you may have been looking at earlier. That’s because you're being tracked.

Website cookies have historically been used to track web browsing via a piece of data inserted into your browser, but other techniques such as MAC address and account tracking can be used to see what you’ve been doing on the web.

While some people might not mind this, preferring to have adverts served up to them that are relevant to their interests, some may find it an invasion of digital privacy.

In the European Union, websites have to notify visitors that they’re using cookies and have to be transparent with any other methods they are using to follow you online.

But as data becomes more important to companies, developers and advertisers, there’s a lot more tracking going on by default.

If you’re concerned about online tracking, it’s always worth delving into the privacy settings of various services, apps and web browsers to make sure they’re set to give you the level of privacy you want. Alternatively, there all anti-tracking tools and browser extensions to keep your activity under wraps.

Whereas tracking might follow you in real-time, a variety of internet companies and services can collect your browsing data and share your computer or router MAC address with third-party advertisers and companies.

With this data companies, you have no direct interaction with can build up a pretty good profile of your internet habits and web browsing.

And this now extends to mobile apps, which in order to offer you their services will ask for access to your phone number, contacts, and other deeper phone functions.

Services like Google Maps can also track your real-time and historic location by default, which can be great if you want to know where you may have stumbled off to after a heavy Friday night. But to others could be seen as always being stalked by faceless tech companies.

While this can be the price people need to accept for free apps and services, some the data they potentially surrender may be pretty invasive.

Websites and online services that don’t have the latest and most robust security can effectively leave the information they might hold on you and the data flowing between your computer and a web server, at risk from hackers.

For example, websites using the now-outdated HTTP web communication standard, rather than the more robust HTTPS, lack an encrypted connection between a computer or smartphone and the website it connects to. This means the data flowing between the two points can be monitored by other companies or potentially snooped on and stolen by hackers for more nefarious purposes.

Furthermore, if the servers that support a website or online service are hacked, then you could find that cybercriminals have access to some of your personal credentials, not just infringing upon your privacy but also paving the way for fraud and identity theft.

To avoid such problems, it’s worth trying to only use websites with encrypted connections and making sure you have up-to-date cybersecurity software.

And while you can’t prevent a web server from being hacked,  using tools like two-factor authentication and keeping an eye out for any legitimate warnings that alert you to potential breaches of your data will help keep your personal information safer.

Smart TVs, fridges, thermostats, and speakers might seem like futuristic tech, but they can pose a threat to privacy.

A lack of security standards around the Internet of Things, the collective name given to connected and smart devices, means some devices might not have encrypted connections to the servers that power their smart features or may be vulnerable to simple hacking techniques, making them ripe targets for cybercriminals.

Or alternatively, devices such as smart speakers could end up listening to you all the time, rather than just respond to an activation phrase, which, whether deliberately or not, would be a massive breach of privacy.

More regulations and standards are being created to ensure smart home devices are kept secure and the data they collect and use is done so in a fashion that does not infringe upon a user’s personal privacy. But for the time being, if you value your privacy, it’s worth selecting smart home tech that has strong security and is transparent on how the gadgets collect data.

With all the things we can do on smartphones these days, it can be easy to plough through mobile data allowances pretty quickly, which makes logging onto public Wi-Fi hotspots very tempting.

But the problem is they often have weak or no form of security or encryption, meaning that hackers can snoop on the data going between your device, the hotspot and the web.

Some hotspots have a web portal that requires you to part with your email or login via Facebook or Twitter, meaning you have to part with some of your personal details, potentially opening you up to email spam, or force you to provide permission for the Wi-Fi service to have access to your social media posts.

It's worth being vigilant with the data you have to part to get a taste of free public Wi-Fi and identify if a provider will track your activity and use your details for intrusive marketing purposes.

More privacy-conscious people should consider using a virtual private network (VPN) which encrypts your web traffic and can hide your machine’s MAC address, making it difficult for others to snoop on your activity when out and about.

Some governments carry out online surveillance and don’t really allow their citizens to web browse privately. In the UK, the Investigatory Powers Act allows government authorities to legally spy on the browsing and internet use of British citizens.

As such, the government can directly breach your online privacy if they suspect you may be involved in criminal activity, though they need to apply for a warrant to do so, which should mean the average person isn’t being spied on by MI5.

However, the Investigatory Powers Act forces internet service companies to collect metadata on their customers and hold it for twelve months, which with a warrant can be collected in bulk by a government authority and used to combat terrorism or stop organized crime.

This means data relating to your personal internet use could get sifted through as part of a law enforcement task force even if you’re no way related to an investigation, which can be seen as pretty intrusive to your privacy.

Again, the use of a VPN or a proxy server can help boost your online privacy by hiding your IP address from the prying eyes of government agents and the police.

An open Facebook profile is arguably a stalker’s dream, with all manner of personal details, from current city of residence to phone numbers and photos available to browse and swipe.

And on Twitter, many users regularly post pictures with their location tagged, all of which allows for people to know their whereabouts with relative accuracy, as well as let savvy burglars know you’re not at home.

Privacy settings have been boosted on various social media sites to limit personal data to only friends or select contacts.

But there’s still the problem of your Facebook friends or Instagram followers, with fewer privacy settings,  tagging you in pictures they have of you and your escapades, potentially exposing some of your personal activities, location, and information to their friends who maybe strangers to you.

While the use of social networking sites at their very core is the antithesis of privacy, the use of them can be more intrusive that you’d perhaps first realize.

So for people wanting to keep their profiles low-key, it's worth taking time to go through the privacy options menu of such sites, and be aware of what you’re posting and how some updates can contain a lot more personal information than you’d think.]

Thanks to living in an ever-more connected world we have a lot more useful services and information but a mouse click or tap on a phone away; the downside is it exposes some of our personal data, habits, and life to a wider world.

But before you yank out the router and delete your Netflix account, there are techniques and approaches you can use to keep yourself away from prying eyes and fraudsters.

From tweaking web browser extensions and settings to using VPNs and anonymous search engines; plenty of tools can help you enjoy the fruit of the internet without sacrificing your online privacy.

Protect your privacy with KeepSolid VPN (70% off lifetime offer)

Source: This article was published pocket-lint.com

Categorized in Internet Privacy

Cyber-crime has become one of the greatest threats to businesses, government institutions, and individuals, as hackers are constantly finding new targets and advanced tools to break through cyber defenses. As technology improves, new vulnerabilities are discovered and new obstacles challenge security professionals.

The past year was followed by a number of high-impact cyber-attacks. Namely, a number of devastating, high-impact cyber-attacks like rumors that the US election was hacked, marked 2017. Apart from the rumors regarding the hacked US election, there were ransomware attacks all over the world, and of course, the Equifax breach.

Unfortunately, as challenging as it is today, cyber-security threats will likely get worse in the future, as attacks get more sophisticated. As the years pass, the global security threat outlook keeps on developing. In order to fight this threat, all business entities must understand and learn how to cope with these global cyber threats.

In 2018, these cyber threats are expected to grow at a constant rate, as more complex challenges continue to surface, and cyber criminals keep coming up with new ways of attacking secure IT systems. The following are some of the biggest internet security threats that can impact the operations of IT-powered organizations in the year 2018.

Ransomware

Over the past 12 months, we saw a huge number of ransomware attacks. Ransomware is, in fact, a relatively simple form of malware that breaches defenses and locks down computer files using strong encryption. Then, hackers demand money in exchange for digital keys, needed to unlock the data. Quite often, especially if the encrypted data hasn’t been backed up, victims pay. This has made ransomware popular with criminal hackers, who have recently started demanding payment in cryptocurrencies which are extremely hard to trace.

Google, Amazon, IBM and other big cloud operators, have hired the best digital security that will protect them from such attacks. However, smaller companies can’t afford such thing, which makes them more vulnerable. For a small-scale local business, even a single tiny breach could lead to a big payday for the hackers involved. To prevent your computer from getting hijacked, avoid clicking on unknown links, keep security software up to date, and backup everything on an external hard drive.

Attacks on Cryptocurrencies

According to the latest research, currently there are 1324 cryptocurrencies in total, and this number is expected to increase. The rapid increase in the value of some cryptocurrencies has pushed thieves into massive criminal activities against virtual currency scheme. As more people mine cryptocurrencies on their computers, cybercriminals will organize more attacks designed to steal crypto coins from users, using malware to steal funds from victims’ computers or to deploy hidden mining tools on machines.

Threats to IoT (Internet of Things)

As the value of real-time data collection advances, day-by-day, individuals and business entities are increasingly making use of IoT devices. But, unlike our traditional devices, the IoT devices pose a significant challenge and a sense of less control, simply because they are not the best protected entities, and are susceptible to hacking. That’s why protecting them is so important and will continue to do so in 2018. Millions of connected devices have little or no defense against hackers who want to gain control of them and use them to enter into a network or access valuable data. The number of cyber-attacks powered by compromised IoT devices has become a great concern of the IT security industry, which is why IoT vendors are already putting more time and effort into securing their devices.

Source: This article was published alleywatch.com By VIVENNE CARDENASS

Categorized in Internet Privacy

Young people are far more likely to have a positive experience surfing the internet than a negative one.

That’s according to new research released to coincide with Safer Internet Day, which is being celebrated around the world today.

However, young people’s digital lives are increasingly a double-edged sword, with the research revealing that while 89 percent felt happy as a result of their internet use in the past seven days, more than half reported having felt sad (56%) or angry (52%).

Safer Internet Day has been established to make the internet a more secure environment – which this year’s campaign focusing on children and young people.

So here are five things you should do to ensure your children’s lives online are as protected as they are offline.

Update your privacy settings

Facebook’s default setting made be as safe as you think (Getty)

Many social media sites have the default privacy setting as ‘public’, meaning that anyone who searches your name can see everything you’ve recently been up to.

Setting a Twitter account to ‘private’ and changing your Facebook profile to ‘friends only’ only takes a few minutes but ensures you’re not leaving a traceable digital footprint.

Facebook also has an option to remove your profile from search engines like Google, which means the only way someone can view your account is if you add them as a friend yourself. You can control your Facebook privacy settings by clicking here or also by going to ‘Privacy Checkup’ on your page.

Social media websites also update and change their settings all the time, making it tricky to keep track of what’s visible to whom at any one point.

If you want to edit these settings in one go, use a product like Trend Micro Security, which provides a privacy scan of social networks like Facebook, Google+, Twitter, and LinkedIn at once.

Install anti-virus software and firewalls

Most new laptops or computers come with a year’s trial of anti-virus software installed, but if not then it’s definitely worth investing in one. Anti-virus software prevents malicious data from accessing your private information on your accounts, ranging from your email address to passwords or bank details. The best anti-virus software available in 2018 can be found here. If the expensive software isn’t an option, check out the best free protection here.

Many people used to think that Apple products were immune from malicious attacks due to the way they were built and the ever-changing hardware programmed into them. However, according to a report from Malwarebytes in August last year, there was a 230 percent increase in Mac malware in 2017.

Installing anti-virus software is an easy way to prevent malware. (Getty)

Chris Hoffman, of How-To-Geek.com, highlights the hidden dangers of new viruses infecting popular websites. He urges everyone to install some form of virus protection software because even familiar websites can easily become compromised.

‘Your computer could be infected just from you visiting a website,” he says. “Even if you only visit websites you trust the website itself could be compromised – something that happens with alarming frequency these days.’ Downloading anti-virus software will prevent your browser from opening the webpage if it notices a problem.

Only use secure wi-fi connections

If you’re waiting around at the airport or in a shopping center, it can be tempting to join the nearby free Wi-Fi connection to kill some time. But while many of these connections are secure and trustworthy, not all of them are.

The Norton Security 2016 Wi-Fi Risk Report found that 22% of respondents have accessed bank or financial information while using public Wi-Fi, and 58% of people have logged into a personal email account. Logging into a public, unsecured Wi-Fi connection puts all of this information at risk and makes it far easier to be shared with everyone nearby who are also connected.

But if you must use public Wi-Fi, download a VPN to use alongside. A VPN (Virtual Private Network) scrambles the data from your phone or laptop before it receives the data on the other end that you’re trying to access. Some VPNs will charge you to download the software, but there are free versions available like ‘Betternet’ on the App store, which requires you to watch a quick advert but will connect you securely for free.

Use difficult and varied passwords

In 2016, nearly 17% of people safeguarded their accounts with the password ‘123456.’ Others that made the top 10 most common list included ‘password’ and ‘qwertyuiop’. Data breaches are becoming more and more common globally – an estimated 10 million passwords were made public last year – but can be avoided to an extent by using a strong password. A combination of upper and lower case letters with numbers and special symbols is the best bet to keep your data private.

Ensure that you use different passwords for different accounts, and keep them above at least six characters long. Password managers like Keeper, which come installed on some laptops, are great for creating a personalized, fully scrambled password automatically.

Widespread data breaches of big companies can often result in passwords being shared with hackers. The best result is that you lose access to one of your accounts. At worst, if you use the same password for everything, you could find yourself a victim of identity fraud.

Think twice before clicking on email links or attachments

The rise of Internet banking has made it more and more common to receive financial communication via email. Things like requesting an appointment or a reminder that your credit card will expire soon may be harmless, but may also just have likely been sent by a third-party pretending to be the bank.

Clicking on the name of the email sender will often show the full email address. Rather than just ‘Barclays Bank’, it may reveal a random email address – a giveaway sign that the account it has come from is entirely unconnected to your bank. Many bank-related scams target customers in this way, pretending to get you to log into your account for something minimal, but actually re-directing you to an entirely alien website.

Many banking scams have obvious giveaways like a lack of personal greeting. (Information Security HeadQuarters)

Look for spelling errors, links that don’t work or impersonal greetings (like the Dear customer, instead of Dear ‘Your Name’) as the first port of call. If you’re not sure whether or not an email is legitimate, try sending a reply. If it’s a fraudulent account then there’s a chance the email might bounce – a big hint that it’s not an authentic request. The safest way to check is to get in contact with the bank or organization and ask if they’ve emailed you before anything else.

The UK Safer Internet Centre is led by three charities – Childnet, the South West Grid for Learning and the Internet Watch Foundation and aims to create a better online experience for all.

The theme this year is ‘Create, Connect and Share Respect: a better internet starts with you’.

Source: This article was published uk.news.yahoo.com By Georgie Darling

Categorized in Internet Privacy

Cybercrime is everywhere, and the least you can do is read up about it. You might think Internet and email scams only affect those who are not tech savvy or do not keep up with the daily news, but that is not true. From IT professionals to teachers, to journalists, people from all fragments of society and professional fronts have fallen for these immaculately planned online fraudsBusiness Compromise ScamsPharming, etc, which might confuse anybody. And the notion of risk-taking obviously does not work in this context. With the advent of social network and the wide usage of emailing, these scams acquired quite a foothold.

Common Online, Internet & Email scams

Here are the 10 Internet and email scams you should look out for:

Nigerian Scam

Possibly the most talked about scams, these operate mostly through the mail and messaging services. People usually receive mails from a fake Nigerian individual, who claims to be from a very wealthy family and is looking for somebody to donate her money. Usually, these scams are fronts for black money or identity theft. The user is promised a huge amount of money if he or she would share his details, and a surprising number of people fall for it. They will also ask the unwitting user to sign a number of legal forms, which are actually pretty effective in taking money out of your account.

International Lottery Scam

The lottery scam is perhaps the oldest and most obvious scams in the history of Internet fraud, and yet people are duped by it. Basically, a mail reaches your server from an unknown lottery company, and it looks official and almost real. But there are obviously some red flags which expert can point out. Usually, when this happens, the mail will not address you by your name or your personal details. They promise to transfer millions of dollars into your personal account, if you give them your bank details, and then, of course, they drain the money out of your account. Millions of people around the world have lost a massive amount of their earnings through this scam. Sometimes, the emails take the name of a famous lottery company, which might be a global name, and with high-end techniques, conmen have better means of faking their credentials, so you should always be on the lookout.

Travel scams

This kind of fraud is pretty relevant even today, as people who are on these websites or get the fraudulent emails are not at all expecting to get swindled. People see huge discounts or really low rates on some travel packages and fall for it. They will also ask for your private details, and you will need to pay some money. Usually, these are quick scams and won’t drain your account, but you will never see the money you spent or get any tickets. Whenever you receive such a mail or spot something suspicious on a website, it is best to double-check.

Credit Card Scams

These frauds are also hugely common.Usually, you will get a mail from your an operator who claims to be your bank. They will tell you your credit/debit card has been canceled, or you are facing some breach in your account and thus, need to act fast. Most people, in a state of panic, give out their credit card details, One Time Passwords, and even their pin numbers. It is very important to remember that your bank would never ask you for this kind of sensitive information over mail or phone, and be careful.

Job Scams

These kinds of frauds prey upon those who are vulnerable. Most people are looking for jobs update their personal details, like mail ids and names on employment search portals. Anybody can access those details and contact the user. You will get a mail, asking for your resume, educational details, and other credentials. They will promise you an interview and possibly ask for a token amount of money, which would be reverted back to you upon hiring or at a later time. These scams are usually fronts for identity thefts and money swindling.

Digital payment scams

These are the easiest and the most dangerous frauds there is, and everybody should take note since people are so tech-reliant right now. Millions of people use digital wallets or online payment portals like PayPal or Venmo. Users often get an alert on their mail about how their account has been hacked, or an amount of money has been taken out of their account. Usually, people panic, and it never occurs to them that they are being duped by a third party.

Online ad scams

These are similar to the employment scam routine, just a little more creative. When you post an item for sale on a portal or post an ad to buy a specific item, in websites like eBay or Craigslist, or any other platform, fraudulent people can access those details and get back to you. They’ll tell you they have what you are looking for, and might even share pictures with you, but these offers usually come with a payment-first policy, and after you pay them,  you don’t hear back from them.

Investment scams

These frauds are like a short-term Ponzi scheme. You might get alerts or emails offering you ‘double your money on a month’ plans or any other such scams. Some fake portals even have provisions for your verification, where they ask you for a token amount of money, and hence dupe you.

Disaster relief or rescue scams

Whenever you get a mail asking you to donate money to a charity or a rescue operation, never respond to them. Most people obviously fall for these as they want to support a cause, but as there is no way to verify these scams, and people usually donate a substantial amount of money to disaster relief, this is a very dangerous fraud.

Ask for help scams

These frauds are more personal in nature, and you might get a mail with very specific details about a certain person, stuck in a situation in a random country, from where he/she cannot get back home and will ask for your money. People often get blindsided by the personal nature of these emails, but it is very important to remember that these are usually chain emails, and ask people to send over financial help.

Online scams are a huge risk as you can encounter them anywhere, and the smartest of people get affected by it, as they never see it coming. Whenever you encounter anything on a new portal or website, it is always best to verify their credentials before you send in your money or personal details.

Be aware, Stay safe!

 Source: This article was published thewindowsclub.com

Categorized in Internet Privacy

Don't think the police will help you find, let alone catch, cybercriminals if they make off with your corporate loot. And don't think this is only a problem for companies in other countries. South African businesses, like South Africans themselves, are increasingly being targeted.

The story of a local bank being taken for R300 million by cyber criminals who had 100 people withdrawing money from ATMs in Japan made the headlines. But South African companies, unlike their US counterparts, are not required by law to report cases of cyber theft so how much more have gone by unmentioned? The bank reportedly never got its cash back so it's still wise to secure your systems from attack; the more proactive the better.

The likelihood of cyber attackers plundering your vaults is already vast and growing daily. The threat landscape today is highly sophisticated but our defenses are typically outdated and reactive systems. That's because today's hackers are often young professionals who work for organized crime syndicates and in many cases, they target specific, high-value organizations.

A colleague of mine from our business partner, IBM, which supplies the i2 Enterprise Insight Analysis solution, worked with the Mexican secret service to combat drug cartels funding organized cybercrime, for example. The cartels have a well of finances the envy of many enterprises so they get the best skills, the best tools, and they have time on their side.

The i2 solution is a sophisticated, next-generation threat analysis solution used by the Mexican secret service, 32 out of 36 police organizations in the UK, including MI5 and MI6, the FBI, Israel's Mossad, various military units, and the police in South Africa. It has evolved to be relevant by helping catch bad guys for 26 years and is now commercialized and available for enterprises.

The reason you need it yourself instead of going to the police for help, when they already have this tool, is that they are under-resourced, just as their counterparts are elsewhere in the world. And they have much bigger physical world crime issues on their hands. They are good at kicking down doors. They're less experienced at hunting cybercriminals who lurk in basements behind packet sniffers, tapped cables, and who make man in the middle attacks on obscure data centers in Brussels back rooms.

But to get the cops to kick in a specific door you must be able to reliably tell them which one. That's what IndigoCube is doing with i2. And it is helping businesses understand their vulnerabilities at any given moment - as well as giving them the tools to investigate, rapidly find the perpetrators, and give law enforcement actionable insights.

Another fact of cyber attacks is that they almost never materialize out of the blue and they're almost never successful on the first attempt. They typically occur in stages. The crooks test your defenses, fail, and return with new approaches to defeat your static counters. They're fluid and you're not, the warning signs are usually there, and we would have seen them had we looked.

We need to keep tabs on insider fraud via structured transactional data, chatter in the deep Web in services such as Pastebin, unstructured data in our internal reports, and social media feeds where more human chatter occurs. We wrap that up in a dashboard that's easy and quick for executives to keep an eye on but into which they can drill as deep as they like to ascertain the precise facts.

Behind the dashboard, tiered security with intelligent analyses forms sophisticated barriers that help you pivot faster than the bad guys. Tier one firewalls have policies that zap IPs that originate from countries in which you don't operate. They trap known malware and vaporize it. They trap large attachments for human inspection. At tier two you correlate events. They take care of what's known as the 5km, one-minute card rule where a single bank card cannot be used to withdraw money from two different ATMs, 5km apart, within one minute of each other.

Once you've matured tier two you begin to create the intelligence I've spoken about. It's tier three, human-driven intelligence with automated help that visualises the associations to feed intelligent questioning. And the entire time it's updating the dashboard vulnerability scenario so the executives can see that cutting security personnel or other resources increases work in progress and cycle times, indicating problems, and demonstrating their exposure in light of legislation such as Protection of Personal Information (POPI) Act.

It's an approach that helps you find the crooks when they're still trying to access your systems and helps you feed law enforcement actionable intelligence they can use to kick down doors

keep your mobile employees connected wherever they call work with WAVE OnCloud push-to-talk service.

Source: This article was published itweb.co.za

Categorized in Internet Privacy

A comprehensive guide for choosing and setting up secure Wi-Fi.

Your router, that box sitting in a corner of your house giving you internet access, is in many ways more important than your laptop or mobile phone. It might not store any of your personal information directly, but sensitive data passes through it every time you access various online services and can be stolen or manipulated if the router is hacked.

A compromised router can also serve as a platform for attacking other devices on your local networks, such as your phone or laptop, or for launching denial-of-service attacks against internet websites. This can get your IP address blacklisted and can slow down your internet speed.

Because it's exposed directly to the outside world, your router is frequently targeted by automated scans, probes, and exploits, even if you don't see those attacks. And compared to your laptop or phone, your router doesn't have an antivirus program or other security software to protect it.

Unfortunately, most routers are black boxes and users have little control over their software and configurations, especially when it comes to devices supplied by internet service providers to their customers. That said, there are certain actions that users can take to considerably decrease the likelihood of their routers falling victim to automated attacks.

Many of those actions are quite basic, but others require a bit of technical knowledge and some understanding of networking concepts. For less technical users, it might simply be easier to buy a security-focused router with automatic updates such as the EeroGoogle OnHubNorton CoreBitdefender Box, or F-Secure Sense. The downside is that those routers are expensive, some require annual subscriptions for certain services, and their level of customization is very limited. Ultimately, their users need to trust the vendors to do the right thing.

If you don’t want to get one of those, or already have a router, follow along for a detailed, step-by-step guide on how to secure it.

Choosing a router

If you prefer getting a cheaper router or modem that you can tweak your needs, avoid getting one from your ISP. Those devices are typically manufactured in bulk by companies in China and elsewhere and they come with customized firmware that the ISPs might not fully control. This means that security issues can take a very long time to fix and in some cases, they never get patched.

Some ISPs force users to use gateway devices they supply because they come pre-configured for remote assistance and there have been many cases when those remote management features have been poorly implemented, leaving devices open to hacking. Furthermore, users cannot disable remote access because they're often not given full administrative control over such devices.

Whether users can be forced to use a particular modem or router by their ISP varies from country to country. In the US, regulations by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) are supposed to prevent this, but it can still happen. There are also more subtle device lock-ins where ISPs allow users to install their own devices, but certain services like VoIP will not work without an ISP-supplied device.

If your internet provider doesn't allow you to bring your own device onto its network, at least ask if their device can be configured in bridge mode and if you can install your own router behind it. Bridge mode disables routing functionality in favor of your own device. Also, ask if your ISP's device is remotely managed and if you can opt out and disable that service.

The market for home and small office routers is very diverse so choosing the right router will depend on budget, the space that needs to be covered by its wireless signal, the type of internet connection you have, and other desired features like USB ports for attached storage, etc. However, once you get your list down to a few candidates, it's important to choose a device from a manufacturer that takes security seriously.

Research the company’s security track record: How did it handle vulnerabilities being discovered in its products in the past? How quickly did it release patches? Does it have a dedicated contact for handling security reports? Does it have a vulnerability disclosure policy or does it run a bug bounty program? Use Google to search for terms like “[vendor name] router vulnerability” or “[vendor name] router exploit” and read past reports from security researchers about how they interacted with those companies. Look at the disclosure timelines in those reports to see how fast the companies developed and released patches after being notified of a vulnerability.

It's also important to determine, if possible, how long a device will continue to receive firmware updates after you buy it. With product life cycles becoming shorter and shorter across the industry, you might end up buying a product released two years ago that will reach end-of-support in one year or in several months. And that's not something you want with a router.

Unfortunately, router vendors rarely publish this information on their websites, so obtaining it might involve calling or emailing the company’s support department in your respective country, as there are region-specific device models or hardware revisions with different support periods. You can also look at the firmware update history of the router you intend to buy or of a router from the manufacturer’s same line of products, to get an idea of what update frequency you can expect from the company.

Choose a device that can also run open-source community-maintained firmware like OpenWrt/LEDE because it's always good to have options and these third-party projects excel at providing support for older devices that manufacturers no longer update. You can check the device support list of such firmware projects—OpenWrtLEDEDD-WRTAdvancedTomatoAsuswrt-Merlin—to inform your buying decision.

Once you have a router, it's time to make a few important settings. Start by reading the manual to find out how to connect to the device and access its administration interface. This is usually done from a computer through a web browser.

Change the default admin password

Never leave your router with the default administrator password as this is one of the most common reasons for compromises. Attackers use botnets to scan the entire internet for exposed routers and try to authenticate with publicly known default credentials or with weak and easy-to-guess passwords. Choose a strong password and, if given the option, also change the username to the default administrative account.

Last year, a botnet called Mirai enslaved over 250,000 routers, IP cameras, and other Internet-of-Things devices by connecting to them over Telnet and SSH with default or weak administrative credentials. The botnet was then used to launch some of the largest DDoS attacks ever recorded. More recently, a Mirai clone infected over 100,000 DSL models in Argentina and other countries.

Secure the administrative interface

Many routers allow users to expose the admin interface to the internet for remote administration and some older devices even have it configured this way by default. This is a very bad idea even if the admin password is changed because many of the vulnerabilities found in routers are located in their web-based management interfaces.

If you need remote administration for your router, read up on how to set up a virtual private network (VPN) server to securely connect into your local network from the internet and then perform management tasks through that connection. Your router might even have the option to act as a VPN server, but unless you understand how to configure VPNs, turning on that feature might be risky and could expose your network to additional attacks.

It's also a common misconception that if a router's administrative interface is not exposed to the internet, the device is safe. For a number of years now, attackers have been launching attacks against routers through cross-site request forgery (CSRF) techniques. Those attacks hijack users' browsers when visiting malicious or compromised websites and force them to send unauthorized requests to routers through local network connections.

In 2015, a researcher known as Kafeine detected a large-scale CSRF attack launched through malicious advertisements placed on legitimate websites. The attack code was capable of targeting over 40 different router models from various manufacturers and attempted to change their Domain Name System (DNS) settings through command injection exploits or through default administrative credentials.

By replacing the DNS servers configured on routers with rogue servers under their control, attackers can direct users to fake versions of the websites they are trying to visit. This is a powerful attack because there's no indication in the browser address bar that something is amiss unless the website uses the secure HTTPS protocol. Even then, attackers can use techniques such as TLS/SSL stripping and many users might not notice that the green padlock is missing. In 2014, DNS hijacking attacks through compromised home routers were used to phish online banking credentials from users in Poland and Brazil.

CSRF attacks usually try to locate routers over the local area network at common IP addresses like 192.168.0.1 or 192.168.1.1 that manufacturers configure by default. However, users can change the local IP address of their routers to something else, for example, 192.168.33.1 or even 192.168.33.22. There's no technical reason why the router should have the first address in an IP netblock and this simple change can stop many automated CSRF attacks in their tracks.

There are some other techniques that attackers could combine with CSRF to discover the LAN IP address of a router, even when it’s not the default one. However, some routers allow restricting access to their administrative interfaces by IP address.

If this option is available, you can configure the allowed IP address to be different than those automatically assigned by the router to your devices via the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). For example, configure your DHCP address pool to be from 192.168.33.50 to 192.168.33.100, but specify 192.168.33.101 as the IP address allowed to access the router's administrative interface.

This address will never be automatically assigned to a device, but you can manually configure your computer to temporarily use it whenever you need to make changes to your router's settings. After the changes are done, set your computer to automatically obtain an IP address via DHCP again.

Also, if possible, configure the router interface to use HTTPS and always access it from a private/incognito browser window, so that no authenticated session that could be abused via CSRF remains active in the browser. Don’t allow the browser to save the username and password either.

Shut down risky services

Services like Telnet and SSH (Secure Shell) that provide command-line access to devices should never be exposed to the internet and should also be disabled on the local network unless they're actually needed. In general, any service that’s not used should be disabled to reduce the attack surface.

Over the years, security researchers have found many undocumented "backdoor" accounts in routers that were accessible over Telnet or SSH and which provided full control over those devices. Since there's no way for a regular user to determine if such accounts exist in a router or not, disabling these services is the best course of action.

Another problematic service is Universal Plug and Play (UPnP), which allows devices to discover each other on networks and share their configurations so they can automatically set up services like data sharing and media streaming.

Many UPnP vulnerabilities have been found in home routers over the years, enabling attacks that ranged from sensitive information exposure to remote code execution leading to full compromise.

A router's UPnP service should never be exposed to the internet and, unless absolutely needed, it shouldn't be enabled on the local area network either. There's no simple way to tell if a router's UPnP implementation is vulnerable and the service can be used by other network devices to automatically punch holes through the router's firewall. That's how many IP cameras, baby monitors, and network-attached storage boxes become accessible on the internet without their owners knowing.

Other services that have been plagued by vulnerabilities and should be disabled include the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), the Home Network Administration Protocol (HNAP) and the Customer Premises Equipment WAN Management Protocol (CWMP), also known as TR-069.

SNMP is mostly used in corporate environments, so many home routers don't have the feature, but some do, especially those supplied by ISPs. In 2014, researchers from Rapid7 found SNMP leaks in almost half a million internet-connected devices and in April, two researchers found a weakness in the SNMP implementation of 78 cable modem models from 19 manufacturers, including Cisco, Technicolor, Motorola, D-Link, and Thomson. That flaw could have allowed attackers to extract sensitive information such as administrative credentials and Wi-Fi passwords from devices and to modify their configurations.

HNAP is a proprietary administration protocol that's only found in devices from certain vendors. In 2010, a group of researchers found vulnerabilities in the HNAP implementation of some D-Link routers and in 2014 a worm called The Moon used information leaked through HNAP to target and infect Linksys routers by exploiting an authentication bypass vulnerability.

CWMP or TR-069 is a remote management protocol used by ISPs and flawed implementations have been exploited by Mirai last year to infect or to crash DSL modems from ISPs in Ireland, the U.K., and Germany. Unfortunately, there's usually no way for users to disable TR-069, which is another reason to avoid ISP-supplied devices.

One thing's certain: Attackers are increasingly attacking routers from inside local area networks, using infected computers or mobile devices as a launchpad. Over the past year researchers have found both Windows and Android malware programs in the wild that were designed specifically to hack into routers over local area networks. This is useful for attackers because infected laptops and phones will be connected to their owners to different networks, reaching routers that wouldn’t otherwise be exposed to attacks over the internet.

Security firm McAfee also found an online banking trojan dubbed Pinkslipbot that transforms infected computers into web proxy servers accessible from the internet by using UPnP to automatically request port forwarding from routers.

The Vault7 documents published by WikiLeaks this year describe a set of tools supposedly used by the US Central Intelligence Agency to hack into routers and replace their firmware with one designed to spy on traffic. The toolset includes an exploit named Tomato that can extract a router's administrative password through UPnP from inside the local area network, as well as custom firmware dubbed CherryBlossom that reportedly works on consumer and small business routers from 10 manufacturers.

Unfortunately, when building devices, many manufacturers don't include local area network attacks in their threat model and leave various administration and debugging ports exposed on the LAN interface. So it's often up to users to determine what services are running and to close them, where possible.

Users can scan their routers from inside their local networks to identify open ports and protocols using various tools, a popular one being Nmap with its graphical user interface called Zenmap. Scanning a router from outside the LAN is more problematic because port scanning on the internet might have legal implications depending on jurisdiction. It's not recommended to do this from your own computer, but you can use a third-party online service like ShieldsUP or Pentest-Tools.com to do it on your behalf.

Secure your Wi-Fi network

When setting up your Wi-Fi network, choose a long, hard-to-guess passphrase, also known as a Pre-shared Key (PSK)—consider a minimum of 12 alphanumeric characters and special symbols—and always use the WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access II) security protocol. WPA and WEP are not safe and should never be used.

Disable Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS), a feature that allows connecting devices to the network by using a PIN printed on a sticker or by pushing a physical button on the router. Some vendors' WPS implementations are vulnerable to brute-force attacks and it's not easy to determine which ones.

Some routers offer the option to set up a guest wireless network that's isolated from the rest of your LAN and you can use it let friends and other visitors use your internet connection without sharing your main Wi-Fi password. Those guests might not have malicious intentions, but their devices might be infected with malware, so it's not a good idea to give them access to your whole network. Since their devices can also be used to attack the router is probably best not to let them use your internet connection at all, guest network or not, but that might not be an easy thing to explain to them.

Update your router's firmware

Very few routers have fully automatic update capabilities, but some do provide manual update checking mechanisms in their interfaces or email-based notifications for update availability. Unfortunately, these features might stop working over time as manufacturers make changes to their servers and URLs without taking old models into consideration. Therefore, it’s also good to periodically check the manufacturer's support website for updates.

Some more advanced stuff

If you disable UPnP but want a service that runs inside the LAN to be accessible from the internet—say an FTPS (FTP Secure) server running on your home computer—you will need to manually set up a port forwarding rule for it in the router's configuration. If you do this, you should strongly consider restricting which external IP addresses are allowed to connect to that service, as most routers allow defining an IP address range for port forwarding rules. Also, consider the risks of making those services available externally, especially if they don’t encrypt traffic.

If you don't use it for guests, the router's guest wireless network can be used to isolate internet-of-things devices on your LAN. Many IoT devices are managed through mobile apps via cloud-based services so they don't need to talk directly to your phone over the local network beyond initial setup.

Doing this protects your computers from the often vulnerable IoT devices and your IoT devices from your computers, in case they become infected. Of course, if you decide to use the guest wireless network for this purpose, change its password and stop sharing it with other people.

Similar network segmentation can be achieved through VLANs (virtual local area networks), but this feature is not commonly available in consumer routers unless those devices run third-party firmware like OpenWRT/LEDE, DD-WRT or AdvancedTomato. These community-built Linux-based operating systems for routers unlock advanced networking features and using them might actually improve security, because their developers tend to patch vulnerabilities quicker than router vendors.

However, flashing custom firmware on a router will typically void its warranty and, if not done properly, might leave the device in an unusable state. Don't attempt this unless you have the technical knowledge to do it and fully understand the risks involved.

Following the recommendations in this guide will significantly lower the chances of your router falling victim to automatic attacks and being enslaved in a botnet that launches the next internet-breaking DDoS attack. However, if a sophisticated hacker with advanced reverse-engineering skills decides to specifically target you, there’s very little you can do to prevent them from eventually breaking into your home router, regardless of what settings you made. But why make it easy for them, right?

 Source: This article was published motherboard.vice.com By Jacob Holcomb

Categorized in How to
  • Bitcoin's rise could help lead to the creation of a so-called "decentralized internet," according to a venture capitalist
  • Decentralized internet is the idea that the web is run across a number of machines that are owned by regular users rather than owned in a central place like a server
  • This could ultimately reduced the power of tech giants, the VC said

Bitcoin's rise could help lead to the creation of a so-called "decentralized internet" that could take power away from large technology firms, two venture capitalists told CNBC on Thursday.

The internet works thanks to large centralized services such as server owners, cloud providers, search engines and social media. As a result, many internet giants are dominant in their respective area of the internet.

A decentralized internet promises to spread the running of these services across users. So, a number of independent machines would power services across the web.

The money pouring into cryptocurrencies like bitcoin is helping to bring resources to developing a decentralized internet, according to Hemant Taneja, managing director at U.S. venture capital firm General Catalyst.

"The underlying reason for cyrptocurrencies is about building a decentralized internet. And I think that's a profound reason," Taneja told CNBC in an interview at the Slush technology conference in Helsinki, Finland.

"So, when you think about all these large platform companies that have become so powerful… wouldn't it be nice if we could get the benefit of what these companies provide but without these centralized authorities that have so much control."

Related...

Taneja said that the industry is "nowhere near" having the technology ready for such a project, but the cryptocurrency bubble is helping to bring capital and talent to the development of a decentralized internet.

"The more smart money that starts believing there are benefits around decentralized internet the better it is for us," Taneja said.

Albert Wenger, another venture capitalist at Union Square Ventures, echoed the sentiment, but admitted that reducing the power of internet giants is a long way off.

"In the long run, I think that's the goal we are shooting for. I don't think they (tech giants) have to tremble in their boots any time soon," Wenger told CNBC in an interview on Thursday.

Source: This article was published cnbc.com By Arjun Kharpal

Categorized in Internet Privacy

Researchers are wielding the same strange properties that drive quantum computers to create hack-proof forms of data encryption.

Recent advances in quantum computers may soon give hackers access to machines powerful enough to crack even the toughest of standard internet security codes. With these codes broken, all of our online data -- from medical records to bank transactions -- could be vulnerable to attack.

To fight back against the future threat, researchers are wielding the same strange properties that drive quantum computers to create theoretically hack-proof forms of quantum data encryption.

And now, these quantum encryption techniques may be one step closer to wide-scale use thanks to a new system developed by scientists at Duke University, The Ohio State University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Their system is capable of creating and distributing encryption codes at megabit-per-second rates, which is five to 10 times faster than existing methods and on par with current internet speeds when running several systems in parallel.

The researchers demonstrate that the technique is secure from common attacks, even in the face of equipment flaws that could open up leaks.

“We are now likely to have a functioning quantum computer that might be able to start breaking the existing cryptographic codes in the near future,” said Daniel Gauthier, a professor of physics at The Ohio State University. “We really need to be thinking hard now of different techniques that we could use for trying to secure the internet.”

The results appear online Nov. 24 in Science Advances.

To a hacker, our online purchases, bank transactions and medical records all look like gibberish due to ciphers called encryption keys. Personal information sent over the web is first scrambled using one of these keys, and then unscrambled by the receiver using the same key. 

For this system to work, both parties must have access to the same key, and it must be kept secret. Quantum key distribution (QKD) takes advantage of one of the fundamental properties of quantum mechanics -- measuring tiny bits of matter like electrons or photons automatically changes their properties -- to exchange keys in a way that immediately alerts both parties to the existence of a security breach. 

Though QKD was first theorized in 1984 and implemented shortly thereafter, the technologies to support its wide-scale use are only now coming online. Companies in Europe now sell laser-based systems for QKD, and in a highly-publicized event last summer, China used a satellite to send a quantum key to two land-based stations located 1200 km apart.

The problem with many of these systems, said Nurul Taimur Islam, a graduate student in physics at Duke, is that they can only transmit keys at relatively low rates -- between tens to hundreds of kilobits per second -- which are too slow for most practical uses on the internet.

“At these rates, quantum-secure encryption systems cannot support some basic daily tasks, such as hosting an encrypted telephone call or video streaming,” Islam said.

Like many QKD systems, Islam’s key transmitter uses a weakened laser to encode information on individual photons of light. But they found a way to pack more information onto each photon, making their technique faster.

By adjusting the time at which the photon is released, and a property of the photon called the phase, their system can encode two bits of information per photon instead of one. This trick, paired with high-speed detectors developed by Clinton Cahall, graduate student in electrical and computer engineering, and Jungsang Kim, professor of electrical and computer engineering at Duke, powers their system to transmit keys five to 10 times faster than other methods.

“It was changing these additional properties of the photon that allowed us to almost double the secure key rate that we were able to obtain if we hadn’t done that,” said Gauthier, who began the work as a professor of physics at Duke before moving to OSU.

Related...

In a perfect world, QKD would be perfectly secure. Any attempt to hack a key exchange would leave errors on the transmission that could be easily spotted by the receiver. But real-world implementations of QKD require imperfect equipment, and these imperfections open up leaks that hackers can exploit.

The researchers carefully characterized the limitations of each piece of equipment they used. They then worked with Charles Lim, currently a professor of electrical and computer engineering at the National University of Singapore, to incorporate these experimental flaws into the theory.

“We wanted to identify every experimental flaw in the system, and include these flaws in the theory so that we could ensure our system is secure and there is no potential side-channel attack,” Islam said.

Though their transmitter requires some specialty parts, all of the components are currently available commercially. Encryption keys encoded in photons of light can be sent over existing optical fiber lines that burrow under cities, making it relatively straightforward to integrate their transmitter and receiver into the current internet infrastructure.

“All of this equipment, apart from the single-photon detectors, exist in the telecommunications industry, and with some engineering we could probably fit the entire transmitter and receiver in a box as big as a computer CPU,” Islam said.

This research was supported by the Office of Naval Research Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative program on Wavelength-Agile QKD in a AQ12 Marine Environment (N00014-13-1-0627) and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Defense Sciences Office Information in a Photon program. Additional support was provided by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, operated by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract no. DE-AC05-00OR22725, and National University of Singapore startup grant R-263-000-C78-133/731.

CITATION:  "Provably Secure and High-Rate Quantum Key Distribution With Time-Bin Qudits," Nurul T. Islam, Charles Ci Wen Lim, Clinton Cahall, Jungsang Kim and Daniel J. Gauthier. Science Advances, Nov. 24, 2017. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1701491

Source: This article was published today.duke.edu By AKARA MANKE

Categorized in Internet Privacy

Rather than becoming ubiquitous in homes as expected, the Internet of Things (IoT) has become the butt of jokes, in part because of major security and privacy issues. UK mobile chip designer ARM -- which created the architecture used by Qualcomm, Samsung and others -- has a lot to lose if it doesn't take off. As such, it has unveiled a new security framework called Platform Security Architecture (PSA) that will help designers build security directly into device firmware.

ARM notes that "many of the biggest names in the industry" have signed on to support PSA (sorry ARM, that's a bad acronym). That includes Google Cloud Platform, Sprint, Softbank, which owns ARM, and Cisco. (A complete list is shown in the image below.)

The main component of it is an open-source reference "Firmware-M" that the company will unveil for Armv8-M systems in early 2018. ARM said that PSA also gives hardware, software and cloud platform designers IoT threat models, security analyses, and hardware and firmware architecture specifications, based on a "best practice approach" for consumer devices.

Despite Intel's best efforts, ARM is far and away the most prevalent architecture used in connected homes for security devices, light bulbs, appliances and more. ARM says that over 100 billion IoT devices using its designs have shipped, and expects another 100 billion by 2021. Improving the notoriously bad security of such devices is a good start, but it also behooves manufacturers to create compelling devices, not pointless ones.

Source: This article was published engadget.com By Steve Dent

Categorized in Internet of Things

ISPs and providers can now sell your personal data thanks to the U.S. Congress. Here’s what you can do to maintain your online privacy.

ISPs and providers can now sell your data and browser histories. The U.S. Congress sold you out. If you had any browsing dignity, you don’t now. Too bad you couldn’t pay the legislators as much as the data wolves.

You should have been doing these things all along, but now it’s time to decide just how much dignity you have. Most of you won’t bother. This isn’t for you. Click away, and go surf.

For those remaining, take these privacy tips seriously.

1. Educate yourself about cookies and clean them out regularly

For some of you, this means a daily cleanout. What you DO NOT clean out (will cause you hassles) are cookies associated with financial institutions. They will put you through a drill when they don’t find the cookie that they like. Scrape them. Every browser has the ability to do this, with Chrome being the most difficult. But we’re not surprised because it’s from Google—the company whose very life depends on knowing information about you.

2. Use two, or even three, browsers 

You can divide your cookies up this way. I use Firefox for business. Chrome for Facebook and, when I absolutely must, for gmail—as I volunteer for an organization that uses it extensively because they’re dirt poor. You still have to clean each browser. Add the EFF’s Privacy Badger to each. For fun, run Ghostery and Privacy Badger to catch it all.

3. Disable Flash or option it 

Use Flash only when you must. When you use a Flash blocker, you can often run web pages without it. Examples include United Airlines and PayPal. The only time you should use Flash is if a page refuses to load without it. Flash can suck enormous amounts of historical data from your browser in a heartbeat. 

4. Change your DNS server 

When you type https://www.facebook.com, the first thing that happens is your browser asks a DNS server for Facebook’s current IP address. Every request you make of a browser is looked up in this way. And most cable broadband services and ISPs use DNS servers that log your every search. Surprise! 

Everywhere you go, the time and your personally identifiable IP address become logged to serve up as tasty data for those that would abuse it. Change it. Every operating system does this differently. Look up how to do it. DO NOT USE GOOGLE’S DNS server. Use one that doesn’t log you. The DNS.Watch servers do not log requests. They’re not especially fast or slow, in my experience. Comcast, by contrast, will eat your DNS request information up to seven times before giving your browser the actual answer in my experience. There are DNS servers. Stop the DNS logging; one more garden hose you put your heel into. 

5. Lose search engines that track you. Now

Yep, Google, Bing and Yahoo track you. Instead use DuckDuckGo.com. They don’t track. You can proxy requests that aren’t tracked to each of these from DuckDuckGo. Stop feeding the demons.

The biggie search engines have a business model built upon serving you pimped/paid-for results, and noting exactly what you searched for so that you can be served up ads—and eventually your IP address and browsing habits can be correlated into dossiers on you and your search history. Often these can also be used to conflate “things” or characteristics about you, and you have no redress when they make mistakes. You built Google’s billions. It wasn’t because Google was benign. 

6. Use the Tor browser(s) 

The Onion Router/TOR uses a network within a network to obscure the origin of requests made of the network. It puts you on radar because it behaves differently, but it does provide a degree of anonymity. It’s not perfect, and I suspect it’s been cracked, but only by the governmental spooks who don’t sell your data. At least I hope they don’t. 

7. Remove your information on websites

Some sites will allow you to delete your personally identifiable information and search histories. Looking at you, Google. Go to these sites. Carefully follow the instructions regarding deleting your history. Then return later, and make sure it’s gone. Unfortunately, this is a rinse-repeat item, as sometimes histories magically return. Oh, gosh! That shouldn’t happen. 

8. If you have the luxury, change ISPs

You may be captive to Charter, AT&T, Google, Comcast, etc. But if you live in an area with multiple providers, change. Why? You get a good deal for being a new subscriber (watch contract details). And the ISP you currently have is no longer able to vacuum all of the details you generate in using internet services. Their data has gaps and isn’t as valuable.

9. Use virtual machines

Yes, running a virtual machine for the sole purpose of disguising a browser works. It’s a different browser and is typified from an analytics perspective as possibly a different user. Clean each VM’s history just like you would above, and use the same techniques mentioned above as well. It makes life more difficult for the data grazers.

10. Modify your browser as little as possible

Browsers are typified into single individuals by weird things such as font mix, add-ins and extensions. The less a browser is messed with, the less unique it is. Uniqueness helps personal identification and correlation of analytical data captured at websites about the browser. Be generic.

Finally, use https log-ons only. There are so many reasons to do this. Freedom and dignity are important. Exercise them.

Source: This article was published networkworld.com By Tom Henderson

Categorized in Internet Privacy
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