Have you ever had your content stolen? If you have, I can relate.

Several years ago during the early days of BKA Content, we had just finished up a comprehensive redesign of our company website. This effort took time, money, and the creative talents of several people who put their hearts and souls into carefully crafting the content on our pages that would speak to the hearts of our audience.

A month or two after the launch of our newly redesigned site, I received a strange phone call from a man claiming he had just purchased our website and had some questions about how the website worked.

Since our website was certainly not for sale, I was completely confused by this claim and thus investigated to find out what had really happened.

Long story short, this man had purchased a “successful content creation” business from a popular online marketplace that sold websites. The creators (copiers, thieves, low lifes) that sold the site literally duplicated the text verbatim from our website, changed our images a little bit, and slapped a new company name on it and sold it to this poor man for a ridiculous sum of money. These idiots were so lazy that they even left our phone numbers on the page, which is how this man was able to contact us to ultimately find out he had been swindled by thieves.

This bizarre experience really helped me to understand firsthand how much stolen content can hurt. It wasn’t fair for these thieves to take the work that I spent time and money on and then duplicate it and call it their own.

While this is a pretty extreme example of blatant content stealing in order to turn a profit, the truth is that most content is stolen more subtly with scrapers and bots. These methods of duplicating content can be just as harmful as the experience I shared.

So I ask again, have you ever had your content stolen? If you aren’t sure, I’m going to show you how to find out and what to do about it.

Duplicate Content is Bad

Before I show you how to search for duplicate content, let’s briefly go over how Google deals with duplicate content.

In 2013, Google’s Matt Cutts said that 25-30% of the content on the web is duplicative. I’m sure that number is higher now, but that’s a butt load of copied content! Because duplicate content is so prevalent, Google does not penalize it. That’s right; Google does not penalize duplicate content unless it is pure spam.

So if there is no penalty for copying something, then why should we care who copies our content?

The biggest reason is that when duplicate content exists, it makes Google’s job harder to filter it and decide which version of the content to display in search results. This means the content you have spent time and money on creating may never show up in the results, but the thieves’ version of your content will.

Google’s failing to filter the original version of the content leads to site owners suffering lower rankings, lower traffic, and being less of a relevant authority in search.

The wrong content showing up in search engines can damage your brand’s authority and can undermine your content marketing efforts substantially.

The only instance when duplicating your content makes sense is when choosing to syndicate it. While I won’t get into the intricate details of how to do this, please note that great care should be taken to ensure you syndicate correctly to maintain proper attribution.

How to Find Stolen Content
1. Copyscape


Copyscape has been around for as long as I can remember, and still is considered to be one of the most reliable tools in finding duplicate content.

Copyscape allows you to check an existing URL for duplicate content on the web. This tool is free to use; however, the number of results are limited. If you want to be able to see more results, you’ll have to sign up for their premium account.

Copyscape Premium is ideal if you need to check content in bulk, or if you want to check content you haven’t even posted online yet at five cents per search.

If you want your website to be automatically monitored for copies of your content, their Copysentry service has two different plans that can check your content weekly or daily and then alert you when copies are found.


dmca scan

DMCA stands for The Digital Millennium Copyright Act which details the rights content owners have when they believe their content has been stolen.

DMCA.com allows for two free scans of your website to check for copied content. You can pay $10 a month for their Protection Pro plan to scan your website as much as you want per month.

Both the paid and free subscription options allow you to create a website certificate as well as badges to authenticate the ownership of your content to potentially deter thieves.

3. Google Alerts

Google Alerts is a simple way to quickly find copied content, and it’s FREE!

Create an alert by copying and pasting some of your content into the search query field. You can then set the parameters of whether or not you would like to be notified every day or once a week if Google finds copies.

It’s important to note that Google alerts searches for any of the words that you paste into the search query.

Example: If I put the sentence above into the search query, you can see the results it finds in the alert preview and the partial word matches in bold text:


This means that not all of the alerts may be accurate; however, it is easy to spot the true alerts since the results will match the entire string of words you put into your search query verbatim.

Example: If I use some ‘Lorum ipsum’ text, see how the entire string is reflected in the alert preview?


How to Get Duplicate Content Removed

1. Contact Them

I know this sounds simple, but I’ve experienced a lot of successful takedown requests this way. Most websites and blogs have a contact form, email address or phone number listed on the site.

Inform the offending site that the content has been stolen, provide a link to the original piece of content, and ask them to take it down immediately to avoid an official DMCA takedown complaint.

If the webmaster is slow to respond, or if your sensible request is being ignored, another option is to contact the offender’s web hosting service directly. There are several free websites that can help you get this information such as Who is Hosting This by simply typing in the URL of the offending website.


Once you have the information of the web host, follow the same steps as previously mentioned to contact them and report the content infringement. Most web hosting services do a great job of responding quickly, and in many instances take down the entire offending website.

2. Google

If you find out that someone else is reaping all of the traffic benefits by ranking well using your stolen content, you can file a DMCA complaint against them using Google Search Console.

If Google agrees with the complaint you file, then they will remove the stolen content from the search engines, thus rendering it completely useless to the offender.

Google asks for quite a bit of information in their form as they want to make sure they are justified in removing results. Take the time they require in order to give them all of the information to build your case.

It is important to note that Google takedown requests are per page only, so depending on how many pages of content have been copied, be prepared to spend some time here. Revenge is sweet, right?

3. Takedown Services

As you can see, getting people to takedown stolen content can take time and effort. For some webmasters, they are simply too busy to handle takedown requests on top of their normal workload. Thankfully there are several third party takedown services that can perform this whole process for you.

While cost can vary between these many services, the main benefit is that you can leverage their legal services to strike the fear of god into the face of your offenders to get fast results.

Do a simple “DMCA takedown services” search on Google to compare pricing and packages.


Don’t make the mistake of not knowing if your content has been stolen and where it is being duplicated. Finding out is quick, easy, and costs very little compared to the costs you can incur if left unchecked. I implore you to protect your content, fight the good fight, and don’t let the bad guys win!

Source:  https://www.searchenginejournal.com/3-ways-find-stolen-content-take-action/162831/

Categorized in Internet Privacy

What are CISO’s (Chief Information Security Officers) worrying about in 2016?

According to the recent 2016 Security Pressures report from Trustwave, theft of information from a successful breach or cyber-attack ranks as the top worrying outcome for nearly two-thirds of respondents.

With the Identity Theft Resource Center placing the number of records exposed from data breaches in 2015 somewhere around 170 million, it’s no surprise.

Security professionals rate customer data theft (43%) as their No. 1 worry followed by intellectual property theft (22%), so that those top two classes of theft amount to 65% of the total concern.

Website disruption made the largest jump year over year; increasing from 7% last year to 13% in this year’s report – in Australia, 19% of respondents list their website being taken offline as the top issue of concern.

This change could be related to the fact that the number of distributed denial-of-service incidents reached record highs during 2015, according to Akamai.

However, it is interesting to note that the number of respondents who feel safe from security threats rose from 70% to 74%. That increase was due in part to the Australian CISO segment, where an eye-opening 88% of respondents claim to feel safe from security threats. Creating a strange sense of schizophrenic personality disorder, over half of the same Australian respondents readily admit their organization has experienced a challenging and costly breach. No, I don’t know what it means, either.

58% of respondents are more pressured to protect against external threats, while 42% feel the other way, up four percentage points from last year. The split is not surprising, considering attacks orchestrated by participants unknown to the victim typically are the ones that drive the headlines. But insider attacks are more likely to go unreported, yet they can actually have the greater impact because they are being perpetrated – either purposefully or unwittingly – by users who are trusted on the network.

Of the respondents most concerned about internal threats, 24% are bothered by non-malicious individuals who may commit unintended security risks, like emailing a sensitive file to their personal email address or losing a laptop. 18%, meanwhile, are more worried about malicious insiders, a group that may be motivated by greed or frustration to wage harm on the corporate network.

What all of this tells me is what we actually already know: Breaches are growing in both volume and economic impact and are succeeding in disrupting all networks most of the time and we seem to be completely incapable of stopping or slowing them down.

As we continue to monitor and report these statistics and the results of these endless surveys, the cyber-security threat continues to increase in frequency, complexity and sophistication.

The targets have expanded to include supposedly well-protected Federal Government agencies like the CIA, FBI, NSA, OPM and Homeland Security (making me feel increasingly less secure). The success rate is now phenomenal.

Do we really need surveys to tell us this? Do they expect that suddenly the trends will be headed in the other direction?

The facts are that the bad guys are winning and winning big. Our corporate boards appear to be generally clueless and in denial, joined now by their government counterparts who appear even more clueless and/or in greater denial.

I do know that if we don’t start to take this stuff seriously, we are in for a long cold winter. If you want to understand better how this cyber-security mystery works, I strongly recommend picking up a copy of “Worm – The First Digital World War” by Mark Bowden. It is a non-hysterical, completely rational insight into how malware works (in English), how the bad guys do what they do, and how they continue to get away with it.

Then after you read it, write your board and your Congressperson. This is neither a game nor an aberration that is going to go away one day. We are not going to “fix” it by using current means, talent and technology either.

It increasingly feels to me that we are all part of the cast of an existential version of Clueless and we can’t find a way off the set.

Source:  https://www.netswitch.net/clueless-in-cyber-security-land/

Categorized in Internet Ethics

Google is marking Safer Internet Day, which falls today, by introducing new authentication features to Gmail to help better identify emails that could prove to be harmful or are not fully secure.

The company said last year that it would beef up security measures and identify emails that arrive over an unencrypted connection and now it has implemented that plan for Gmail, which Google just announced has passed one billion active users. Beyond just flagging emails sent over unsecured connections, Google also warns users who are sending.

Gmail on the web will alert users when they are sending email to a recipient whose account is not encrypted with a little open lock in the top-right corner. That same lock will appear if you receive an email from an account that is not encrypted.

encrypted gmail

Encryption is important for email because it lowers the possibility that a message might be hijacked by a third-party. Google switched to HTTPS some while ago to ensure that all Gmail-to-Gmail emails are encrypted, but not all other providers have made the move. Last year, Google said that 57 percent of messages that users on other email providers send to Gmail are encrypted, while 81 percent of outgoing messages from Gmail are, too.

Another measure implemented today shows users when they receive a message from an email account that can’t be authenticated. If a sender’s profile picture is a question mark, that means Gmail was not able to authenticate them.

authenticated gmail

Authentication is one method for assessing whether an email is a phishing attempt or another kind of malicious attack designed to snare a user’s data or information.

“If you receive a message from a big sender (like a financial institution, or a major email provider, like Google, Yahoo or Hotmail) that isn’t authenticated, this message is most likely forged and you should be careful about replying to it or opening any attachments,” Google explained in its Gmail help section.


Unauthenticated emails aren’t necessarily dangerous, but, with this new indicator, Google is giving users more visibility on potential threats to help them make better decisions related to their online security.

Finally, because good news is supposed to come in threes, Google said today that it is gifting users 2GB of addition storage for Google Drive at no cost. To grab the freebie, simply complete the new security checkup for your Google account.

The process, which Google claimed takes just two minutes, will see you check your recovery information, which devices are connected to your account and what permissions that you’ve enabled. Google offered the same deal last year for Safer Internet Day, and the company said the 2GB expansion is open to all users — including those who snagged 2GB last year. (Small caveat: the offer isn’t open to Google Apps for Work or Google Apps for Education accounts.)

Simply head to your Google account to get started.

Source:  http://techcrunch.com/2016/02/09/gmail-now-warns-users-when-they-send-and-receive-email-over-unsecured-connections/

Categorized in Science & Tech

You’ve put hard work into building your website, but can people find it? Even with top search engine placement, if customers aren’t searching for your business’s product or service, they may not be able to find you. For today’s businesses, the best way to get the word out is to find those potential customers online, where they spend the most time.

Facebook is the most popular social media platform, with a 61-percent market share. Because of its popularity, it remains one of the best options for letting customers know about your website and encouraging them to click over. With so much competition, however, it can be hard to get your message across to customers. Here are a few ways Facebook can help push your website to the next level.

Invite Facebook Interaction

The first step toward promoting your website on Facebook starts on your website. Your visitors should easily be able to find a link to your Facebook page so that they can click over and like your business there. You should also add “like” buttons to your product descriptions and blog posts to give customers a chance to let their Facebook friends know what they’re enjoying on your site. When you post a blog, don’t settle for the basic comment box common to blog posts. Instead add a Facebook comment box, as well, to give your visitors the chance to comment in a way that will show up on their newsfeeds.

Promote Posted Content

One of the best ways to increase visitorship to your site is by adding compelling content. Create an insightful, informative blog post that is likely to appeal to your target customer, then post that link to your Facebook page. Some of your page followers will click over and read the post and some may even share on their own feeds. The more interesting the content, the more likely you’ll encourage shares. Those new readers will be introduced to your brand for the first time thanks to the content you created, possibly leading to a sale. At the very least, you’ll have brought visitors to a site they wouldn’t have known about otherwise.

Place an Ad

If you’re only posting updates to your own page, you’re likely speaking solely to the customers who already know about you. To reach new customers, consider paying for a Facebook ad to direct traffic to your website. For best results, promote a specific product, event, or service you offer and use professional-quality images to draw attention to your ads. When the text and images in your ads are optimized to generate click-throughs, you’ll get a better return on your investment. The new customers your paid ads bring will follow your future marketing efforts, helping you slowly grow a loyal audience.

Host a Contest

A contest is a great way to generate traffic across platforms. You can host the contest on your website and encourage people to take action on Facebook to qualify for entry into the contest. To make it more effective, ask participants to complete an action that will get their own followers’ attention, like sharing photos or videos of themselves interacting with your brand. Visuals are more likely to get attention than a mere like or text-based post. Make sure you stay within Facebook’s rules for contests to avoid your contest being blocked.

Ask for Feedback

A subtle, but very useful, way to get the word out about your website is to ask your social media followers for their thoughts. If you’ve conducted a major redesign or made changes to the look of your site, post a poll to Facebook asking your customers to tell you what they think. If you sell products through your website, post a poll to help you decide which product to carry next or ask your followers their favorite flavor or color of an item. Customers will enjoy being part of the process and you’ll effectively draw attention to your website.

Facebook is the perfect tool for getting the word out about your business’s website. When done correctly, you’ll be able to increase loyalty among your existing followers, while also reaching out to customers who have not yet heard of your brand. Aside from paid advertising, this marketing is free, making it accessible to even the most budget-challenged businesses.

Source: https://www.computer.org/web/computingnow/startups/content?g=53319&type=article&urlTitle=5-ways-facebook-can-make-or-break-your-website

Categorized in Online Research

Firewall is a term that most internet users are familiar with. They may have come across the term at the office when they browse the web, or at home, when several people use the same connection, where security needs to be setup. But what is Firewall, and how does it work? Although many people might have heard of the term, few are aware of its uses.

‘Firewall’ refers to a security system that is employed to keep out the viruses and doubtful networks. It  can be software based or hardware based. It regulates the information flowing in and out of the network and have a set of rules that is used to filter the trusted networks, prevent unauthorized access of information, as well as remote access to your network.

Most Firewalls employ the use of filters, which means the information or data that is flagged by the filters are not allowed through. Firewalls use several methods for this purpose; packet filtering, application gateways, proxy service and Stateful inspection. The good thing is, Firewalls are customizable, allowing you to choose the unique features for your protection online. You can customize them according to the level of security you need. Often, Firewalls use two or more of the techniques mentioned above for greater security. Such Firewalls are known as Hybrid Firewalls. You can also use settings which block out content with certain words, which is often done in offices, or at home, to filter out inappropriate content when children are using computers.

There are also several options of Firewall security that can be used. You may choose between the hardware firewall and a software firewall. Hardware firewall can be purchased, but usually comes preinstalled on a standard router, while software firewall is installed on computers as an added security measure. Hardware firewall is used typically by large corporations, who want a single security umbrella for several departments and systems. They can hide your IP from the connections outside, along with providing protection within corporations and between departments. However, since it is a place based security system, it is usually not recommended for individual users and personal computers. Software Firewalls can operate outside your home and office, hence it is recommended for digital security when you are on the move.

Firewall is a useful tool in protecting your PC from the external environment. It protects your computer from harmful content while protecting your personal information being sent out. It acts as a guard screening all the incoming and outgoing traffic from your computer. While different security levels can be established by different settings on Firewalls, it can also be customized to suit your needs. You can also choose between the hardware and software firewall, both of which work well in different situations.


Firewall is a security system to protect your PC from the external environment. They are customizable, for you to choose a combination that suits your needs. Yu can also choose between the hardware and software firewall, both of which work well in different situations. 


Categorized in Internet Privacy

Note: After reading this editorial, please visit the transcript of the discussion forum to view readers' comments.

Mrs. Wohfiehl was the type of teacher other teachers sought to emulate. She was intelligent, hardworking, and innovative, and she loved to teach. She frequently used Internet search engines and directories to locate materials and lessons related to her fourth grade students' needs, and she identified resources on the World Wide Web that fit with the learning objectives in her classroom. She used e-mail frequently, and she belonged to several listservs, many of which put her in touch with a wide variety of educators -- from inservice and preservice classroom teachers to college professors. Her favorite listserv encouraged friendly, helpful interaction among professionals and discouraged flaming and spamming.

She was shocked one day when she discovered that someone had posted a message to this listserv that contained pornographic images and abusive language. The list manager immediately removed the message from the list archives and took steps to prevent its author from posting to the list in future; she also kept others on the list apprised of the situation and what was being done to resolve it. After some investigation it was determined that the child of one list member had sent the message. No one who knew the child could believe that this honor student had done such a thing.

Mrs. Wohfiehl felt that it was important for her students to have access to the vast resources available on the World Wide Web and to make the most of e-mail. However, receiving the disturbing message on the listserv made her think about the guidance she needed to give her students as they learned to use the Internet. The Internet provided her students with ready access to all sorts of people, and not all of them would model appropriate and ethical Internet behavior.

The next weekend, Mrs. Wohfiehl spent some time searching the Internet for ways in which schools, agencies, and parents had dealt with unethical behavior on the Internet. She soon found herself researching not only how to deal with inappropriate messages on listservs but also issues related to dissemination of misinformation, flaming, defamation, harassment, obscenity, incitement, impersonation, plagiarism, privacy, viruses and worms, security breaches, abusing the property rights of others, spamming, fraud, and exploitation. Though all these things concerned her, she determined that her most immediate need for her students was helping them understand and respond to plagiarism, invasion of privacy, and exploitation with relation to the Internet.

Of course, we are all familiar with the terrifying cases of sexual exploitation of children facilitated by the Internet. The U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation website describes cases of e-mail transmission of pornographic images of children and of pedophiles who prey on children they meet in chat rooms. And we have all had the experience of conducting an Internet search, only to have our seemingly innocent keywords yield links to explicit websites.

But another, subtler form of exploitation of children involves invasion of privacy. For example, at some websites where contests are sponsored, children are asked to provide a considerable amount of personal information as a prerequisite to winning prizes. Many innocently respond, unaware that their personal data will be used for marketing purposes. In 1998, David E. DeSantis (online document) reported that of the 69 million children in the United States, almost 10 million (14%) had Internet access either from school or home. Children clearly represent a large and rapidly growing segment of online consumers, and companies that produce and market products for children are well aware of this fact.

Besides wanting to protect her students from all forms of exploitation, Mrs. Wohfiehl was concerned about the way they used Internet resources in their classroom research. She wanted to ensure that the students were aware that material on the Internet belonged to the people who developed it. She believed that though children should be encouraged to search for new information and ways of presenting it, they should have a basic understanding of copyright and know how to cite Internet sources in order to give appropriate credit for information they might use.

Guidelines for Classroom Use of the Internet

While searching the Internet, Mrs. Wohfiehl found a wealth of material that gave her ideas for addressing inappropriate and unethical behavior on the web. The next week, she discussed plagiarism, privacy, and exploitation with her fourth graders, and she and the children generated the following list of rules for use of the Internet in their classroom.

Copyright laws and fair use guidelines must be followed when using anyone else's material in research and writing. Sources must be properly cited. Visit any of these pages for help in how to give proper credit for Internet resources:

Electronic Reference Formats Recommended by the American Psychological Association
“Documenting Sources from the World Wide Web” from the MLA Style section of the Modern Language Association website
The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions' Library & Information Science: Citation Guides for Electronic Documents

Material created by others has to be respected. No one should delete or change anyone else's material without permission.

Students should not share passwords or try to break into anyone else's password-protected material.

Software, including freeware and shareware, must be given to the teacher so she and the school's media specialist can review it before it is installed on any school computer.

The Internet may only be used for tasks related to classroom assignments.

Students should not download files from the Internet (including documents, browser plug-ins, or freeware) without checking with the teacher first.

Students should not complete any fill-in forms or provide any information about themselves online without first checking with the teacher.

The Internet must not be used for sending or receiving copyrighted material without permission; for viewing or distributing pornographic material; or for sending messages that use obscene, abusive, or threatening language or that violate another person's right to privacy.

Guidelines for Parents

Mrs. Wohfiehl knew that many of her students had Internet access at home, so she sent a note to each child's parents, offering the following guidelines.

Children should be counseled to tell a parent or trusted adult immediately if they come across any Internet content that makes them feel uncomfortable.

Children should not give out any personal information without the permission of a parent or other responsible adult.

Children should never agree to meet face to face with someone they met online without first getting permission from a parent or responsible adult.

The child should not download any software from any source without first checking with a parent or trusted adult.

Children and parents need to work together to establish the ground rules for going online. These rules should include time of day, length of time, and permitted activities or websites.

Filtering the Internet

Despite guidelines such as these, it is all too easy for children to stumble on highly disturbing material on the Internet. There are, however, many software packages that can help teachers and parents prevent children from accessing pornographic, violent, or otherwise offensive material. These packages usually work by searching for certain phrases and words in a data stream coming from a website. If these words are detected, the software prevents the material from being transmitted by shutting down the computer or hanging up the modem, or it blocks display of content from the site. Though there are many such software packages, some of the more commonly known are CYBERsitter, SurfWatch, Cyber Patrol, The Internet Filter, and Net Nanny.

In addition, some Internet search engines and directories now offer special “safe sites” designed for children. Two of these are Yahoo's popular Yahooligans and Lycos Zone.

Making the Net Safer for Students

Mrs. Wohfiehl's research convinced her that there were two ways to make certain the children in her class were safe on the Internet: by limiting the ways in which they could encounter material that did not contribute to their education, and -- perhaps most importantly -- by teaching them how to deal with such material if they did encounter it. She knew that as they got older they would often be put in situations where they would have to decide between right and wrong. Besides relying on the Internet as a classroom information resource, she intended to use it as a stepping stone to teaching her students about safety, responsibility, appropriate behavior, and ethics.

Some Additional Online Resources

Guidelines for Using the Internet

  • Netscape's “Children and the Internet”
  • Children and the Internet, an annotated list of links from the Three Rivers Free-Net
  • A Perfect Match: Children and the Internet, at the site of the American Library Association (be sure to click on the Resource list link)
  • Guiding Children Through Cyberspace -- URLs, an extensive list of links prepared by a Virginia (USA) librarian
  • Children and the Internet, a brief list of resources from the Wisconsin Intellectual Freedom Round Table
  • Internet Safety for Kids from the Harlingen (Texas) Consolidated Independent School District
  • Use of Computing and Networked Information Resources, a policy statement from the West Shore (Pennsylvania) School District
  • Student Network Responsibility Contract from the Chico (California) Unified School District
  • Student Internet Use Agreement from North High School in the Eau Claire (Wisconsin) Area School District
  • Filtering the Internet

Netscape NetWatch

Children and the Internet?, a page from the Babies-Online.com site
Policing Cyberspace, an article from Canada's Maclean's magazine

Chat room: A chat room is a location on the Internet where communication can take place in “real time.” When you've logged on to a chat room, everything you type appears on the screens of everyone else who is at that Internet location to participate in that particular chat. Each participant's statements are labeled with a nickname to identify who is talking. Participants choose their own nicknames and often decide against sharing their real names, either to preserve anonymity or to take on a new persona. Chat rooms are usually organized around a particular topic (for example, ROL has conducted chats about several of its postings) and provide a place to “meet” people who share similar interests.

Flaming: Originally, “flaming” meant to express oneself in an e-mail or post to an online discussion in a passionate manner in the spirit of honorable debate. Flaming well was an art form. More recently, flame has come to refer to any kind of derogatory or mean-spirited comment. A “flame war” occurs when an online discussion degenerates into a series of personal attacks against the debators, rather than discussion of their positions.

Internet: The vast collection of interconnected networks that all use the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved from the Arpanet of the late 1960s and early '70s. Together, the Internet gives access to websites on the World Wide Web, e-mail, listservs, and other forms of electronic communication and transmittal of data.

Listserv: The most common kind of e-mailing list, “Listserv” is actually a registered trademark of L-Soft International, a software firm that developed one of the most popular mailing list packages. The word, usually with a lowercase l, has now come to refer to any group mailing list which a user can join to receive or post messages to other members of the group. Examples include ROL's own mailing list (a list that provides subscribers with “e-mail alerts” of new content at the site) and RTEACHER, a list connected with the International Reading Association's print journal The Reading Teacher.

Spamming: An inappropriate use of a mailing list, listserv, or other networked communications facility to send the same message to a large number of people who didn't ask for it. The term may come from some Internet users' low opinion of the food product with the same name or from a Monty Python skit that features the word spam used repeatedly.

Definitions in this glossary are based on those found in Enzer, M. (1994-99). Glossary of Internet Terms. Available:http://www.matisse.net/files/glossary.html. 

Categorized in Internet Ethics
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