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Are you conducting market research? Qualitative research is an important first step in the market research process. In this guide, we’ll share 7 qualitative research methods for understanding your user.

Qualitative research is important for gaining a broad understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations behind consumer decisions.

We’ll share the qualitative research methods in just a moment, but before we dive in, let’s briefly discuss the basics.

What is Qualitative Market Research?

Qualitative market research is any research conducted using observation or unstructured questioning.

While quantitative research answers the what, where, when and who of decision making, qualitative research also answers the why and how.

Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research

The goal of qualitative research is to gain insights into the deeper motives behind consumer purchases.

The goal of the quantitative research, on the other hand, is to quantify and generalize the results so that the marketer can come to a final conclusion about the best course of action.

marketing-research-an-online-perpective-17-638

Why use qualitative research as opposed to quantitative research?

Well, first of all, qualitative research should not be used instead of quantitative research. The two are complementary to each other.

Qualitative research in and of itself is not conclusive. However, it is used to…

  • Explain quantitative research results
  • Conduct market research when traditional surveys are not available (e.g. with embarrassing or “touchy” questions)
  • Conduct market research when more structured research is not possible

Qualitative research is a good first step to take when conducting your market research. Are you ready to learn how?

Great! Let’s dive into the 7 qualitative research techniques…

1. Individual Interviews

An individual interview can be conducted over the phone, Skype, or in person. The idea is to ask your ideal user (or an existing customer) a series of questions and follow-ups to learn what motivates them to buy a product like yours.

You should go into the interview with some questions prepared ahead of time, but don’t feel like you need to stick to a script. If they say something interesting, ask follow up questions that dig deeper. Really try to put yourself in their shoes, and try to figure out what makes them tick.

Here are a few initial questions you could ask:

  • What frustrates you in regard to [your topic]?
  • If I had a magic wand and could give you anything you want, what do you most desire?
  • What do you lose sleep over at night?
  • Have you bought [your type of product] before?
  • If so, what motivated you to buy it?

2. Focus Groups

Focus groups are generally conducted in-person. These groups are meant to provide a safe and comfortable environment for your users to talk about their thoughts and feelings surrounding your product.

focus-group

The advantage of using in-person focus groups is that you get to see the consumer’s verbal and non-verbal reaction to your product or advertising. The other advantage is that the different members of the group can bounce off each other’s thoughts and ideas, which means you’ll get even greater insights.

You can use focus groups to:

  • Test product usage or tasting
  • Explore the general concept of your product
  • Evaluate your advertising copy and imagery
  • Explore new packaging ideas

3. Observations or “Shop-Alongs”

An in-person observation of shopping behavior (or a “shop-along”) allows you to actually watch the consumer react to your product in-store. This way, you get to see their actual shopping behavior, as opposed to just what they would claim in a written survey.

shopper-eyetracking

One way that this is useful is by highlighting challenges that arise from shelf display issues, clutter, or out of stock issues. You may also interact with consumers to get deeper insights during the shopping process, to get feedback on a package design, for example.

4. In-Home Videos

In-home videos allow you to observe how users interact with your product in real life, at home.

The advantage of this method is that you get to observe user behavior in a natural, comfortable environment. This way, they can feel free to simply be themselves, and you’ll get a more realistic view of how your product is being used.

5. Lifestyle Immersion and Real World Dialogue

Lifestyle immersion is when you attend an event, such as a party or a family gathering. This allows you to get an uninterrupted view of your user’s attitudes and behaviors. This is another great way to get candid insight in a comfortable, familiar setting.

During these activities, observe your users having a dialogue with their friends. Listening in to real-world conversations is a really powerful way to get a deeper understanding of their desires, frustrations, and motivations.

6. Journal or Diary

Have your user (or potential user) keep a journal or a diary to document their experience with your topic or your product.

This can be handwritten or digital. Either way, it will allow you to capture your user’s actual voice, which is extremely valuable for marketing copy.

7. Online Focus Groups

Online focus groups are similar to in-person focus groups, except that they are more cost-efficient and allow you to reach more people.

Use social media to your advantage by creating communities of people who are interested in your topic, and fostering a conversation. Then, simply observe the dialogue. You’ll gain a lot of interesting insights!

How to Analyze Qualitative Data

At this point you may be wondering, how do you actually analyze qualitative data after you’ve gathered it?

Since qualitative data is unstructured, it can be tricky to draw conclusions from it, let alone present your findings. While it is not meant to be conclusive in and of itself, here are a few tips for analyzing qualitative research data

1. Summarize the Key Points

For interviews and focus groups, have the moderator write up some key points that they heard. For example: “Common concerns among participants in regard to our pizza were cheese overuse, greasiness, and bland sauce.”

pizza-hut-marketing-research-project-15-638

2. Code Responses

“Code” the unstructured data into something that can be summarized with tables or charts. For example, some coded responses to the question “When do you wear a watch?” might be 1 – never, 2 – once in a while, 3 – every day, etc.

3. Create a Word Cloud

Create a “word cloud” out of the keywords being used by the consumer. Just take your notes and put them into a word cloud generator, such as WordClouds.com. Then you’ll be able to easily spot the most prominent words.

i-have-a-dream-speech

That’s it! We shared 7 qualitative research methods that you can use to better understand your user or target customer.

Now it’s your turn. Go ahead and begin your market research by trying one of the techniques above.

 Source: This article was published on optinmonster.com By Mary Fernandez

Categorized in Research Methods

The most common sources of data collection in qualitative research are interviews, observations, and review of documents (Creswell, 2009b; Locke, Silverman, & Spirduso, 2010; Marshall & Rossman, 1999). The methodology is planned and pilot-tested before the study. Creswell (2003) places the data-collecting procedures into four categories: observations, interviews, documents, and audiovisual materials. He provides a concise table of the four methods, the options within each type, the advantages of each type, and the limitations of each.

We noted previously that the researcher typically has some type of framework (sub-purposes perhaps) that determines and guides the nature of the data collection. For example, one phase of the research might pertain to the manner in which expert and nonexpert sports performers perceive various aspects of a game. This phase could involve having the athlete describe his or her perceptions of what is taking place in a specific scenario. A second phase of the study might focus on the interactive thought processes and decisions of the two groups of athletes while they are playing. The data for this phase could be obtained from filming them in action and then interviewing them while they are watching their performances on videotape. Still another aspect of the study could be directed at the knowledge structure of the participants, which could be determined by a researcher-constructed instrument.

You should not expect qualitative data collection to be quick. It is time intensive. Collecting good data takes time (Locke, Silverman, & Spirduso, 2010), and quick interviews or short observations are unlikely to help you gain more understanding. If you are doing qualitative research, you must plan to be in the environment for enough time to collect good data and understand the nuance of what is occurring.

Interviews

The interview is undoubtedly the most common source of data in qualitative studies. The person-to-person format is most prevalent, but occasionally group interviews and focus groups are conducted. Interviews range from the highly structured style, in which questions are determined before the interview, to the open-ended, conversational format. In qualitative research, the highly structured format is used primarily to gather sociodemographic information. For the most part, however, interviews are more open-ended and less structured (Merriam, 2001). Frequently, the interviewer asks the same questions of all the participants, but the order of the questions, the exact wording, and the type of follow-up questions may vary considerably.

Being a good interviewer requires skill and experience. We emphasized earlier that the researcher must first establish rapport with the respondents. If the participants do not trust the researcher, they will not open up and describe their true feelings, thoughts, and intentions. Complete rapport is established over time as people get to know and trust one another. An important skill in interviewing is being able to ask questions in such a way that the respondent believes that he or she can talk freely.

Kirk and Miller (1986) described their field research in Peru, where they tried to learn how much urban, lower-middle-class people knew about coca, the organic source of cocaine. Coca is legal and widely available in Peru. In their initial attempts to get the people to tell them about coca, they received the same culturally approved answers from all the respondents. Only after they changed their style to asking less sensitive questions (e.g., “How did you find out you didn’t like coca?”) did the Peruvians open up and elaborate on their knowledge of (and sometimes their personal use of) coca. Kirk and Miller made a good point about asking the right questions and the value of using various approaches. Indeed, this is a basic argument for the validity of qualitative research.

Skillful interviewing takes practice. Ways to develop this skill include videotaping your own performance in conducting an interview, observing experienced interviewers, role-playing, and critiquing peers. It is important that the interviewer appear nonjudgmental. This can be difficult in situations where the interviewee’s views are quite different from those of the interviewer. The interviewer must be alert to both verbal and nonverbal messages and be flexible in rephrasing and pursuing certain lines of questioning. The interviewer must use words that are clear and meaningful to the respondent and must be able to ask questions so that the participant understands what is being asked. Above all, the interviewer has to be a good listener.

The use of a digital recorder is undoubtedly the most common method of recording interview data because it has the obvious advantage of preserving the entire verbal part of the interview for later analysis. Although some respondents may be nervous to talk while being recorded, this uneasiness usually disappears in a short time. The main drawback with recording is the malfunctioning of equipment. This problem is vexing and frustrating when it happens during the interview, but it is devastating when it happens afterward when you are trying to replay and analyze the interview. Certainly, you should have fresh batteries and make sure that the recorder is working properly early in the interview. You should also stop and play back some of the interviews to see whether the person is speaking into the microphone loudly and clearly enough and whether you are getting the data. Some participants (especially children) love to hear themselves speak, so playing back the recording for them can also serve as motivation. Remember, however, that machines can malfunction at any time.

Video recording seems to be the best method because you preserve not only what the person said but also his or her nonverbal behavior. The drawback to using video is that it can be awkward and intrusive. Therefore, it is used infrequently. Taking notes during the interview is another common method. Occasionally note taking is used in addition to recording, primarily when the interviewer wishes to note certain points of emphasis or make additional notations. Taking notes without recording prevents the interviewer from being able to record all that is said. It keeps the interviewer busy, interfering with her or his thoughts and observations while the respondent is talking. In highly structured interviews and when using some types of formal instrument, the interviewer can more easily take notes by checking off items and writing short responses.

The least preferred technique is trying to remember and write down afterward what was said in the interview. The drawbacks are many, and this method is seldom used.

Focus Groups

Another type of qualitative research technique employs interviews on a specific topic with a small group of people, called a focus group. This technique can be efficient because the researcher can gather information about several people in one session. The group is usually homogeneous, such as a group of students, an athletic team, or a group of teachers.

In his 1996 book Focus Groups as Qualitative Research, Morgan discussed the applications of focus groups in social science qualitative research. Patton (2002) argued that focus group interviews might provide quality controls because participants tend to provide checks and balances on one another that can serve to curb false or extreme views. Focus group interviews are usually enjoyable for the participants, and they may be less fearful of being evaluated by the interviewer because of the group setting. The group members get to hear what others in the group have to say, which may stimulate the individuals to rethink their own views.

In the focus group interview, the researcher is not trying to persuade the group to reach consensus. It is an interview. Taking notes can be difficult, but an audio or video recorder may solve that problem. Certain group dynamics such as power struggles and reluctance to state views publicly are limitations of the focus group interview. The number of questions that can be asked in one session is limited. Obviously, the focus group should be used in combination with other data-gathering techniques.

Observation

Observation in qualitative research generally involves spending a prolonged amount of time in the setting. Field notes are taken throughout the observations and are focused on what is seen. Many researchers also record notes to assist in determining what the observed events might mean and to provide help for answering the research questions during subsequent data analysis (Bogdan & Biklen, 2007; Pitney & Parker, 2009). Although some researchers use cameras to record what is occurring at the research site, that method is uncommon and most researchers use field notes to record what has occurred in the setting.

One major drawback to observation methods is obtrusiveness. A stranger with a pad and pencil or a camera is trying to record people’s natural behavior. A keyword here is stranger. The task of a qualitative researcher is to make sure that the participants become accustomed to having the researcher (and, if appropriate, a recording device) around. For example, the researcher may want to visit the site for at least a couple of days before the initial data collection.

In an artificial setting, researchers can use one-way mirrors and observation rooms. In a natural setting, the limitations that stem from the presence of an observer can never be ignored. Locke (1989) observed that most naturalistic field studies are reports of what goes on when a visitor is present. The important question is, How important and limiting is this? Locke suggested ways of suppressing reactivity, such as the visitor’s being in the setting long enough so that he or she is no longer considered a novelty and being as unobtrusive as possible in everything from dress to choice of location in a room.

Other Data-Gathering Methods

Among the many sources of data in qualitative research are self-reports of knowledge and attitude. The researcher can also develop scenarios, in the form of descriptions of situations or actual pictures, that are acted out for participants to observe. The participant then gives her or his interpretation of what is going on in the scenario. The participant’s responses provide her or his perceptions, interpretations, and awareness of the total situation and of the interplay of the actors in the scenario.

Other recording devices include notebooks, narrative field logs, and diaries, in which researchers record their reactions, concerns, and speculations. Printed materials such as course syllabi, team rosters, evaluation reports, participant notes, and photographs of the setting and situations are examples of document data used in qualitative research.

Source: This article was published humankinetics.com By Stephen J. Silverman, EdD

Categorized in Research Methods

Abstract

This paper explores the most common methods of data collection used in qualitative research: interviews and focus groups. The paper examines each method in detail, focusing on how they work in practice when their use is appropriate and what they can offer dentistry. Examples of empirical studies that have used interviews or focus groups are also provided.

Key points

  • Interviews and focus groups are the most common methods of data collection used in qualitative healthcare research.
  • Interviews can be used to explore the views, experiences, beliefs, and motivations of individual participants
  • Focus group use group dynamics to generate qualitative data

Qualitative research in dentistry

  1. Qualitative research in dentistry

  2. Methods of data collection in qualitative research: interviews and focus groups

  3. Conducting qualitative interviews with school children in dental research

  4. Analysing and presenting qualitative data

Introduction

Having explored the nature and purpose of qualitative research in the previous paper, this paper explores methods of data collection used in qualitative research. There are a variety of methods of data collection in qualitative research, including observations, textual or visual analysis (eg from books or videos) and interviews (individual or group).1However, the most common methods used, particularly in healthcare research, are interviews and focus groups.2,3

The purpose of this paper is to explore these two methods in more detail, in particular how they work in practice, the purpose of each, when their use is appropriate and what they can offer dental research.

Qualitative research interviews

There are three fundamental types of research interviews: structured, semi-structured and unstructured. Structured interviews are, essentially, verbally administered questionnaires, in which a list of predetermined questions are asked, with little or no variation and with no scope for follow-up questions to responses that warrant further elaboration. Consequently, they are relatively quick and easy to administer and may be of particular use if clarification of certain questions are required or if there are likely to be literacy or numeracy problems with the respondents. However, by their very nature, they only allow for limited participant responses and are, therefore, of little use if 'depth' is required.

Conversely, unstructured interviews do not reflect any preconceived theories or ideas and are performed with little or no organisation.4 Such an interview may simply start with an opening question such as 'Can you tell me about your experience of visiting the dentist?' and will then progress based, primarily, upon the initial response. Unstructured interviews are usually very time-consuming (often lasting several hours) and can be difficult to manage, and to participate in, as the lack of predetermined interview questions provides little guidance on what to talk about (which many participants find confusing and unhelpful). Their use is, therefore, generally only considered where significant 'depth' is required, or where virtually nothing is known about the subject area (or a different perspective of a known subject area is required).

Semi-structured interviews consist of several key questions that help to define the areas to be explored, but also allows the interviewer or interviewee to diverge in order to pursue an idea or response in more detail.2 This interview format is used most frequently in healthcare, as it provides participants with some guidance on what to talk about, which many find helpful. The flexibility of this approach, particularly compared to structured interviews, also allows for the discovery or elaboration of information that is important to participants but may not have previously been thought of as pertinent by the research team.

For example, in a recent dental public health study,5 school children in Cardiff, UK were interviewed about their food choices and preferences. A key finding that emerged from semi-structured interviews, which was not previously thought to be as highly influential as the data subsequently confirmed, was the significance of peer-pressure in influencing children's food choices and preferences. This finding was also established primarily through follow-up questioning (eg probing interesting responses with follow-up questions, such as 'Can you tell me a bit more about that?') and, therefore, may not have emerged in the same way, if at all, if asked as a predetermined question.

The purpose of research interviews

The purpose of the research interview is to explore the views, experiences, beliefs and/or motivations of individuals on specific matters (eg factors that influence their attendance at the dentist). Qualitative methods, such as interviews, are believed to provide a 'deeper' understanding of social phenomena that would be obtained from purely quantitative methods, such as questionnaires.1 Interviews are, therefore, most appropriate where little is already known about the study phenomenon or where detailed insights are required from individual participants. They are also particularly appropriate for exploring sensitive topics, where participants may not want to talk about such issues in a group environment.

Examples of dental studies that have collected data using interviews are 'Examining the psychosocial process involved in regular dental attendance'6 and 'Exploring factors governing dentists' treatment philosophies'.7 Gibson et al.6 provided an improved understanding of factors that influenced people's regular attendance with their dentist. The study by Kay and Blinkhorn7 provided a detailed insight into factors that influenced GDPs' decision making in relation to treatment choices. The study found that dentists' clinical decisions about treatments were not necessarily related to pathology or treatment options, as was perhaps initially thought, but also involved discussions with patients, patients' values and dentists' feelings of self-esteem and conscience.

There are many similarities between clinical encounters and research interviews, in that both employ similar interpersonal skills, such as questioning, conversing and listening. However, there are also some fundamental differences between the two, such as the purpose of the encounter, reasons for participating, roles of the people involved and how the interview is conducted and recorded.8

The primary purpose of clinical encounters is for the dentist to ask the patient questions in order to acquire sufficient information to inform decision making and treatment options. However, the constraints of most consultations are such that any open-ended questioning needs to be brought to a conclusion within a fairly short time.2 In contrast, the fundamental purpose of the research interview is to listen attentively to what respondents have to say, in order to acquire more knowledge about the study topic.9 Unlike the clinical encounter, it is not to intentionally offer any form of help or advice, which many researchers have neither the training nor the time for. Research interviewing, therefore, requires a different approach and a different range of skills.

The interview

When designing an interview schedule it is imperative to ask questions that are likely to yield as much information about the study phenomenon as possible and also be able to address the aims and objectives of the research. In a qualitative interview, good questions should be open-ended (ie, require more than a yes/no answer), neutral, sensitive and understandable.2 It is usually best to start with questions that participants can answer easily and then proceed to more difficult or sensitive topics.2 This can help put respondents at ease, build up confidence and rapport and often generates rich data that subsequently develops the interview further.

As in any research, it is often wise to first pilot the interview schedule on several respondents prior to data collection proper.8 This allows the research team to establish if the schedule is clear, understandable and capable of answering the research questions, and if, therefore, any changes to the interview schedule are required.

The length of interviews varies depending on the topic, researcher, and participant. However, on average, healthcare interviews last 20-60 minutes. Interviews can be performed on a one-off or, if change over time is of interest, repeated basis,4, for example, exploring the psychosocial impact of oral trauma on participants and their subsequent experiences of cosmetic dental surgery.

Developing the interview

Before an interview takes place, respondents should be informed about the study details and given assurance about ethical principles, such as anonymity and confidentiality.2 This gives respondents some idea of what to expect from the interview, increases the likelihood of honesty and is also a fundamental aspect of the informed consent process.

Wherever possible, interviews should be conducted in areas free from distractions and at times and locations that are most suitable for participants. For many, this may be at their own home in the evenings. Whilst researchers may have less control over the home environment, familiarity may help the respondent to relax and result in a more productive interview.9 Establishing rapport with participants prior to the interview is also important as this can also have a positive effect on the subsequent development of the interview.

When conducting the actual interview it is prudent for the interviewer to familiarise themselves with the interview schedule, so that the process appears more natural and less rehearsed. However, to ensure that the interview is as productive as possible, researchers must possess a repertoire of skills and techniques to ensure that comprehensive and representative data are collected during the interview.10 One of the most important skills is the ability to listen attentively to what is being said, so that participants are able to recount their experiences as fully as possible, without unnecessary interruptions.

Other important skills include adopting open and emotionally neutral body language, nodding, smiling, looking interested and making encouraging noises (eg, 'Mmmm') during the interview.2 The strategic use of silence, if used appropriately, can also be highly effective at getting respondents to contemplate their responses, talk more, elaborate or clarify particular issues. Other techniques that can be used to develop the interview further include reflecting on remarks made by participants (eg, 'Pain?') and probing remarks ('When you said you were afraid of going to the dentist what did you mean?').9 Where appropriate, it is also wise to seek clarification from respondents if it is unclear what they mean. The use of 'leading' or 'loaded' questions that may unduly influence responses should always be avoided (eg, 'So you think dental surgery waiting rooms are frightening?' rather than 'How do you find the waiting room at the dentists?').

At the end of the interview, it is important to thank participants for their time and ask them if there is anything they would like to add. This gives respondents an opportunity to deal with issues that they have thought about, or think are important but have not been dealt with by the interviewer.9 This can often lead to the discovery of new, unanticipated information. Respondents should also be debriefed about the study after the interview has finished.

All interviews should be tape recorded and transcribed verbatim afterward, as this protects against bias and provides a permanent record of what was and was not said.8 It often also helps to make 'field notes' during and immediately after each interview about observations, thoughts, and ideas about the interview, as this can help in data analysis process.4,8

Focus groups

Focus groups share many common features with less structured interviews, but there is more to them than merely collecting similar data from many participants at once. A focus group is a group discussion on a particular topic organized for research purposes. This discussion is guided, monitored and recorded by a researcher (sometimes called a moderator or facilitator).11,12

Focus groups were first used as a research method in market research, originating in the 1940s in the work of the Bureau of Applied Social Research at Columbia University. Eventually, the success of focus groups as a marketing tool in the private sector resulted in its use in public sector marketing, such as the assessment of the impact of health education campaigns.13 However, focus group techniques, as used in public and private sectors, have diverged over time. Therefore, in this paper, we seek to describe focus groups as they are used in academic research.

When focus groups are used

Focus groups are used for generating information on collective views, and the meanings that lie behind those views. They are also useful in generating a rich understanding of participants' experiences and beliefs.12 Suggested criteria for using focus groups include:13

  • As a standalone method, for research relating to group norms, meanings, and processes

  • In a multi-method design, to explore a topic or collect group language or narratives to be used in later stages

  • To clarify, extend, qualify or challenge data collected through other methods

  • To feedback results to research participants.

Morgan12 suggests that focus groups should be avoided according to the following criteria:

  • If listening to participants' views generates expectations for the outcome of the research that can not be fulfilled

  • If participants are uneasy with each other, and will therefore not discuss their feelings and opinions openly

  • If the topic of interest to the researcher is not a topic the participants can or wish to discuss

  • If statistical data is required. Focus groups give depth and insight, but cannot produce useful numerical results.

Conducting focus groups: group composition and size

The composition of a focus group needs great care to get the best quality of discussion. There is no 'best' solution to group composition, and group mix will always impact on the data, according to things such as the mix of ages, sexes and social professional statuses of the participants. What is important is that the researcher gives due consideration to the impact of group mix (eg, how the group may interact with each other) before the focus group proceeds.14

Interaction is key to a successful focus group. Sometimes this means a pre-existing group interacts best for research purposes, and sometimes stranger groups. Pre-existing groups may be easier to recruit, have shared experiences and enjoy a comfort and familiarity which facilitates discussion or the ability to challenge each other comfortably. In health settings, pre-existing groups can overcome issues relating to disclosure of potentially stigmatizing status which people may find uncomfortable in stranger groups (conversely there may be situations where disclosure is more comfortable in stranger groups). In other research projects, it may be decided that stranger groups will be able to speak more freely without fear of repercussion, and challenges to other participants may be more challenging and probing, leading to richer data.13

Group size is an important consideration in focus group research. Stewart and Shamdasani14 suggest that it is better to slightly over-recruit for a focus group and potentially manage a slightly larger group, than under-recruit and risk having to cancel the session or having an unsatisfactory discussion. They advise that each group will probably have two non-attenders. The optimum size for a focus group is six to eight participants (excluding researchers), but focus groups can work successfully with as few as three and as many as 14 participants. Small groups risk limited discussion occurring, while large groups can be chaotic, hard to manage for the moderator and frustrating for participants who feel they get insufficient opportunities to speak.13

Preparing an interview schedule

Like research interviews, the interview schedule for focus groups is often no more structured than a loose schedule of topics to be discussed. However, in preparing an interview schedule for focus groups, Stewart and Shamdasani14 suggest two general principles:

  1. Questions should move from general to more specific questions

  2. Question order should be relative to the importance of issues in the research agenda.

There can, however, be some conflict between these two principles, and trade-offs are often needed, although often discussions will take on a life of their own, which will influence or determine the order in which issues are covered. Usually, less than a dozen predetermined questions are needed and, as with research interviews, the researcher will also probe and expand on issues according to the discussion.

Moderating

Moderating a focus group looks easy when done well, but requires a complex set of skills, which are related to the following principles:15

  • Participants have valuable views and the ability to respond actively, positively and respectfully. Such an approach is not simply a courtesy but will encourage fruitful discussions

  • Moderating without participating: a moderator must guide a discussion rather than join in with it. Expressing one's own views tends to give participants cues as to what to say (introducing bias), rather than the confidence to be open and honest about their own views

  • Be prepared for views that may be unpalatably critical of a topic which may be important to you

  • It is important to recognize that researchers' individual characteristics mean that no one person will always be suitable to moderate any kind of group. Sometimes the characteristics that suit a moderator for one group will inhibit discussion in another

  • Be yourself. If the moderator is comfortable and natural, participants will feel relaxed.

The moderator should facilitate group discussion, keeping it focussed without leading it. They should also be able to prevent the discussion being dominated by one member (for example, by emphasizing at the outset the importance of hearing a range of views), ensure that all participants have ample opportunity to contribute, allow differences of opinions to be discussed fairly and, if required, encourage reticent participants.13

Other relevant factors

The venue for a focus group is important and should, ideally, be accessible, comfortable, private, quiet and free from distractions.13However, while a central location, such as the participants' workplace or school, may encourage attendance, the venue may affect participants' behavior. For example, in a school setting, pupils may behave like pupils, and in clinical settings, participants may be affected by any anxieties that affect them when they attend in a patient role.

Focus groups are usually recorded, often observed (by a researcher other than the moderator, whose role is to observe the interaction of the group to enhance analysis) and sometimes videotaped. At the start of a focus group, a moderator should acknowledge the presence of the audio recording equipment, assure participants of confidentiality and give people the opportunity to withdraw if they are uncomfortable with being taped.14

A good quality multi-directional external microphone is recommended for the recording of focus groups, as internal microphones are rarely good enough to cope with the variation in the volume of different speakers.13 If observers are present, they should be introduced to participants as someone who is just there to observe, and sit away from the discussion.14 Videotaping will require more than one camera to capture the whole group, as well as additional operational personnel in the room. This is, therefore, very obtrusive, which can affect the spontaneity of the group and in a focus group does not usually yield enough additional information that could not be captured by an observer to make videotaping worthwhile.15

The systematic analysis of focus group transcripts is crucial. However, the transcription of focus groups is more complex and time-consuming than in one-to-one interviews, and each hour of audio can take up to eight hours to transcribe and generate approximately 100 pages of text. Recordings should be transcribed verbatim and also speakers should be identified in a way that makes it possible to follow the contributions of each individual. Sometimes observational notes also need to be described in the transcripts in order for them to make sense.

The analysis of qualitative data is explored in the final paper of this series. However, it is important to note that the analysis of focus group data is different from other qualitative data because of their interactive nature, and this needs to be taken into consideration during analysis. The importance of the context of other speakers is essential to the understanding of individual contributions.13 For example, in a group situation, participants will often challenge each other and justify their remarks because of the group setting, in a way that perhaps they would not in a one-to-one interview. The analysis of focus group data must, therefore, take account of the group dynamics that have generated remarks.

Focus groups in dental research

Focus groups are used increasingly in dental research, on a diverse range of topics,16 illuminating a number of areas relating to patients, dental services, and the dental profession. Addressing a special needs population difficult to access and sample through quantitative measures, Robinson et al.17 used focus groups to investigate the oral health-related attitudes of drug users, exploring the priorities, understandings, and barriers to care they encounter. Newton et al.18used focus groups to explore barriers to services among minority ethnic groups, highlighting for the first time differences between minority ethnic groups. Demonstrating the use of the method with professional groups as subjects in dental research, Gussy et al.19explored the barriers to and possible strategies for developing a shared approach in the prevention of caries among pre-schoolers. This mixed method study was very important as the qualitative element was able to explain why the clinical trial failed, and this understanding may help researchers improve on the quantitative aspect of future studies, as well as making a valuable academic contribution in its own right.

Conclusion

Interviews and focus groups remain the most common methods of data collection in qualitative research and are now being used with increasing frequency in dental research, particularly to access areas not amenable to quantitative methods and/or where depth, insight, and understanding of particular phenomena are required. The examples of dental studies that have employed these methods also help to demonstrate the range of research contexts to which interview and focus group research can make a useful contribution. The continued employment of these methods can further strengthen many areas of dentally related work.

Source: This article was published nature.com

Categorized in Online Research

Much of the workings of the world today are controlled and powered by information, giving credence to that famous quote, “information is power”. Professionals, researchers, organizations, businesses, industries and even governments cannot function without information serving as “fuel” for decision-making, strategizing, gaining and storing knowledge.

But information is not something that is handed to anyone on a silver platter. It starts with a small raw fact or figure – or a set of raw facts and figures – that are not organized and, all too often, without meaning or context. These are called “data”. By itself, and in its raw form, data may seem useless.

Data will cease to be useless once it undergoes processing, where it will be organized, structured and given context through interpretation and analysis. Processing gives it meaning, effectively turning it into information that will eventually be of great use to those who need it. Collectively, all information will make up bodies of knowledge that will, in turn, benefit various users of this knowledge.

Without data, there won’t be any information. Therefore, no matter how data may seem random and useless, it is actually considered to be the most important and basic unit of any information structure or body of knowledge.

To that end, various approaches, tools and methodologies aimed at gathering or collecting data have been formulated.

THE MEANING OF DATA COLLECTION

Whether it is business, marketing, humanities, physical sciences, social sciences, or other fields of study or discipline, data plays a very important role, serving as their respective starting points. That is why, in all of these processes that involve the usage of information and knowledge, one of the very first steps is data collection.

Data collection is described as the “process of gathering and measuring information on variables of interest, in an established systematic fashion that enables one to answer queries, stated research questions, test hypotheses, and evaluate outcomes.”

Depending on the discipline or field, the nature of the information being sought, and the objective or goal of users, the methods of data collection will vary. The approach to applying the methods may also vary, customized to suit the purpose and prevailing circumstances, without compromising the integrity, accuracy and reliability of the data.

There are two main types of data that users find themselves working with – and having to collect.

  1. Quantitative Data. These are data that deal with quantities, values or numbers, making them measurable. Thus, they are usually expressed in numerical form, such as length, size, amount, price, and even duration. The use of statistics to generate and subsequently analyze this type of data add credence or credibility to it, so that quantitative data is overall seen as more reliable and objective.
  2. Qualitative Data. These data, on the other hand, deals with quality, so that they are descriptive rather than numerical in nature. Unlike quantitative data, they are generally not measurable, and are only gained mostly through observation. Narratives often make use of adjectives and other descriptive words to refer to data on appearance, color, texture, and other qualities.

In most cases, these two data types are used as preferences in choosing the method or tool to be used in data collection. As a matter of fact, data collection methods are classified into two, and they are based on these types of data. Thus, we can safely say that there are two major classifications or categories of data collection methods: the quantitative data collection methods and the qualitative data collection methods.

IMPORTANCE OF DATA COLLECTION

From the definition of “data collection” alone, it is already apparent why gathering data is important: to come up with answers, which come in the form of useful information, converted from data.

But for many, that still does not mean much.

Depending on the perspective of the user and the purpose of the information, there are many concrete benefits that can be gained from data gathering. In general terms, here are some of the reasons why data collection is very important. The first question that we will address is: “why should you collect data?”

Data collection aids in the search for answers and resolutions.

Learning and building knowledge is a natural inclination for human beings. Even at a very young age, we are in search for answers to a lot of things. Take a look at toddlers and small children, and they are the ones with so many questions, their curious spirit driving them to repeatedly ask whatever piques their interest.

A toddler curious about a white flower in the backyard will start collecting data. He will approach the flower in question and look at it closely, taking in the color, the soft feel of the petals against his skin, and even the mild scent that emanates from it. He will then run to his mother and pull her along until they got to where the flower is. In baby speak, he will ask what the flower’s name is, and the mother will reply, “It’s a flower, and it is called rose.”

It’s white. It’s soft. It smells good. And now the little boy even has a name for it. It’s called a rose. When his mother wasn’t looking, he reached for the rose by its stem and tried to pluck it. Suddenly, he felt a prickle in his fingers, followed by a sharp pain that made him yelp. When he looked down at his palm, he saw two puncture marks, and they are bleeding.

The little boy starts to cry, thinking how roses, no matter how pretty and good-smelling, are dangerous and can hurt you. This information will now be embedded in his mind, sure to become one of the most enduring pieces of information or tidbit of knowledge that he will know about the flower called “rose”.

The same goes in case of a marketing research, for example. A company wants to learn a few things about the market in order to come up with a marketing plan, or tweak an already existing marketing program. There’s no way that they will be able to do these things without collecting the relevant data.

Data collection facilitates and improves decision-making processes, and the quality of the decisions made.

Leaders cannot make decisive strategies without facts to support them. Planners cannot draw up plans and designs without a basis. Entrepreneurs could not possibly come up with a business idea – much less a viable business plan – out of nothing at all. Similarly, businesses won’t be able to formulate marketing plans, and implement strategies to increase profitability and growth, if they have no data to start from.

Without data, there won’t be anything to convert into useful information that will provide the basis for decisions. All that decision-makers are left with is their intuition and gut feeling, but even gut feeling and instinct have some basis on facts.

Decision-making processes become smoother, and decisions are definitely better, if there is data driving them. According to a survey by Helical IT, the success rate of decisions based on data gathered is higher by 79% than those made using pure intuition alone.

In business, one of the most important decisions that must be made is on resource allocation and usage. If they collect the relevant data, they will be able to make informed decisions on how to use business resources efficiently.

Data collection improves quality of expected results or output.

Just as having data will improve decision-making and the quality of the decisions, it will also improve the quality of the results or output expected from any endeavor or activity. For example, a manufacturer will be able to produce high quality products after designing them using reliable data gathered. Consumers will also find the claims of the company about the product to be more reliable because they know it has been developed after conducting significant amount of research.

Through collecting data, monitoring and tracking progress will also be facilitated. This gives a lot of room for flexibility, so response can be made accordingly and promptly. Adjustments can be made and improvements effected.

Now we move to the next question, and that is on the manner of collecting data. Why is there a need to be particular about how data is collected? Why does it have to be systematic, and not just done on the fly, using whatever makes the data gatherer comfortable? Why do you have to pick certain methodologies of data collection when you can simply be random with it?

  • Collecting data is expensive and resource-intensive. It will cost you money, time, and other resources. Thus, you have to make sure you make the most of it. You cannot afford to be random and haphazard about how you gather data when there are large amounts of investment at stake.
  • Data collection methods will help ensure the accuracy and integrity of data collected. It’s common sense, really. Using the right data collection method – and using it properly – will allow only high quality data to be gathered. In this context, high quality data refers to data that is free from errors and bias arising from subjectivity, thereby increasing their reliability. High quality and reliable data will then be processed, resulting to high quality information.

METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION

We’ll now take a look at the different methods or tools used to collect data, and some of their pros (+) and cons (-). You may notice some methods falling under both categories, which means that they can be used in gathering both types of data.

I. Qualitative Data Collection Methods

Exploratory in nature, these methods are mainly concerned at gaining insights and understanding on underlying reasons and motivations, so they tend to dig deeper. Since they cannot be quantified, measurability becomes an issue. This lack of measurability leads to the preference for methods or tools that are largely unstructured or, in some cases, maybe structured but only to a very small, limited extent.

Generally, qualitative methods are time-consuming and expensive to conduct, and so researchers try to lower the costs incurred by decreasing the sample size or number of respondents.

Face-to-Face Personal Interviews

This is considered to be the most common data collection instrument for qualitative research, primarily because of its personal approach. The interviewer will collect data directly from the subject (the interviewee), on a one-on-one and face-to-face interaction. This is ideal for when data to be obtained must be highly personalized.

The interview may be informal and unstructured – conversational, even – as if taking place between two casual to close friends. The questions asked are mostly unplanned and spontaneous, with the interviewer letting the flow of the interview dictate the next questions to be asked.

However, if the interviewer still wants the data to be standardized to a certain extent for easier analysis, he could conduct a semi-structured interview where he asks the same series of open-ended questions to all the respondents. But if they let the subject choose her answer from a set of options, what just took place is a closed, structured and fixed-response interview.

  • (+) This allows the interviewer to probe further, by asking follow-up questions and getting more information in the process.
  • (+) The data will be highly personalized (particularly when using the informal approach).
  • (-) This method is subject to certain limitations, such as language barriers, cultural differences, and geographical distances.
  • (-) The person conducting the interview must have very good interviewing skills in order to elicit responses.

Qualitative Surveys

  • Paper surveys or questionnaires. Questionnaires often utilize a structure comprised of short questions and, in the case of qualitative questionnaires, they are usually open-ended, with the respondents asked to provide detailed answers, in their own words. It’s almost like answering essay questions.
    • (+) Since questionnaires are designed to collect standardized data, they are ideal for use in large populations or sample sizes of respondents.
    • (+) The high amount of detail provided will aid analysis of data.
    • (-) On the other hand, the large number of respondents (and data), combined with the high level and amount of detail provided in the answers, will make data analysis quite tedious and time-consuming.
  • Web-based questionnaires. This is basically a web-based or internet-based survey, involving a questionnaire uploaded to a site, where the respondents will log into and accomplish electronically. Instead of a paper and a pen, they will be using a computer screen and the mouse.
    • (+) Data collection is definitely quicker. This is often due to the questions being shorter, requiring less detail than in, say, a personal interview or a paper questionnaire.
    • (+) It is also uncomplicated, since the respondents can be invited to answer the questionnaire by simply sending them an email containing the URL of the site where the online questionnaire is available for answering.
    • (-) There is a limitation on the respondents, since the only ones to be able to answer are those who own a computer, have internet connection, and know their way around answering online surverys.
    • (-) The lesser amount of detail provided means the researcher may end up with mostly surface data, and no depth or meaning, especially when the data is processed.

Focus Groups

Focus groups method is basically an interview method, but done in a group discussion setting. When the object of the data is behaviors and attitudes, particularly in social situations, and resources for one-on-one interviews are limited, using the focus group approach is highly recommended. Ideally, the focus group should have at least 3 people and a moderator to around 10 to 13 people maximum, plus a moderator.

Depending on the data being sought, the members of the group should have something in common. For example, a researcher conducting a study on the recovery of married mothers from alcoholism will choose women who are (1) married, (2) have kids, and (3) recovering alcoholics. Other parameters such as the age, employment status, and income bracketdo not have to be similar across the members of the focus group.

The topic that data will be collected about will be presented to the group, and the moderator will open the floor for a debate.

  • (+) There may be a small group of respondents, but the setup or framework of data being delivered and shared makes it possible to come up with a wide variety of answers.
  • (+) The data collector may also get highly detailed and descriptive data by using a focus group.
  • (-) Much of the success of the discussion within the focus group lies in the hands of the moderator. He must be highly capable and experienced in controlling these types of interactions.

Documental Revision

This method involves the use of previously existing and reliable documents and other sources of information as a source of data to be used in a new research or investigation. This is likened to how the data collector will go to a library and go over the books and other references for information relevant to what he is currently researching on.

  • (+) The researcher will gain better understanding of the field or subject being looked into, thanks to the reliable and high quality documents used as data sources.
  • (+) Taking a look into other documents or researches as a source will provide a glimpse of the subject being looked into from different perspectives or points of view, allowing comparisons and contrasts to be made.
  • (-) Unfortunately, this relies heavily on the quality of the document that will be used, and the ability of the data collector to choose the right and reliable documents. If he chooses wrong, then the quality of the data he will collect later on will be compromised.

Observation

In this method, the researcher takes a participatory stance, immersing himself in the setting where his respondents are, and generally taking a look at everything, while taking down notes.

Aside from note-taking, other documentation methods may be used, such as video and audio recording, photography, and the use of tangible items such as artifacts, mementoes, and other tools.

  • (+) The participatory nature may lead to the researcher getting more reliable information.
  • (+) Data is more reliable and representative of what is actually happening, since they took place and were observed under normal circumstances.
  • (-) The participation may end up influencing the opinions and attitudes of the researcher, so he will end up having difficulty being objective and impartial as soon as the data he is looking for comes in.
  • (-) Validity may arise due to the risk that the researcher’s participation may have an impact on the naturalness of the setting. The observed may become reactive to the idea of being watched and observed. If he planned to observe recovering alcoholic mothers in their natural environment (e.g. at their homes with their kids), their presence may cause the subjects to react differently, knowing that they are being observed. This may lead to the results becoming impaired.

Longitudinal studies

This is a research or data collection method that is performed repeatedly, on the same data sources, over an extended period of time. It is an observational research method that could even cover a span of years and, in some cases, even decades. The goal is to find correlations through an empirical or observational study of subjects with a common trait or characteristic.

An example of this is the Terman Study of the Gifted conducted by Lewis Terman at Stanford University. The study aimed to gather data on the characteristics of gifted children – and how they grow and develop – over their lifetime. Terman started in 1921, and it extended over the lifespan of the subjects, more than 1,500 boys and girls aged 3 to 19 years old, and with IQs higher than 135. To this day, this study is the world’s “oldest and longest-running” longitudinal study.

  • (+) This is ideal when seeking data meant to establish a variable’s pattern over a period of time, particularly over an extended period of time.
  • (+) As a method to find correlations, it is effective in finding connections and relationships of cause and effect.
  • (-) The long period may become a setback, considering how the probability of the subjects at the beginning of the research will still be complete 10, 20, or 30 years down the road is very low.
  • (-) Over the extended period, attitudes and opinions of the subjects are likely to change, which can lead to the dilution of data, reducing their reliability in the process.

Case Studies

In this qualitative method, data is gathered by taking a close look and an in-depth analysis of a “case study” or “case studies” – the unit or units of research that may be an individual, a group of individuals, or an entire organization. This methodology’s versatility is demonstrated in how it can be used to analyze both simple and complex subjects.

However, the strength of a case study as a data collection method is attributed to how it utilizes other data collection methods, and captures more variables than when a single methodology is used. In analyzing the case study, the researcher may employ other methods such as interviewing, floating questionnaires, or conducting group discussions in order to gather data.

  • (+) It is flexible and versatile, analyzing both simple and complex units and occurrence, even over a long period of time.
  • (+) Case studies provide in-depth and detailed information, thanks to how it captures as many variables as it can.
  • (-) Reliability of the data may be put at risk when the case study or studies chosen are not representative of the sample or population.

II. Quantitative Data Collection Methods

Data can be readily quantified and generated into numerical form, which will then be converted and processed into useful information mathematically. The result is often in the form of statistics that is meaningful and, therefore, useful. Unlike qualitative methods, these quantitative techniques usually make use of larger sample sizes because its measurable nature makes that possible and easier.

Quantitative Surveys

Unlike the open-ended questions asked in qualitative questionnaires, quantitative paper surveys pose closed questions, with the answer options provided. The respondents will only have to choose their answer among the choices provided on the questionnaire.

  • (+) Similarly, these are ideal for use when surveying large numbers of respondents.
  • (+) The standardized nature of questionnaires enable researchers to make generalizations out of the results.
  • (-) This can be very limiting to the respondents, since it is possible that his actual answer to the question may not be in the list of options provided on the questionnaire.
  • (-) While data analysis is still possible, it will be restricted by the lack of details.

Interviews

Personal one-on-one interviews may also be used for gathering quantitative data. In collecting quantitative data, the interview is more structured than when gathering qualitative data, comprised of a prepared set of standard questions.

These interviews can take the following forms:

  • Face-to-face interviews: Much like when conducting interviews to gather qualitative data, this can also yield quantitative data when standard questions are asked.
    • (+) The face-to-face setup allows the researcher to make clarifications on any answer given by the interviewee.
    • (-) This can be quite a challenge when dealing with a large sample size or group of interviewees. If the plan is to interview everyone, it is bound to take a lot of time, not to mention a significant amount of money.
  • Telephone and/or online, web-based interviews. Conducting interviews over the telephone is no longer a new concept. Rapidly rising to take the place of telephone interviews is the video interview via internet connection and web-based applications, such as Skype.
    • (+) The net for data collection may be cast wider, since there is no need to travel through distances to get the data. All it takes is to pick up the phone and dial a number, or connect to the internet and log on to Skype for a video call or video conference.
    • (-) Quality of the data may be questionable, especially in terms of impartiality. The net may be cast wide, but it will only be targeting a specific group of subjects: those with telephones and internet connections and are knowledgeable about using such technologies.
  • Computer-assisted interviews. This is called CAPI, or Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing where, in a face-to-face interview, the data obtained from the interviewee will be entered directly into a database through the use of a computer.
    • (+) The direct input of data saves a lot of time and other resources in converting them into information later on, because the processing will take place immediately after the data has been obtained from the source and entered into the database.
    • (-) The use of computers, databases and related devices and technologies does not come cheap. It also requires a certain degree of being tech-savvy on the part of the data gatherer.

Quantitative Observation

This is straightforward enough. Data may be collected through systematic observation by, say, counting the number of users present and currently accessing services in a specific area, or the number of services being used within a designated vicinity.

When quantitative data is being sought, the approach is naturalistic observation, which mostly involves using the senses and keen observation skills to get data about the “what”, and not really about the “why” and “how”.

  • (+) It is a quite simple way of collecting data, and not as expensive as the other methods.
  • (-) The problem is that senses are not infallible. Unwittingly, the observer may have an unconscious grasp on his senses, and how they perceive situations and people around. Bias on the part of the observer is very possible.

Experiments

Have you ever wondered where clinical trials fall? They are considered to be a form of experiment, and are quantitative in nature. These methods involve manipulation of an independent variable, while maintaining varying degrees of control over other variables, most likely the dependent ones. Usually, this is employed to obtain data that will be used later on for analysis of relationships and correlations.

Quantitative researches often make use of experiments to gather data, and the types of experiments are:

  • Laboratory experiments. This is your typical scientific experiment setup, taking place within a confined, closed and controlled environment (the laboratory), with the data collector being able to have strict control over all the variables. This level of control also implies that he can fully and deliberately manipulate the independent variable.
  • Field experiments. This takes place in a natural environment, “on field” where, although the data collector may not be in full control of the variables, he is still able to do so up to a certain extent. Manipulation is still possible, although not as deliberate as in a laboratory setting.
  • Natural experiments. This time, the data collector has no control over the independent variable whatsoever, which means it cannot be manipulated. Therefore, what can only be done is to gather data by letting the independent variable occur naturally, and observe its effects.

You can probably name several other data collection methods, but the ones discussed are the most commonly used approaches. At the end of the day, the choice of a collection method is only 50% of the whole process. The correct usage of these methods will also have a bearing on the quality and integrity of the data being sought.

Source: This article was published cleverism.com By Anastasia

Categorized in Research Methods

How does quantitative information differ from qualitative information, and how can you develop the skills to gather, analyze and interpret different types of research and data in today's marketplace? Better yet, how can you use both of these data sets to your advantage in a real job in the real world?

Quantitative information is objective and comprised of numerical, measurable data. Qualitative information is subjective and based on observation and interpretation.

Both of these types of data are vital in today's business decision-making, and the ability to work with them will help you build bridges between what you learn in the classroom and the workplace, putting your career on the fast track. Skills in working with data are essential in nearly every field, and most particularly in careers related to marketing, finance, business and the broad spectrum of jobs in the science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields.



When you master the skills to analyze both quantitative and qualitative data, you'll have a powerful arsenal of diverse yet related abilities to help secure advancement in your current job and be more competitive when seeking new opportunities.

How Do You Define Quantitative Skills?

Quantitative skills are objective, numerical and measurable. Quantitative data analytics rely on mathematical and statistical research methods and can be used to solve business problems or to measure long-term trends. With quantitative data analysis skills, you'll be able to understand and interpret data and findings related to budgeting, mathematics, statistical analysis, probability, software applications, operations management and other areas of business strategy and management.

Some common examples of how you might create or gather or create quantitative data include surveys, statistical compilations and accounting records.

Some Examples of Qualitative Research

Qualitative analysis does not focus upon numbers or numerical data, but instead concentrates on in-depth, observational research. These analytic skills are subjective and harder to accurately assess or measure. Qualitative analysis might focus on compiling and interpreting information to draw conclusions, assess critical thinking or design more effective business systems.

Some examples of qualitative research include observation in a clinical laboratory setting or in simulated role-playing situations; focus groups where people discuss an issue or product; structured or unstructured interviews; short questionnaires requiring narrative answers or even multiple choice checkboxes; literature reviews (such as written reports, media coverage, journals); and audio/video taped archives.

Source material and methods used to collect, analyze and interpret raw material may vary widely in a qualitative research study. While a structured data analysis is crucial before arriving at final conclusions and recommendations, a qualitative research study gathers information from observation and open-ended interviewing rather than relying strictly on the by-the-numbers methods commonly used to define a quantitative study.

Combining Quantitative Skills and Qualitative Research on the Job

The ability to analyze both quantitative and qualitative data will give you a competitive edge in a wide variety of careers. When you are able to offer both types of skills to an employer, you'll have an advantage since both skill sets are essential in most data related jobs today.



"Many of our STEM program degrees allow the two skill sets to intersect in a significant way, such as in game development, information technology, math, environmental and geoscience, data analytics, management information systems, cyber security and computer science" said Dr. Gwendolyn Britton, executive director of STEM programs at Southern New Hampshire University (SNHU). "Quantitative and qualitative skills are both important in today's marketplace because so much information is being tossed out at us all the time that it's sometimes hard to make sense of it all. I don't just mean data and numbers - I mean information in the form of opinions, tweets, Facebook posts, images, you name it, information is flowing everywhere all the time. We need to be able to figure out what to do with it all and then make informed decisions or solve problems based on all the information.

The Benefits

If you can measure data and keep within a budget using your scientific and mathematics skills - and you're also able to design or lead strong dynamic teams, you'll have an advantage over other job applicants who are only proficient in one skill set or the other. Or, if you are working in a human services setting, by combining both quantitative and qualitative skill sets, you will bring a range of people skills and data analytic skills from your psychology or sociology coursework background - and be able to balance a multi-million dollar budget or analyze raw data reports too. As a financial analyst, strong skills in problem solving, data analysis, research and math are required, but you also need to be able to work independently and as part of a team.

Collaboration, communications and management skills are essentials as you advance in any career and aspire to higher levels of responsibility, even if you started out thinking you wanted to focus on the numbers alone or that you didn't want to work with numbers at all.

Bottom line? To advance in your career by using a blend of quantitative data and qualitative analysis, you can't just live in spreadsheets. As SNHU Career advisor Cait Glennen observes, "One of my students is using her MS in Data Analytics as a fraud analyst for a major credit card company. Her degree has taught her about how numbers tell a story, and she now uses her grasp of both quantitative data and qualitative analysis to determine if the story has taken a wrong turn into fraudulent and illegal activities."



Glennen adds that many students who pursued a degree in mathematics now use their skills in business to be "amazing problem solvers. Business as a whole is moving towards quantitative data and qualitative analysis and employers are seeking people who have a strong grasp on data and its interpretation. Graduates with these skill sets tend to work in roles where they are interpreting and manipulating existing data in order to provide concrete business insights versus just working with the databases themselves."

Author : Melissa Page

Source : http://www.snhu.edu/about-us/news-and-events/2016/12/data-analysis-skills

Categorized in Online Research

Qualitative plus Quantitative industry search. what method is best for market research? in order to identify distinctions for qualitative plus quantitative search techniques, learn the examples here which I have given by way of tales.

Rapidresponse Benefits Shops

Not so long ago there was a very prosperous shop, named “Rapidresponse shop”. At one time the managing staff started to be concerned that Rapidresponse shop was not becoming favored by as many ladies as males – and that Rapidresponse was shedding an important portion of the market place.

Investigation Goal

An investigation task was created to know exactly how ladies sensed regarding purchasing from Rapidresponse shop and also the reason why. It had been determined that this investigation must be qualitative and the specified strategy would be In-depth-Interviews. The notion was that these ladies may be less likely to want to speak about their feelings regarding Rapidresponse shops in a team, so one-on-one interviews made good sense.

Qualitative Research

More than four dozen present or prospective women clients were paid to come into the main premises to talk about the usage of grocery stores as a whole, and particularly Rapidresponse convenience stores. The outcomes had been very astonishing to the managing staff. The main qualitative results included the following:

Ladies thought of convenience stores to be mainly created for males, without thinking of women,

The restrooms in grocery stores were thought to-be the dirtiest that could be noticed in a town – “gross” was the most typical definition – and that belief penetrated anything that women felt regarding grocery stores as a whole

Rapidresponse ended up being viewed as one of the worst of convenience shops “type of the spot for any male purchase gasoline, have a six pack of affordable alcohol and also tobacco, yet not the type of spot I would like to head”.

Quantitative Research

As soon as the administration staff got an awareness of what problems they encountered with women clients, they felt that they required to know how generally these types of opinions were held. Now they required to obtain a few hard data, which implied that they required to perform a quantitative industry search. The research goals for this stage of research had been:

Learn how women clients of Rapidresponse are different from those that do not frequently go to these shops.Discover whether a repair of Rapidresponse may attract every team to go to the shops more often or perhaps anyway based on if the responder presently avoided Rapidresponce completely.

Concerning the quantitative stage of research they chose to perform 300 phone interviews with a mixture of women participants. The prerequisites to sign up in this stage of research had been: 50 percent of the participants claimed that they had utilized Rapidresponce at least seven times in the past 12 months, and the other 50 percent confessed to deliberately steering clear of Rapidresponse entirely, even though they did utilize other brands of convenience shops. The most important results from the quantitative stage revealed that:

More than 76% of all women Rapidresponse clients were ladies below thirty years old, with no kids, whilst females with kids along with higher earnings were five times not expected to buy at Rapidresponse.

The great report ended up being that of the women who didn’t right now utilize Rapidresponse, sixty four percent mentioned that if these shops were to modify their colors, wash their restrooms boost their health and female products, that they would be prepared to use Rapidresponse once again.

Their two levels of research provided the Rapidresponse administration staff an excellent comprehension of where they presently stood with feminine clients and also the reason why. The quantitative research furthermore revealed that those females who were not presently utilizing their shops might if they transformed their methods.

The choice now was to determine if getting a lot more middle aged ladies as clients was worth the price of upgrading their shops and also investing additional money to ensure that they’re neat and clean.

Source:  https://www.thesequitur.com/which-market-research-method-is-for-you-1286983/

Categorized in Market Research

The majority of links are considered to be commercial in nature, according to new research.Dan Petrovic, aka @DejanSEO, has just published the results of a quantitative study of 2,000 web users in the US and Australia. It was set up to discover perceptions about why web publishers link out.

Accordingly to the research, more than 40% of users think that outbound links from one web page to another are there because they generate revenue for the publisher.

‘Marketing Advertising & Revenue’ was seen to be the number one reason why a link exists, with almost a third of users expecting there to be some kind of commercial arrangement in place.

‘Promotion, Relationship & Sponsorship’ was chosen by a further 9% of respondents. Money, money, money.Meanwhile, just one in five people recognised links as organic citations to help stand up the information on a web page.

outbound links study 2016

All in all, the analysis of the results found that more than half of links exist for commercial reasons, with only 34% seen to be non-commercial.

Classifying the different types of link

I really like Dan’s classification of links, which now straddles 10 distinct areas (though there is a good amount of cross-over). They are as follows:

Attribution

Citation

Definition

Expansion

Identification

Example

Action

Relationship

Proof

Promotion

Further details on each of these link types can be found here. For example, you might file that outbound link under ‘expansion’, because it’s there for further reading and insight into this topic.Dan makes the point that since many of these link types overlap, it can be hard to spot the true intent as to why a link exists.

Some links that look natural – and which are genuinely useful – might actually be there because of some business or personal relationship. That doesn’t automatically make them sketchy. It’s just human nature.

Of course Google doesn’t necessarily see it that way. Many people fear the dreaded manual penalty and go the extra mile to neuter links, even when they have perfectly valid reasons to point visitors to their friends and siblings.

Dan says:

“I see a lot of websites nofollow links to their partner websites, sister companies and various other forms of affiliation because they were told to do so by their SEO or even someone in Google’s webspam team.

“This sort of madness has to stop. If commercially-driven links exist on the web organically then they’re organic in nature and shouldn’t be treated as ‘clean-up material’ nor should those links be penalty-yielding.”

Hear, hear..

I’d love to know the gap between how users perceive links and the actual reasons why the author / publisher put them in place. Presumably it is quite large…

Source:  https://searchenginewatch.com/2016/06/13/web-users-think-most-outbound-links-are-commercial/

Categorized in Online Research

Do you ever find your eyes glazing over when putting together and presenting your regular local search reports? Columnist Lydia Jorden explains how to develop a revenue-based report that will be sure to impress both your client and your boss.

Local SEO is a critical part of an overall digital marketing strategy, but relaying its importance through weekly, monthly or bi-annual reports to your boss or clients is a challenge. People’s eyes tend to glaze over, especially if they’re looking at the same metrics every month.

It’s easy to succumb to “Broken Record Syndrome” when local search reports cover the same territory month after month, and it can be difficult to find and integrate something new and valuable.

But these reports are critical for justifying the budget to continue and strengthen local search campaigns. Optimizing local listings, updating photos, building links and employing other tactics to strengthen a brand’s position in the local landscape take time — and time takes money.

Avoiding “Broken Record Syndrome”

Instead of being a broken record and discussing local keyword position performance and reviewing fluctuations, find new metrics to track over time that support funding your local search campaigns. I’ll provide some examples below. Or, on the flip side, you may determine that local search isn’t generating as much revenue as you had once predicted. If that’s the case, you can put that budget toward developing a new local search strategy or reallocate your local search campaign efforts toward something more profitable.

Examining new metrics can spice up your reports and breathe life into what was otherwise a tedious report with similar findings month to month, requiring little analysis.

Furthermore, finding local strategies that have successfully generated revenue can allow for an increase in budget allocated to local search implementation. Measuring local search efforts in financial terms is a surefire way to impress your boss, as well as strengthen rapport with clients and justify funding for local search campaigns.

A few metrics to consider and how to implement them

1. How local search performance affected sales

For local businesses, the financial bottom line is the most important metric, so it is critical that you find a way to connect your local search campaign efforts to sales.

To pinpoint ROI, you need to determine the revenue generated from the effort, as well as the cost put into managing and optimizing a local search campaign.Although it can be difficult to tie online spend to offline revenue, establishing and following key metrics that contribute to those in-store purchases are very important.

For example, determine the number of people who clicked on your local listing for driving directions. You can do this by going into your Google My Business account and clicking on the green insights tab.

Google My Business Insights Icon

Then, scroll down to find how many people clicked for driving directions:

Google My Business Driving Directions Example

Of those people who clicked, what percentage of them came into your store? This is a number that you will have to research, discuss with your team and likely get the CMO’s approval to use, as this percentage will have a significant impact on your ROI calculations. This number will vary between industries and buyer behavior patterns.

Then attribute an average receipt value of an in-store “purchase” based on the parameters set. So, let’s say that 10 percent of people who request driving directions from local search make a purchase. (10 percent of 514 is 51.4, or 51 people). Each person’s average receipt is $100. All the assets that went into optimizing for local search cost $5,000.

Looking solely at direct costs and requests for driving directions on Google, we can then report that ROI on the local campaign, conservatively, is a gain of $100 in revenue, or two percent ROI for a brick-and-mortar store.

2. Using Google Analytics e-commerce tracking to provide value for local search reporting

If you have online as well as offline conversions, Google Analytics’ e-commerce tracking can help you tie specific online traffic sources to eventual revenue.Within Google Analytics, you will want to filter transactions by local region to get a rough idea of whether a push in local listings in a specific location had an effect on transactions.

You can do this by clicking on Audience, then Geo, then Location in Google Analytics, and creating a custom segment.

Path to Find Locations In Google Analytics

 Click to create a custom segment once you arrive at the Locations screen.

Custom Segment Creation in Google Analytics

You will create two custom segments — the first for someone who purchased an item organically, and the second for someone who purchased an item as a referral. Then there are two parts within each segment to update.

a. Segment for those who purchased an item on the site:

This tab should look something like the screen shot below, depending on the parameters you’re requiring for your data:

Custom Segment in Google Analytics - Item Purchased

If you’re doing a push for a specific item that you have been optimizing for within local search, you can also enter that information to further segment into how successfully a product-specific local search optimization campaign performed.

b. Segment for sources so we make sure to only capture organic and referral traffic:

Since we’re most interested in local search purchases (in an effort to be able to attribute revenue to local search SEO), we need to filter the sessions by organic and referral traffic, as these types of traffic are the main results of local search campaigns. Below is the screen shot for completing the first segment:

Custom Segment in Google Analytics - Traffic Source

Then you’ll want to create a second custom segment and repeat the e-commerce steps, along with the traffic source step. However, the second time you complete the traffic sources step, you’ll want to use “referral” rather than “organic.”

Once you create these segments, you can then filter through traffic by location and further dig into where organic and referral traffic came from. You’ll be able to get a rough idea of how local search traffic affected sales by determining if a push for local optimization in specific areas impacted traffic from that location to the site, and even further break it down by revenue generated by locations.

Additionally, by creating UTM codes and using them in your links from all local listing sites, you can get a direct representation of the traffic and revenue generated from those sources.

Spice up those local search reports

Now go impress your boss and clients with new metrics. Give them something new to look at — to keep their attention and also defend your case as a local search engine optimizer to invest more in local search.

But don’t abandon the tried-and-true metrics. Continue to use geotargeted keyword position tracking, local review tracking and other indicators of local search campaign success within your reports. You do not want to throw out the old metrics entirely, but adding something new that connects local search performance to sales may give you a few more insights that you had not anticipated.

Source:  http://searchengineland.com/boss-actually-wants-local-search-reports-251815

Categorized in Research Methods

Search engines do a lot more than immediately meets the eye. If you’re getting results that aren’t relevant, if you're getting too many results, if you want to find something on a particular web site, or if you just want to do a quick calculation or measurement conversion, there are some pretty cool tricks that you can do.

Some of these techniques will work in any search engine, but the coolest features work only on Google. Also, please keep in mind that since web content changes frequently, the results you get from running the sample searches in this tutorial may be different from what I show. 

Choose Your Default Browser Based on Your Preferred Search Engine

If you prefer Google, install Chrome and if you prefer Bing, use the latest version of Internet Explorer on your PC. The reason is that you can type search terms directly in the Address bar (Chrome calls this the Omni Box). In Chrome, this defaults to searching Google, and in IE, this defaults to searching Bing. You can switch the default search engine, but you get the best integration with these search engines with these respective browsers. 

chrome address bar

 

 

Otherwise, in Safari or Firefox, just pick your favorite search engine so you can use it automatically from the address or search box, respectively.

Using Punctuation and Boolean Operators

Quotation marks mean that you’re looking for a specific phrase. Over the years, search engines have gotten so good at guessing what we want, quotation marks aren’t as necessary as they used to be. But they can still be helpful. For example:

“bow ties are cool”

will be far more likely to find that exact phrase, where searching without the quote would lead to pages talking about cool bow ties, but not necessarily that exact phrase.

OR and parenthesis

By default, if you search for several words, most search engines will show results where both or all of the words are found. This is known as an AND search – as though you wanted this and this. But if you want results with either (or any) of your words, use the OR keyword. It means that either (or any) of your search terms were found. For example:

“Doctor Who” OR “Sherlock Holmes”

This will find pages containing either the phrase “Doctor Who” or the phrase “Sherlock Holmes”. Some page results will contain both.

When you place search terms in a set of parenthesis, they are treated as a single unit. So…

(“Doctor Who” OR “Sherlock Holmes”) (“Matt Smith” “Steven Moffat”)

This will find pages containing either the phrase “Doctor Who” or the phrase “Sherlock Holmes”, and also the name of either actor Matt Smith or producer Steven Moffat.

Are you familiar with the Boolean NOT operator (or a minus sign)? Google still lists it in the documentation, but Google, Bing and Yahoo ignore it and it no longer works.

Searching Within a Specific Site

One of my favorite search features is the site keyword, which limits a search to a specific web site. This is great if a site doesn’t have its own search form, or if it isn’t working. For example:

“Peter Capaldi” site:bbcamerica.com

This will find references to actor Peter Capaldi, but only on www.BBCAmerica.com.

You can also use the site attribute to limit searches to a particular top-level domain, like .org, .gov and so on. For example:

"fishing license" site:.gov

This will show you government sites that contain the phrase “fishing license”.

Wildcard Searches

Sometimes you know part of a phrase you’re looking for, but aren’t sure of all the words or maybe how the words will be spelled. That’s when an asterisk comes to the rescue, as a wildcard. It’s especially handy if there are several ways of expressing what you want. For example:

the three *

…will show results for The Three Stooges, The Three Doctors, The Three Musketeers, The Three Tenors, and more.

You can also search for numbers in a range, by using two periods as a wildcard. For example, if you’re shopping for an Android tablet and have a budget of $300 to $600, do this search:

android tablet $300..$600

Connectivity Searches

Two great keywords that show connectivity are the link and related keywords. The link keyword will show what pages link to a particular page. For example:

link:amazon.com

The related keyword will show what sites are similar to the one you specify. Who is to say what qualifies as being similar? Who knows! The algorithms are proprietary. For example:

related:amazon.com

If you visit a page that doesn’t have content that you’re expecting to see – for example, a news item is no longer on the front page – Google might have it cached. So try the cache operator to see what the site looked like the last time Google crawled it:

cache:computers.tutsplus.com

An Operator That Combines All of the Above
Rather than remember all the above operators, you can remember just one, instead: info. When you run info against a web address, you’ll get a menu of operators that you can click to get the results. For example:

info:computers.tutsplus.com

result of Info keyword

 

 

Filtering Results

Sometimes, you might want to see only recent results, or results from a specific time period. After running a search in Google, click the Search Tools link just below the Search bar, then from the submenu that appears, click Any Time and make a choice. In Bing, Any Time is always visible just below the Search bar, and Yahoo has timings in the left column.

Also from Google’s submenu, you can choose a reading level from All Results, and choose a location on the right. Google will try to detect your location automatically, but it doesn’t always guess correctly. It tends to use the location where your Internet provider’s equipment is. If you want to change the location, click the Down Arrow and enter the location you want. Entering a Zip or Postal code usually works. 

filtering results by time

 

Undocumented Google Keywords

Page Title, Content and URL
If you want to search for words specifically in a page title, and ignore page content, use the intitle keyword. For example, if you’re looking for articles that compare Android with iOS, try this:

intitle:android AND iOS

If you’re searching for multiple words and want results where all of the words are in the title, not just some of them, use allintitle instead.

The opposite of searching titles is searching page content and ignoring the title. For that, use the intext keyword, as follows:

intext:android AND iOS

Keep in mind that many pages will have the same phrases in the titles and content, so many of the results from the previous two searches will be the same.

You can also search for a word that appears in a page’s URL, with the inurl keyword, like this:

inurl:photoshop

When searching for multiple words, you can also use allinurl to make sure that all the words or phrases are in the URL.

Google also has similar keywords specifically to search blogs. They are:

Inblogtitle
Inposttitle
Inpostauthor
Blogurl

Finding Files of a Specific Type

With the filetype keyword, you can restrict search results to display a particular type of file, like image or archive files, or Adobe and Microsoft documents. For example, if you want a sample expense sheet in Excel and don’t like Excel’s built-in templates, this search will find some for you:

expense sheet filetype:xlsx

Weather
Need a quick weather forecast? Use the weather keyword and Zip or Postal code to get current conditions and a graph for the next several hours:

Weather 08822

Definitions

You can also get a quick dictionary definition, using the define keyword. It isn’t as extensive as using dictionary.com, but it’s a lot faster. For example:

define:solenoid

Math, Measurement and Language Conversions

If you need to do some quick calculations or convert measurements from one unit to another, Google and Bing have you covered.

Basic Arithmetic Searches in Google and Bing
Examples:

1035 + 698
317537 – 1517
256 * 768
105/39

When you enter a calculation into the Search/Address bar, both Google and Bing will display a handy calculator. You can click the buttons or use the numbers on your keyboard. If your keyboard has a number pad, this is especially nice.

 

built-in calculator

 

 

Converting Between Imperial and Metric Units

If you’re converting a recipe from Imperial to Metric measurements (or vice-versa) or converting distance, temperature, weight and more, you can do this with a simple search in Google or Bing. Most units you can abbreviate (like g instead of grams or oz instead of ounces).

Examples:

2 cups in ml
500g in oz
200 miles in km
80F in C
Similar to doing arithmetic, when you search for a unit conversion, Google and Bing will display a conversion calculator, with your search displayed in it. Click the top drop-down list to choose different types of conversions (temperature, length, etc.) and click the lower drop-downs to choose different units. 

unit conversion calculator

 

 

Language Translation

Google can translate in and out of approximately a dozen languages. How do you say “wind” in Spanish or what does the French word "suivant" mean? Run these searches:

wind in Spanish

suivant in English

Other Cool Features

Here are some great tips that don't fit into other categories.

Flight Status

Want to check the status of a flight? Just search for the airline and flight number. Google will show the flight status, and if the flight is currently in the air, you’ll see its relative position, as in the screen capture below. Bing will show basic departure and arrival information. For example:

United flight 1

airline flight status display

 

 

Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon

If you want to know how many degrees of separation there are between almost any actor and actor Kevin Bacon, do a bacon number search in Google, like this:

Harrison Ford bacon number

The answer to that particular query is 2. 

Tracking Packages and Searching Other Numbers
Google has information on package deliveries from the United States Postal Service, UPS and FedEx. The tracking numbers for these services use different formats, so you don’t have to specify which one you want; just enter the number like this:

1Z1234X12345678

Doing a patent search? Use the patent keyword followed by the patent number:

patent 5889566

Google does several other alphanumeric searches that don’t require a keyword. Just enter the numbers to search for:

Zip code
ISBN
VIN (Vehicle ID number)
FAA airplane registration number
Phone number
Search Mars and Beyond
This isn’t a search as much as it’s an undocumented feature, courtesy of NASA as well as Google. Just go to:

www.google.com/mars

…and have a look around! The default view is a false-color elevation map, and you can also choose infrared and real-life visible surface. There’s also an option to explore Mars using Google Earth.

interactive map of mars

  

 

Once you’ve conquered Mars, try your hand – or bat’leth – in Klingon. Yes, Google has a Klingon language version at:

www.google.com/?hl=xx-klingon

You might find a good recipe for gakh. Ka’plah! 

Source:  http://www.airsassociation.org/administrator/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item

Categorized in Search Techniques

One of the most ambitious endeavors in quantum physics right now is to build a large-scale quantum network that could one day span the entire globe. In a new study, physicists have shown that describing quantum networks in a new way—as mathematical graphs—can help increase the distance that quantum information can be transmitted. Compared to classical networks, quantum networks have potential advantages such as better security and being faster under certain circumstances. 

"A worldwide quantum network may appear quite similar to the internet—a huge number of devices connected in a way that allows the exchange of information between any of them," coauthor Michael Epping, a physicist at the University of Waterloo in Canada, told Phys.org. "But the crucial difference is that the laws of quantum theory will be dominant for the description of that information.

For example, the state of the fundamental information carrier can be a superposition of the basis states 0 and 1. By now, several advantages in comparison to classical information are known, such as prime number factorization and secret communication. However, the biggest benefit of quantum networks might well be discovered by future research in the rapidly developing field of quantum information theory."

Quantum networks involve sending entangled particles across long distances, which is challenging because particle loss and decoherence tend to scale exponentially with the distance.


In their study published in the New Journal of Physics, Epping and coauthors Hermann Kampermann and Dagmar Bruß at the Heinrich Heine University of Düsseldorf in Germany have shown that describing physical quantum networks as abstract mathematical graphs offers a way to optimize the architecture of quantum networks and achieve entanglement across the longest possible distances.

"A network is a physical system," Epping explained. "Examples of a network are the internet and labs at different buildings connected by optical fibers. These networks may be described by mathematical graphs at an abstract level, where the network structure—which consists of nodes that exchange quantum information via links—is represented graphically by vertices connected by edges. An important task for quantum networks is to distribute entangled states amongst the nodes, which are used as a resource for various information protocols afterwards. In our approach, the graph description of the network, which might come to your mind quite naturally, is related to the distributed quantum state."

In the language of graphs, this distributed quantum state becomes a quantum graph state. The main advantage of the graph state description is that it allows researchers to compare different quantum networks that produce the same quantum state, and to see which network is better at distributing entanglement across large distances.

Quantum networks differ mainly in how they use quantum repeaters—devices that offer a way to distribute entanglement across large distances by subdividing the long-distance transmission channels into shorter channels.

Here, the researchers produced an entangled graph state for a quantum network by initially defining vertices with both nodes and quantum repeaters. Then they described how measurements at the repeater stations modify this graph state. Due to these modifications, the vertices associated with quantum repeaters are removed so that only the network nodes serve as vertices in the final quantum state, while the connecting quantum repeater lines become edges.

In the final graph state, the weights of the edges correspond to the number of quantum repeaters and how far apart they are. Consequently, by changing the weights of the edges, the new approach can optimize a given performance metric, such as security or speed. In other words, the method can determine the best way to use quantum repeaters to achieve long-distance entanglement for large-scale quantum networks.

In the future, the researchers plan to investigate the demands for practical implementation. They also want to extend these results to a newer research field called "quantum network coding" by generalizing the quantum repeater concept to quantum routers, which can make quantum networks more secure against macroscopic errors. 

Source:  http://phys.org/news/2016-06-worldwide-quantum-web-graphs.html

 

Categorized in Online Research
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