For many years now, movie-buffs have been logging on to the internet and hitting the torrent button to watch their favorite movie, sometimes even before the film's hit the screens. Come June 2017 and all those who've spent hours downloading their favourite movies,TV shows,music from torrents will be unable to do so. According to a report by Torrent Freak, Google, Bing and other search engines are teaming up with the entertainment industry to ban torrent aggregators from its search results. This should bring in a huge respite for the local film industry that has seen some of its most popular movies leaked online even before their theatrical releases. The fight against piracy and illegal downloads has dented the BO collection in recent times, and this news comes as a great relief. While, the search engine ban on torrents sites might keep piracy at in control,this is not a complete solution as torrents will still be available through direct websites, other search engines and illegal streaming.

DHOLLYWOOD'S HAPPY Just when Gujarati movies had starting to rake in the moolah, in a shocking turn of events some of the most popular films were leaked online.This not only impacted their BO revenue, but also hurt the morale of filmmakers and actors. "All my movies have been leaked online,"rues Malhar Thakar. He adds,"I would be extremely grateful if piracy stops or even if we are making efforts to curb it. Video sharing websites play a major role in piracy as well and cybercrime cells should make sure to catch hold of such cyber criminals and punish them." A film becoming available for free download means a direct impact on its collection. And since Gujarati films are still cementing their hold at the BO, online piracy is a big threat. "It becomes difficult to generate revenue if a film is available online, which also means that the filmmakers incur huge losses and will have to think twice about making films in the future," says actor, director and producer Shital Shah. She adds,"When my first movie as a director was released last year I tried all the possible methods to stop it from being pirated or going online on any video sharing website."

CHANGE IN PERCEPTION Many feel that piracy has become such an integral part of movie watching, that many times people don't even realize they are doing something illegal by downloading or even uploading a pirated copy. Filmmaker Ishaan Randeria says, "The audience needs to know that piracy is a crime and that they should refrain from sharing,shooting or leaking any film content from the theaters." Shital shares, "I have come across a lot of people who tell me that they will watch my film when it is available online or download torrents. They are not even aware that it is a crime."On a lighter note, she also states, "As an actor, my work being leaked online only makes me more popular, but as a producer it kills me." It will be sometime before we can actually stop people from watching content online for free.For starters, mindsets need to change.
MUSICIANS TOO WELCOME THE MOVE It's no secret that the music industry faces the biggest brunt of piracy with almost every song available for a free download. With torrents going down and pirated copies becoming hard to find, the musicians will benefit a lot. Jainam Modi says, "Pirated versions of songs are so easily available online, that the very thought of buying or even listening to an original copy has gone out of people's vocabulary." And with internet available on mobiles,piracy in music has hurt not only the film industry, but also indie musicians. Lyricist Mayur Puri too had told AT in an earlier interview that piracy will never let music grow.He said,"If you want music to be received as art,stop

piracy." The step towards curbing pirated content online is sure to bring happiness to all music makers. Music composer Maulik Mehta sums it up, "This move will help music companies make more money, which in turn will help us (musicians) get our due.I think it is a fantastic move."

Author : Yesha Bhatt & Abhimanyu Mishra 

Source : http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/ahmedabad/search-engines-to-work-on-new-anti-piracy-code/articleshow/57702496.cms

Categorized in Search Engine
https://www.quora.com/How-would-search-engine-evolve-in-the-next-10-years":"How would search engine evolve in the next 10 years? Quora - the place to gain and share knowledge, empowering people to learn from others and better understand the world.
When we talk about search engines today, search boxes and search results come to our minds. What might future search engines look like? We are not sure. But we would be happy to have a much more powerful search engine that we may see, hear and even feel in different scenarios, different products or different interfaces. Search will be everywhere.
Firstly, deeper understanding of user’s intent, deeper understanding of content and more accurate matching of intent and content would empower the search engine. The understanding of user’s intent will depend not only on a single query, but also on more comprehensive search contexts, including query sessions, time, location, device, and the user’s personalization features. The understanding of the content, on the other hand, will also go much further, and will be a better understanding of semantic, context, opinions, as well as other aspects of each piece of content and knowledge will be extracted from the content. The matching from intent to content will take all the above-mentioned factors into consideration so as to provide the best results for each individual under any specific context. In addition, the search engine will become more like an “answering engine” and an “execution engine”. A large proportion of the user queries will be directly answered or performed.
Secondly, the search interface will have many innovative changes. Besides the keyboard, other input methods like voice and image will become much more widely used. Users would enjoy the highly efficient and convenient multi-modal search with more practical technologies of speech and image and so on.
Especially, natural language interaction which will become the mainstream way of interacting with search engines. Users can “talk” with the search engine, telling it what they want, which is absolutely much easier and more natural than first turning their requests into keyword-based queries and then inputting the queries into the search engine. Users could also interact with the search engine using multi-turn dialogue. Baidu search has been an early bird practicing such new interface to improve user experience.
Thirdly, search would go beyond search engines. It will be embedded in all kinds of products. For example, search is one of the essential features in AI hardware. In the future, search will be everywhere, all round us. Accordingly, we will redefine what can be searched. In addition to the contents already indexed by current search engines, more services, objects, devices and data can be indexed and searchable in the future.
Search engines have long played a vital role in everyone’s daily life. People’s need determines what direction search engines evolve and the technology advancements decide how far search engines evolve.
Categorized in Search Engine

It looks like Google, and other search engines could soon remove, limit Torrent websites from their results page, thus limiting how people find these websites, according to a new report in TorrentFreak. The report is based on discussions between entertainment companies and executives from search engine companies, which was chaired by UK’s Intellectual Property Office.

According to the report, the UK government has been exploring the idea of legislation, that could force search engines like Google to take action against Torrent websites that are infringing copyright laws. It should be noted Google already removes search results if there are copyright violations.

The report also adds that UK’s Digital Economy Bill committee was exploring a draft amendment to the bill. However, TorrentFreak quotes British MP Baroness Buscombe as saying that the UK’s “Intellectual Property Office officials have chaired a further round-table meeting between search engines and representatives of the creative industries.”


It looks like some of the “key content of the code” has been agreed upon, and “it should come into effect within four months.” The code could ensure that visibility for torrents website is reduced from these search engines. Given Google is the world’s most popular search engine, such steps will mean a significant purging of results linking to Torrents websites.

Google itself has not commented on the report, but it looks like the search engines will be cooperating with entertainment companies over infringement notices, at least in the UK. According to the Baroness Buscombe’s comments, search engines will make “changes to their algorithms and processes, but also working bilaterally with creative industry representatives.”

For now it looks like UK won’t be exploring any formal legislation. Of course, one of the issues with torrents websites is that when one goes down, a new clone pops up to take its place. The KickAss Torrents case is one recent example.

When the original website was taken down, several clones came up, and later the community had managed to put back most of the content online. But with big search engines blocking search for torrents, this could mean tough times ahead for these websites.

Source : http://indianexpress.com/article/technology/tech-news-technology/google-and-other-search-engines-could-soon-ban-torrent-websites-4523757/

Categorized in Search Engine

Development of the net with regards to its services and functions as well as its reputation in the world today is often about the maximize with any passing day. The greater area of the world’s society is determined by the net since their important supply of facts. The online world has start new prospects especially in the section of exploration and knowledge and thru helping to make gain access to of data easier, time preserving and offered.typing essay Many web research interfaces are actually acquire to offer end users together with the spanning level or program to get information of the attention. These enginesare specially designed to help in choosing content on the internet, which suits a given criterion. The most common engines like google on the web incorporate google, Bing lookup and yahoo.

Yahoo and google is currently the most famous google search these days. It rose to prominence in 2001 and designed with characteristics that differentiated it using their company search engines like yahoo lifestyle out there. The success of Google and yahoo is dependent on the technique of the excitement on the web page link and also the PageRank, which makes searches much easier with google and yahoo. Great and attractive pages and posts connect with other web pages that refer to them where by other web sites and pages web page link to a particular webpage. This aids the major search engines to provide success based on the site url to other webpages. On the other hand, the interface because of popularity was copied by other businesses and therefore website crawlers adopted to locate neighborhoods in which the an algorithm criteria is used to look for and comply with hyperlinks to look for other webpages which backlink to the first.. How big the crawl provides the best results available with the ceaseless creeping and indexing to supply new success. Additionally, consumers have reassurance of good quality and significance of success, which ranking for many different queries.

Bing is owned by the Microsoft Firm and features its own differentiated options, which can make it tastes around other search engine listings. The aesthetic driven home-page of the major search engines makes all the surfing around expertise intriquing, notable and the information and research supplied within the website supply appealing information to your people. The page is much like desktop computer background, which interests individuals to preserve the website page being a home page. The place of linked searches is really a attribute that assists for making lookups effortless. The advances look for attribute will allow the use filtration system success to obtain the most relevant effects as well as the recently available lookups outlined beneath the hunt nightclub. Bing for that reason capitalizes on enhancing the people practical experience for the duration of exploring.

Yahoo is one other online search engine, which happens to be currently experiencing troubles with the market reveal. Its global recognition appear to be taking a downwards tendency and its at present operated by Bing. However, there are particular features of the major search engines, which proceed making it preferred and discern it from other individuals for example search engines and Bing. It offers compensated and organic and natural outcomes, which can be far more famous in comparison with other success given by other search engines like google. Even more, the attribute, which supplies far more alternatives with regards to looking help the people working experience in regards to seeking. It will allow internet browsers to find with domain and uncomplicated hunt of file styles. Once more, the photo look for aspect allows end users to filtration final results and check in line with the authorization form for the people searching for pictures just for utilize in a website.

In the debate, each one search results seems to be going when it comes to assuring their users provide an knowledge which is additional built-in, which merges look for and sociable jointly. The two small, and significant search engines like yahoo are based around ensuring they remain already in the market and raising their market reveal. For this reason, these are regularly wanting to better their characteristics allowing the doing of employment simpler and giving finest final results achievable.

Source : http://woonoptimaal.nl/kennisbank/analysis-paper-important-research-of-well-known-2

Categorized in Online Research

BELIEVE it or not, there are parts of the internet that Google can’t reach and users can operate anonymously.

The dark web is made up of websites hidden from search engines that can only be accessed using special software.

The dark web is a network of websites that are not indexed by search engines such as Google

The dark web is used by many people for different things but it’s infamously used by criminals to hide illegal activity online.

So what exactly is the dark web, where did it come from and how does it work?

What is the dark web?

The internet is actually made up of three different layers: the surface web, the deep web and the dark web.

The top layer, the surface web, are web pages that show up using search engines such as Google – like The Sun website that you’re looking at right now.

The deep web are web pages that search engines can’t access and are therefore hidden, accessed via passwords and authorisation. Any time you log into an account you’re accessing deep web content that won’t show up on a search engine. For example, work intranets, password-protected areas of online banking and draft blog posts are all stored on the deep web.

This means that if someone was to Google your name, your banking information or Amazon wishlist won’t show up in the results.

The dark web is a network of untraceable online activity and websites on the internet. They cannot be found using search engines and to access them you need to use specific software, configurations or have authorisation. They are used by lots of different people to keep their web activity hidden.

Where did the dark web come from?

The dark web was actually created by the US government to allow spies to exchange information completely anonymously.

US military researchers developed the technology, known as Tor (The Onion Router) in the mid 1990s and released it into the public domain for everyone to use.

The reason was so that they could stay anonymous – it would be harder to distinguish the government’s messages between spies if thousands of other people were using the same system for tots of different things. Tor now hosts roughly 30,000 hidden sites.

It’s called The Onion Router because it uses the technique of onion routing – making websites anonymous through layers of encryption.

Most websites are also hosted on the .onion domain.

Users of the dark web access websites using special browsers and software

Users of the dark web access websites using special browsers and software

How does the dark web work?

The best explanation so far has been published by Daniel Prince, Associate Director Security at Lancaster University, on website The Conversation.

Mr Prince says: “So just for a minute imagine that the whole internet is a forest – a vast expanse of luscious green as far as the eye can see. And in the forest are well worn paths – to get from A to B.

“Think of these paths as popular search engines – like Google – allowing you as the user the option to essentially see the wood from the trees and be connected. But away from these paths – and away from Google – the trees of the forest mask your vision.

“Off the paths it is almost impossible to find anything – unless you know what you’re looking for – so it feels a bit like a treasure hunt. Because really the only way to find anything in this vast forest is to be told where to look.

“This is how the dark web works – and it is essentially the name given to all the hidden places on the internet.

“Just like the forest, the dark web hides things well – it hides actions and it hides identities. The dark web also prevents people from knowing who you are, what you are doing and where you are doing it.”

One of the criminal uses of the dark web is to buy and sell drugs
One of the criminal uses of the dark web is to buy and sell drugs

Who uses the dark web and why?

The dark web is used by all sorts of people for all sorts of reasons  – but it’s not surprising that it’s used for illegal activity.

A study by the University of Portsmouth in 2014 found that the most wanted type of content on Tor was child porn, followed by black markets for goods such as drugs, personal details and even guns.

This type of site is regularly busted by police, who compromise them by distributing viruses and malware to users.

The dark web is also used for hiding online activity related to finance, extremism, arms, hacking, abuse and fraud.

However, for others the dark web has positive uses. For example, it can be used to avoid a national firewall, such as China, where users are normally blocked from accessing hidden sites.

It can also be used as a tool for whistleblowing – infamous website WikiLeaks is hosted on the dark web, allowing whistleblowers to anonymously upload classified information to the press.

Do police ever catch people using the dark web?

Yes – although using the dark web makes it easier to evade detection but governments around the world are working to index, sort and catalogue the dark web as well as monitor it as much as they can. The UK government  have a dedicated cybercrime unit to tackle the dark web with a focus on taking down serious crime rings and child porn.

Just earlier this year police caught Richard Huckle ‘Britain’s worst-ever paedophile’ by secretly taking over a dark web site dedicated to child abuse.

Richard Huckle was handed 22 life sentences after pleading guilty to 71 child sex offences
Richard Huckle was handed 22 life sentences after pleading guilty to 71 child sex offences

The online network was made up of over 45,000 people who swapped sickening videos and images of children on a dark-web forum which was only accessible through a specially encrypted browser.

Another take-down, called Operation Onymous, revealed over 400 “hidden services” in an effort by seventeen different countries co-ordinated by Europol and the FBI.

The operation led to hundreds of pounds worth of Bitcoin being seized and 17 arrests – but only one person was identified and taken into custody.

Who is Ross Ulbricht?

Ross Ulbricht was the man behind Silk Road, the internet’s biggest market for illegal drugs – which was hosted on the dark web.

Silk Road was reportedly worth $34.5m and had nearly one million anonymous customers. On Silk Road you could buy drugs, services (such as hacking into Facebook accounts), pirated content, fakes passports and more. You could even check the reviews and star ratings of each dealer left by other customers.

Ulbricht is in prison in New York after he was unmasked as the man behind dark web drugs emporium Silk Road
Ulbricht is in prison in New York after he was unmasked as the man behind dark web drugs emporium Silk Road

Ulbricht was caught by the FBI in 2013, who shut down Silk Road and convicted him of money laundering, computer hacking, conspiracy to traffic fraudulent identity documents and conspiracy to traffic narcotics in February 2015. He was sentenced to life in prison.

Ulbricht will also be tried for procuring murder – FBI indictments claimed he ordered two hitmen to kill people he thought would expose the identity of his clients.

Author : Jennifer Hale

Source : https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/2054243/dark-web-ross-ulbricht-drugs-guns-to-contract-killers-encrypted-network/

Categorized in Deep Web

(NaturalNews) After witnessing how Reuters just blatantly cooked the presidential election polls this week to favor Clinton and how the mainstream media is so terrifyingly biased in favor of Clinton that the very foundation of democracy is now in crisis, it's time to tell you something that perhaps a lot more people are finally ready to hear:


Every institution in America is sold out, corrupted and politically rigged to favor Big Government and Big Business. "America is a lost country," explains Paul Craig Roberts. "The total corruption of every public and the private institution is complete. Nothing remains but tyranny. And lies. Endless lies."

CNN, Reuters and the Associated Press are all now shameless promoters of every big lie across every sector of society, from vaccines and GMOs to elections and politics. The federal government itself is incapable of doing anything other than lying, and it has totally corrupted the entire realm of science by pulling the strings of funding via the National Institutes of Health and the NSF.

The FDA is entirely corrupt, as is the USDA. Both function now as little more than marketing propaganda pushers for Big Pharma and Big Biotech. Similarly, Google, Facebook and Twitter are all rigged, too, censoring the voices they don't want anyone to hear while highlighting the establishment lies they wish to promote.

Here's what "rigged" really means... the tools of tyranny

When I say "everything is rigged," what does that mean, exactly?

  • All "official sources" are ordered to constantly lie about everything, weaving illusions to push a chosen narrative rooted in fiction (from "there are no Islamic terrorists" to "carbon dioxide is poison to the planet").
  • All voices of reason and sanity are silenced. Only the most insane, irrational voices are allowed to be magnified through any media (including social media). This is also true across the sciences, where real science has been all but snuffed out by political agendas (biosludge, GMOs, glyphosate, mercury in dentistry, etc.).
  • All facts are obliterated by propaganda. Facts have no place in any debate, and those who invoke facts are shamed and silenced (or even fired from their jobs, expelled from their schools or bullied into a state of suicide on social media). Anyone who invokes facts on things like the actual statistics of police shootings is told they are "part of the problem" because they have the "wrong attitude" about social justice.
  • Every branch of government is weaponized against the people and used as an assault tool against political enemies who threaten the status quo. (IRS, FDA, FTC, DEA, EPA, USDA, etc.)
  • All science is distorted into absurd, politically-motivated conclusions about everything the government wants to use to control the masses: Vaccines, climate change, GMOs, fluoride, flu shots, chemical agriculture, carbon dioxide and so on.
  • Every branch of medicine is hijacked by globalist agendas to make sure medicine never makes anyone healthier, more alert or more cognitively capable of thinking for themselves.
  • Every "news item" that's reported from any official source is deliberately distorted to the point of insanity, turning many facts on their heads while attacking anyone who might offer something truly constructive to the world. (Such as reporting that Clinton was "cleared" by the FBI when, in fact, she was indicted by the very facts the FBI presented!)
  • All voices of truth are silenced, then replaced by meaningless, distracting babble (Kardashians) or meaningless, tribal sports competitions (the Rio Olympics). The point is to dumb down the entire population to the point of cultural lunacy.
  • Any true reports that contradict any official narrative are immediately censored. For example, radio host Michael Savage just got blocked by Facebook for posting a true story about an illegal alien who committed murder in America.
  • Emotions are used as weapons to manipulate the masses. For example, when the mom of a Benghazi victim shares her grief with the world, she is ridiculed and shamed. But when a radical Muslim father who's trying to bring Sharia Law to America attacks Trump by expressing his loss of his soldier son, the media turns him into an instant celebrity, praising his "courageous voice" for daring to speak out. The media hypocrisy is enough to make you vomit...

What exactly is rigged?

  • The entire mainstream media
  • Google search engine and Google News
  • Facebook and Twitter
  • The DNC and the RNC (both 100% rigged by globalists)
  • Every federal agency (EPA, FDA, etc.)
  • The entire justice system (makes a total farce of real justice)
  • Interest rates and the value of the money supply (central banksters)
  • Academia (all public universities)
  • EPA's "safe" limits on pesticides (all rigged by Big Biotech)
  • Food and food labeling (all run by corrupt food companies)
  • Public education (rigged into Common Core anti-knowledge idiocy)
  • Banking and finance (all controlled by globalists)
  • Government economics figures and statistics
  • Medicine and pharmaceuticals (rigged to maximize profits)
  • Big Science (totally rigged by government agenda pushers)
  • The music industry (most top singers can't sing at all)
  • Weapons manufacturers and war corporations
  • The illegal drug trade (it's run by the government)
  • Political elections (all 100% rigged at the federal level)
  • Political polls (now rigged by Reuters, too)
  • The health insurance industry (rigged by Obamacare)
  • College admissions (legally discriminates against Whites and Asians)
  • 9/11 and domestic terrorism (all rigged "official stories")
  • Oil and energy industries
  • The rule of law (rigged in favor of the rich and powerful)
  • Infectious disease and the CDC (a constant stream of lies)
  • Hollywood (all run by globalists)
  • Climate change science (all a grand science hoax)
  • Press release services (they only allow official narratives)
  • History (what you are taught is mostly a lie)
  • Government grants (only given out to those who further the agenda)
  • Government bids (only awarded to those who kick back funds to corrupt officials)
  • Consciousness and free will (we are all taught consciousness doesn't exist)
  • Ethnobotany (medicinal and spiritual use of healing plants)
  • Life on other plants (the obvious truth is kept from us all)
  • The origin of the universe (the official narrative is a laughable fairy tale)

As a fantastic example of how everything is rigged, consider these paragraphs from this Breitbart.com news story published today:

Over the weekend and for the past few days since Khan spoke alongside his wife Ghazala Khan about their son, U.S. Army Captain Humayun Khan, who was killed in Iraq in 2004, media-wide reporters, editors, producers, and anchors have tried to lay criticism on Trump over the matter. They thought they had a good one, a specific line of attack that pitted Trump against the military—and supposedly showed him as a big meanie racist in the process.

But, as Breitbart News showed on Monday midday, that clearly was not the case. Khizr Khan has all sorts of financial, legal, and political connections to the Clintons through his old law firm, the mega-D.C. firm Hogan Lovells LLP. That firm did Hillary Clinton’s taxes for years, starting when Khan still worked there involved in, according to his own website, matters “firm wide”—back in 2004. It also has represented, for years, the government of Saudi Arabia in the United States. Saudi Arabia, of course, is a Clinton Foundation donor which—along with the mega-bundlers of thousands upon thousands in political donations to both of Hillary Clinton’s presidential campaigns in 2008 and 2016—plays right into the “Clinton Cash” narrative.

America's transformation into Communist China is nearly complete

If you're pondering where all this is headed, look no further than Communist China, where all independent news has been outlawed by the state. Political prisoners across China have their organs harvested to enrich black market organ traders, and nearly one out of every three urban citizens is a secret spy who snitches on friends for the totalitarian communist government.

Hillary Clinton is the embodiment of Communist Chinese totalitarianism. She's such a perfect fit for their disastrous model of human rights abuses, government corruption and systemic criminality that I'm surprised she doesn't live in Beijing. If Clinton gets elected, America is gone forever, replaced by a criminal regime of totalitarians who violate the RICO Act as a matter of policy.

If this entire rigged system of biased media, Facebook censorship, Google search result manipulations and twisted science ends up putting America's most terrifying political criminal into the White House, it's lights out for the American we once knew. Almost immediately, the nation fractures into near Civil War, with calls for secession growing unstoppable as state after state seeks to escape the political wrath of an insane regime of D.C. criminals and tyrants. #TEXIT

We now live in two Americas: Half the country is tired of everything being rigged, and the other half can't wait to be exploited by yet another crooked leftist LIAR who rigs everything

America is now essentially two nations. On one hand, we have the pro-Trump America, filled with people who are tired of being cheated, censored, punished, stolen from and lied to about everything under the sun. Donald Trump supporters are people who realize everything is rigged... and they're demanding an end to the corruption and criminality of the fascist system under which we all suffer today.

Hillary Clinton supporters are people who are too busy chasing political rainbows to realize everything is rigged. They still believe the lies and the propaganda (the "hope and change" that never came, but is still promised by empty politicians). They're living in fairy tale delusional worlds that have been woven into their gullible minds by the skillful social engineers of the radical left. These people still think the government cares about them... or that CNN only reports truthful news. They can't wait to see another globalist in the White House because they are pathetic, weak-minded empty shells of non-consciousness who are wholly incapable of thinking for themselves.

These two camps of Americans can no longer coexist. They have almost nothing in common when it comes to knowledge, wisdom, ethics, morals or philosophy. One camp believes in the rule of law (Trump); the other camp believes that people in power should be above the law (Clinton). One camp believes in states' rights and individual liberty (Trump) while the other camp believes in the consolidation of totalitarian power in the hands of a centralized, domineering government (Clinton). One camp believes in a level playing field, free market competition and rewarding innovation and hard work (Trump), while the other camp believes in free handouts, government "equality" mandates, and the ludicrous idea that "there should be no winners or losers in society." (Clinton)

In other to try to win this election, the Clinton camp has already rigged EVERYTHING from the very start, including the coronation of Hillary, the scheduling of televised debates to minimize their viewership, the surrender of Bernie Sanders to the DNC machine, the mass organization of illegal voting schemes to make sure illegal aliens vote in November, and so much more. No doubt they're also working extremely hard to rig the black box voting machines all across the country.

If you're tired of everything being rigged, this November vote against the rigged system by voting for Donald Trump. This is truly your last chance to save America from being overthrown by a totalitarian regime of criminals who will crush every last iota of freedom and liberty in America.

Author : Mike Adams

Source : http://www.naturalnews.com/054857_rigged_elections_fake_media_fairy_tales.html

Categorized in Search Engine

GOOGLE’S artificial intelligence program has learned to become “aggressive” when it is in stressful situations, the search engine giant has warned.

Despite numerous predictions from experts that AI could lead to the downfall of humanity, including Stephen Hawking who claimed it could be the “worst thing” for human beings, tech giants are continuing to invest heavily in AI.

In 2016, Google’s AI program, known as DeepMind, showed its makers it was capable of learning independently, teaching itself to beat the world champion in a game of Go!.

Now, it has continued on its ruthless streak and opts for “highly aggressive” strategies when it is in fear of losing.

In the latest tests, two DeepMind agents were tasked with playing a game of ‘Gathering’ – a computer game where two people, or in this case computers, play against each other to collect the most apples.

alpha go

The AI beings operated smoothly when there were enough apples to go around, but once the apples became more sparse, the DeepMind systems began using laser beams, or tagging, to knock the other one out, ensuring they could collect all the apples.

A blog post from the DeepMind team read: “We let the agents play this game many thousands of times and let them learn how to behave rationally using deep multi-agent reinforcement learning.


“Rather naturally, when there are enough apples in the environment, the agents learn to peacefully coexist and collect as many apples as they can. “However, as the number of apples is reduced, the agents learn that it may be better for them to tag the other agent to give themselves time on their own to collect the scarce apples.”

ai skull

GETTYThere are fears that AI's wishes will not fit in line with humanity's Joel Z Leibo, who is part of the DeepMind team, told Wired: "This model... shows that some aspects of human-like behaviour emerge as a product of the environment and learning."Less aggressive policies emerge from learning in relatively abundant environments with less possibility for costly action. “The greed motivation reflects the temptation to take out a rival and collect all the apples oneself.”


Source : http://www.express.co.uk/news/science/766612/Google-DeepMind-artificial-intelligence-AI


Categorized in Search Engine

The fight against online piracy is close to reaching a new level, as Google and other search companies are getting close to striking a voluntary agreement with entertainment companies. What’s the point of it all? Making those links to infringing content vanish from search results.

According to a report from TorrentFreak, multiple roundtable discussions took place with the help of the British Intellectual Property Office. Following these meetings, all parties have agreed that the new code will take effect by June 1, 2017.

What does this mean for you, the regular user of most search engines? It means that when you’re looking for the torrent link of some movie or another, you’ll get nothing valid back.

It’s been years since the entertainment industry has taken to blaming Google, Yahoo, Bing and all the rest for not doing more to prevent Internet piracy. This works on the assumption that, of course, pirates actually google the torrents they need rather than going over to the sites they know and trust and just download everything from there.

Regardless of the logic of the situation, entertainment companies, Hollywood for the most part, have pushed and poked Google for more action towards eliminating links to copyrighted content distributed freely over the Internet. Google, for its part, has already done loads of things to help the industry, such as punishing offenders by taking out their links from the search results or demoting them for certain key phrases. One thing that they’ve refused to do so far is to remove the entire site from their search results since there may also be legal content available for download there.

Overtired Google

But Google is probably getting tired of all the effort it’s putting into this whole process. In 2016 alone the company was sent takedown requests affecting a billion links, which is insane. Over 90% of them were actually taken down, but this is a process that takes a lot of time and effort from Google since someone needs to check the links to confirm they’re really leading to copyrighted content. Even with the process they set up in place, it’s still time-consuming.

Since it started counting, Google has processed requests regarding over 2 billion infringing URLs, out of which nearly 1 billion were taken down. The fact that half those URLs were targeted within the last year alone is troublesome and can only indicate that this situation will continue to escalate.

An agreement

The role of service providers when it comes to infringing content was once more the focus during a Digital Economy Bill committee. The drafted amendment mentions the possibility for the government to impose a code of practice for search engines, forcing them to deal with infringement. This may not be necessary, however, as search engines have agreed on the key content of the code that is to be rolled out in the months to come.

According to Baroness Buscombe, both the search engine representatives and those of companies within the entertainment industry, have agreed that the code needs to be implemented in the next four months.

While it’s yet unclear what exactly this code will target, we’re pretty sure that those torrent links will no longer appear on search results pages. This will have an impact on the online industry, but only a moderate one, since most pirates visit the websites directly, rather than go through a search engine to find the content they want.

Author : Gabriela Vatu

Source : http://news.softpedia.com/news/google-and-other-search-engines-agree-on-code-to-fight-online-piracy-512726.shtml

Categorized in Search Engine

This guide is a selected, focused and comprehensive annotated bibliography of academic and scholar search engines and sources. With the constant addition of new and pertinent information continuously coming online while other sights steadily disappear, it is very easy to experience both information overload and lack of high value resources for complex research. The true key is to be able to find the important academic and scholarly information both in the visible and invisible world wide web. The following selected academic and scholar search engines and sources offer researchers a broad range of subject matter and sector specific information retrieval and extraction resources to help you accomplish your research goals.

Academia.edu – Share Research

Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. The company’s mission is to accelerate the world’s research. Academics use Academia.edu to share their research, monitor deep analytics around the impact of their research, and track the research of academics they follow. 4,939,245 academics have signed up to Academia.edu, adding 1,626,028 papers and 892,208 research interests. Academia.edu attracts over 5 million unique visitors a month.

Academic Archive Online – DiVA

In DiVA you can find theses, dissertations and other publications in full-text from a number of Nordic universities. The publications are stored in pdf which requires Acrobat Reader to open and print them. DiVA has been developed by the Electronic Publishing Centre at Uppsala university library.

Academic Earth – Thousands of Video Lectures From the World’s Top Scholars

Academic Earth is an organization founded with the goal of giving everyone on earth access to a world-class education. As more and more high quality educational content becomes available online for free, we ask ourselves, what are the real barriers to achieving a world class education? At Academic Earth, they are working to identify these barriers and find innovative ways to use technology to increase the ease of learning. They are building a user-friendly educational ecosystem that will give internet users around the world the ability to easily find, interact with, and learn from full video courses and lectures from the world’s leading scholars.

Academic Index

The Academic Index was created and is maintained by Dr. Michael Bell, former chair, Texas Association of School Librarians. The Academic Index is a true meta-search tool that includes results from mega-information databases that index only research-quality reference and information sources selected by professional librarians, educators, and educational and library consortia. At the present time the Academic Index provides access to approximately 137,000 quality information web pages.

Academic Info

A comprehensive searchable database of academic subject gateways and information as well as an educational subject directory.

Academic Torrents

Sharing data is hard. Emails have size limits, and setting up servers is too much work. They have designed a distributed system for sharing enormous datasets – for researchers, by researchers. The result is a scalable, secure, and fault-tolerant repository for data, with blazing fast download speeds. Currently making 1.68TB of research data available.

AcaWiki – Democratization of Academic Knowledge

AcaWiki offers a web 2.0 way of interacting with the public to increase impact. Research often languishes in academic journals, perhaps read only a few times by infrequent visitors. AcaWiki allows scholars to increase the impact of their research by enabling them to share summaries, long abstracts and literature reviews of their peer-reviewed work online.

AgEcon Search: Research in Agricultural and Applied Economics

AgEcon Search collects, indexes, and electronically distributes full text copies of scholarly research in the broadly defined field of agricultural economics including sub disciplines such as agribusiness, food supply, natural resource economics, environmental economics, policy issues, agricultural trade, and economic development.

American Doctoral Dissertations 1933 – 1955

American Doctoral Dissertations, 1933-1955 is a free research database providing access to the only comprehensive record of dissertations accepted by American universities during that time period, the print index Doctoral Dissertations Accepted by American Universities. Containing nearly 100,000 citations, American Doctoral Dissertations, 1933-1955, provides full page images of the original print index, and may be searched by author, title, subject and university. Doctoral Dissertations Accepted by American Universities was an index complied annually for the National Research Council and The American Council of Learned Societies by the Association of Research Libraries


Free comprehensive scholarly discovery service for research materials related to the cultures and histories of the American South. Also a newly created project that should be followed is http://www.MetaArchive.org/

AQR Data Sets

Simulated returns from academic articles (or working papers) by researchers associated with AQR. Some series are excess returns of long-only portfolios, others are return premia of long/short portfolios. Other than the original paper data sets, which are static, data will be updated monthly.

Archive Finder

Archive Finder brings together ArchivesUSA and the cumulative index to the National Inventory of Documentary Sources in the UK and Ireland (NIDS UK/Ireland), previously available on CD-ROM. ArchivesUSA is a current directory of over 5,500 repositories and more than 161,000 collections of primary source material across the United States.

ArchiveGrid – Connects You To Primary Source Documents and Papers Around the World

ArchiveGrid connects you with primary source material held in archives, special collections, and manuscript collections around the world. You will find historical documents, personal papers, family histories, and more. ArchiveGrid also helps researchers contact archives to request information, arrange a visit, and order copies. ArchiveGrid includes collection descriptions from WorldCat bibliographic records and from finding aid.

ArchiveGrid – Historical Archives from Throughout the World

ArchiveGrid is an important destination for searching through historical documents, personal papers, and family histories held in archives around the world. Thousands of libraries, museums, and archives have contributed nearly a million collection descriptions to ArchiveGrid. Researchers searching ArchiveGrid can learn about the many items in each of these collections, contact archives to arrange a visit to examine materials, and order copies.

ArchivesHub – At the Center of Great Research

Use the Archives Hub to find unique sources for your research. Search across descriptions of archives from over 1,000 years of history, held at over 300 institutions across the UK. The Archives Hub is a free service describing physical and digitized collections held in higher education, specialist, local authority, business and other research archives. It is updated every week with new content.

Archives Portal Europe

The Archives Portal Europe is one of the main milestones achieved by the participants of the APEnet project supported by the European Commission in the eContentplus programme. The project’s consortium currently consists of twelve national archives and national archives administrations, all of which are already represented within the Archives Portal Europe with parts of their archival material available to search online, as well as with additional information on the institutions themselves.

Article City

ArticleCity.com – your one-stop source for free articles. Do you need contents to add to your web site? Or articles for use on your opt-in newsletters and e-zines? ArticleCity has scoured the web and indexed a huge collection of articles on various subjects. Just click on the appropriate category to read the articles.

Article@INIST Search – INIST Catalog of Articles and Monographs

Article@INIST allows you to search for documents (Journal articles, Journal issues, Books, Reports or Conferences, doctoral dissertations) in our catalog at the Institut de l’Information Scientifique et Technique. If it’s your first visit or if you don’t know the document type you are searching for, choose Easy search. Otherwise, choose Expert search.

arXiv.org Search

arXiv is an e-print service in the fields of physics, mathematics, non-linear science, computer science, and quantitative biology. The contents of arXiv conform to Cornell University academic standards. arXiv is owned, operated and funded by Cornell University, a private not-for-profit educational institution. arXiv is also partially funded by the National Science Foundation. Included are hints for more fulfilling searches.

Asia-Studies Full-Text Online

Asia-Studies Full-Text Online is the premier database for the study of modern Asia-Pacific. As the exclusive licensee for the region’s most prestigious research institutions, Asia-Studies.com brings together thousands of full-text reports covering 55 countries* on a multitude of business, government, economic, and social issues. Examples of specific subject coverage include finance, trade, environment, human resources development, best practices in government, fisheries, tourism, education and women’s studies, to name a few. The average study is 50 pages long, and contains statistics, research, analysis, and forecasts. Most contain statistical tables, charts, and/or graphs. Country coverage includes all of Asia, Australia/New Zealand, the Americas Pacific Rim countries, and Pacific islands.

Athenus – Engineering Science and Search

Athenus.com is the search engine of choice for scientists and engineers seeking resources in science and engineering on the web. The Athenus search engine indexes hundreds of thousands of subject-specific web sites, publications, news and other resources, providing users with the most current, most focused collection of topic-specific material on the Internet.

AuseSearch – Searches Australian Open Access Research Repositories

Searches all open access research repositories in Australia listed in Kennan & Kingsley (First Monday Feb 2009), in other words all full-text research articles and (if available) theses from repositories that responded to their survey. Created and maintained by Arthur Sale.

Australasian Digital Theses Program

Database of digital theses from more than 30 Australian universities. Documents are in PDF format, and can be browsed by institution, author, title, or searched. Site also links to local pages for each participating university.

Australian Journals Online

AJOL is the National Library of Australia’s database of Australian electronic journals, newspapers, magazines, webzines, newsletters and e-mail fanzines. The searchable database provides details and links to over 2000 titles that include local and overseas works with Australian content, authorship and/or emphasis as well as entries for sites which advertise or promote Australian journals.

BASE – Bielefeld Academic Search Engine

BASE is one of the world’s most voluminous search engines especially for academic open access web resources. BASE is operated by Bielefeld University Library. As the open access movement grows and prospers, more and more repository servers come into being which use the “Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting” (OAI-PMH) for providing their contents. BASE collects, normalises, and indexes these data. BASE provides more than 50 million documents from more than 2,700 sources. You can access the full texts of about 75% of the indexed documents. The Index is continuously enhanced by integrating further OAI sources as well as local sources. Our OAI-PMH Blog communicates information related to harvesting and aggregating activities performed for BASE. BASE is a registered OAI service provider and contributed to the European project “Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research” (DRIVER). Database managers can integrate the BASE index into your own local infrastructure (e.g. meta search engines, library catalogues) via an interface. In comparison to commercial search engines, BASE is characterized by the following features: a) Intellectually selected resources; b) Only document servers that comply with the specific requirements of academic quality and relevance are included; c) A data resources inventory provides transparency in the searches; d) Discloses web resources of the “Deep Web”, which are ignored by commercial search engines or get lost in the vast quantity of hits.; e) The display of search results includes precise bibliographic data; f) Several options for sorting the result list; g) “Refine your search result” options (by author, subject, DDC, year of publication, collection, language and document type); and h) Browsing by DDC (Dewey Decimal Classification) and document type.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences (BBS)

BBS publishes important and controversial interdisciplinary articles in psychology, neuroscience, behavioral biology, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, linguistics and philosophy. Articles are rigorously refereed and, if accepted, are circulated to a large number of potential commentators around the world in the various specialties on which the article impinges. Their 1000-word commentaries are then co-published with the target article as well as the author’s response to each. The commentaries consist of analyses, elaborations, complementary and supplementary data and theory, criticisms and cross-specialty syntheses.

Beyond Citation

Researchers, students, and instructors use academic databases to find scholarship on topics of interest. Yet it is difficult to get information about how these databases work and what materials are included in – or left out of – them. In response to this challenge, a group of students in a Digital Praxis Seminar at the City University of New York (CUNY) created Beyond Citation, a website dedicated to providing the public with information and analysis about major academic search engines. As of this writing, Beyond Citation features explorations of thirteen major databases, including Google Books, Project MUSE, HathiTrust Digital Library, JSTOR, and ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Each database record includes an Overview outlining what the database contains, available Reviews of each database, and information about Access. In addition, readers will also find a useful Conversations feature, which offers links to outside analysis and criticism about the selected database. Beyond Citation not only helps researchers critically evaluate databases, but also teaches researchers how to use these databases most effectively.

Bioline International

Bioline International is currently working with publishers and editors to promote the provision of journal material on an open-access basis. The website now features more than fifteen journals that are all available in full-text, HTML format, absolutely free. Over upcoming months, Bioline will be working with exisiting and new publishers, hoping to increase the volume of quality scientific material that will be offered free of charge over the Bioline system. In addition to peer reviewed journals, Bioline provides a range of other material of interest to bioscientists (reports, books, technical documents, conference proceedings and newsletters). All material relates to such disciplines as biotechnology, biodiversity, environmental and ecological sciences, food/agriculture/veterinary science, medicine, microbiology and taxonomy.

BioMedLib Search Engine

BioMedLib™ Search Engine takes your query and finds the best responses among millions of biomedical articles in the National Library of Medicine’s MEDLINE® database.

BioMedSearch – Biomedical Search Engine

BioMedSearch is a biomedical search engine that contains NIH/PubMed documents, plus a large collection of theses, dissertations, and other publications not found anywhere else for free, making it the most comprehensive free search on the web. BioMedSearch also provides advanced account features that allow saved searches, alerts, saving documents to portfolios, commenting on documents and portfolios, and sharing documents with other registered users. Registering for BioMedSearch is free. Enhancing BioMedSearch further is an ongoing project.

bioRxiv – The Preprint Server for Biology

bioRxiv (pronounced “bio-archive”) is a free online archive and distribution service for unpublished preprints in the life sciences. It is operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, a not-for-profit research and educational institution. By posting preprints on bioRxiv, authors are able to make their findings immediately available to the scientific community and receive feedback on draft manuscripts before they are submitted to journals.

BlogScholar – Academic Blogging Portal and Directory

This website is intended to be useful to you if: a) You are an academic who blogs; b) You are an academic who is thinking about blogging; c) You want to know who else out there is participating; and d) You want to stay tuned in with the issues and challenges of academic blogging and research. Sections include: 1) Blog Directory of Scholar Blogs, 2) Storyfinder, 3) Latest News, and 4) News Archive.

BPubs.com – The Business Publications Search Engine

BPubs.com is a directory based Internet search engine that strives to cover the topic of Business Publications. By eliminating the noise of “homepages, index pages, and other extraneous web site components”, our users are able to extract what they truly searching for – content.

Catalog of U.S. Government Publications (CGP)

Catalog of U.S. Government Publications (CGP) is the finding tool for federal publications that includes descriptive records for historical and current publications and provides direct links to those that are available online. Users can search by authoring agency, title, subject, and general key word, or click on “Advanced Search” for more options. The catalog offers you the option to find a nearby Federal Depository Library that has a particular publication or that can provide expert assistance in finding and using related U.S. government information.

Center for International Collections Databank

The Ohio University Libraries Center for International Collections Databank includes the following fully searchable resources: a) Berita Database – Publications on Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei; b) Database for Overseas Chinese Newspapers and Journals; c) Distribution of the Etrhnic Chinese Population around the World; d) Films Database; e) Database for Publications on Overseas Chinese; f) Database on Scholars and LIbrarians in Chinese Overseas Studies; g) Davis K. Wyatt Thai Database; and h) East Asian Scholars Database.

CERN Document Server (CDS)

Over 650,000 bibliographic records, including 320,000 fulltext documents, of interest to people working in particle physics and related areas. Covers preprints, articles, books, journals, photographs, and much more.

ChemRefer – Search Engine for Chemical and Pharmaceutical Literature

Search engine for fulltext open access chemical and pharmaceutical literature. Features basic and advanced search options, an integrated chemical structure drawing and search tool, downloadable toolbar, customized RSS feeds, and newsletter. Search results link directly to fulltext.


This astonishingly powerful, award-winning database from The Royal Society of Chemistry provides fast access to over 30 million chemical structures and properties, as well as nearly unlimited links and related information. For a quick introduction, go to the About page and watch the ten-minute introductory video. Then start searching! Simple searches expedite your exploration when you enter the trade name, synonym, or systematic name of the compound you wish to find. Conversely, you can input by Structure, with an innovative Edit Molecule function. Lastly, Advanced searches allow you to combine methods. In addition, the ChemSpider blog boasts frequent entries about the site and the field at large.

ChemxSeer Project

ChemxSeer is an integrated digital library and database allowing for intelligent search of documents in the chemistry domain and data obtained from chemical kinetics. Currently, we have designed and implemented the following: a) Chemical Entity Search, b) TableSeer, and c) Databases.

Chorus – Clearinghouse for the Open Research of the United States

CHORUS serves as an information bridge, supporting agency search portals and leveraging publishers’ existing infrastructure to facilitate a simple compliance process, optimized search and dashboard services, and multi-party archiving and preservation capabilities. The search service enables users to discover articles reporting on funded research. The dashboards are used by funders, institutions, researchers, publishers, and the public for monitoring and tracking public-access compliance for articles reporting on funded research.

CIA FOIA – Electronic Reading Room – Search Options

The CIA has established this site to provide the public with an overview of access to CIA information, including electronic access to previously released documents. Because of CIA’s need to comply with the national security laws of the United States, some documents or parts of documents cannot be released to the public. In particular, the CIA, like other U.S. intelligence agencies, has the responsibility to protect intelligence sources and methods from disclosure. However, a substantial amount of CIA information has been and/or can be released following review. See “Your Rights” for further details on the various methods of obtaining this information.

Citelighter – Your Own Personal Academic Research Tool

Citelighter is an easy-to-use academic research tool that utilizes a community of students to help you find valuable content, automatically cite sources, and provide an organizational framework for writing your papers. Citelighter saves, organizes, and cites information for you while you research so you don’t have to.

CiteSeer – Scientific Literature Digital Library

CiteSeer is a scientific literature digital library that aims to improve the dissemination and feedback of scientific literature, and to provide improvements in functionality, usability, availability, cost, comprehensiveness, efficiency, and timeliness.

CiteSeerX alpha – Scientific Literature Digital Library and Search Engine

CiteSeerX is a scientific literature digital library and search engine that focuses primarily on the literature in computer and information science. CiteSeerX aims to improve the dissemination of scientific literature and to provide improvements in functionality, usability, availability, cost, comprehensiveness, efficiency, and timeliness in the access of scientific and scholarly knowledge. Rather than creating just another digital library, CiteSeerX attempts to provide resources such as algorithms, data, metadata, services, techniques, and software that can be used to promote other digital libraries. CiteSeerX has developed new methods and algorithms to index PostScript and PDF research articles on the Web.


A consortium led by Hofstra University, The College of New Jersey, The Pennsylvania State University, Villanova University, and Virginia Tech proposes to build CITIDEL as part of the Collections Track activities in the National SMETE (Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology Education) Digital Library ( NSDL). In particular, they will establish, operate, and maintain a part of the NSDL that will serve the computing education community in all its diversity and at all levels.this will include computer science, information systems, information science, software engineering, computer engineering, and all other variations of title and substance in these and related fields.

Clinical Medicine and Health Research Netprints

A repository of non-peer reviewed original research. Articles posted on this site have not yet been accepted for publication by a peer reviewed journal. They are presented here mainly for the benefit of fellow healthcare researchers.

Cogprints Search

CogPrints, an electronic archive for self-archive papers in any area of Psychology, neuroscience, and Linguistics, and many areas of Computer Science (e.g., artificial intelligence, robotics, vison, learning, speech, neural networks), Philosophy (e.g., mind, language, knowledge, science, logic), Biology (e.g., ethology, behavioral ecology, sociobiology, behaviour genetics, evolutionary theory), Medicine (e.g., Psychiatry, Neurology, human genetics, Imaging), Anthropology (e.g., primatology, cognitive ethnology, archeology, paleontology), as well as any other portions of the physical, social and mathematical sciences that are pertinent to the study of cognition.

CompletePlanet – Discover Over 70,000+ Databases and Specially Search Engines

A comprehensive listing of dynamic searchable databases. Find databases with highly relevant documents that cannot be crawled or indexed by surface web search engines.

Computing Research Repository (CoRR)

Computing Research Repository (CoRR), sponsored by ACM, the arXiv.org e-Print archive, NCSTRL (Networked Computer Science Technical Reference Library), and AAAI. CoRR allows researchers to search, browse and download papers through its online repository. CoRR is available to all members of of the community at no charge.

Copac – Search c.90 UK and Irish Academic, National & Specialist Library Catalogues

Copac exposes rare and unique research material by bringing together the catalogues of c.90 major UK and Irish libraries (and growing). In a single search you can discover the holdings of the UK’s national libraries (including the British Library), many University libraries, and specialist research libraries. Researchers and educators use Copac to save time in their research, to quickly and easily discover and locate resources, to check document details, review materials in their field, and assess the rarity of materials etc. Information professionals trust Copac to give them access to a unique pool of high-quality bibliographic information. Searching Copac means you are searching a wide and varied range of library catalogues, from the collections of the Oxford and Cambridge universities to the libraries at the National Trust and the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.

(COnnecting REpositories) Search Over 24 Million Open Access Scholarly Papers

The mission of CORE (COnnecting REpositories) is to aggregate all open access research outputs from repositories and journals worldwide and make them available to the public. In this way CORE facilitates free unrestricted access to research for all. CORE harvests openly accessible content available according to the definition. CORE aims to facilitate free access and reuse of open access research outputs distributed across many systems. They provide services for different stakeholders including academics and researchers, repository managers, funders and developers.

CORE – Aggregating the World’s Open Access Research Papers

Search 36,093,539 Open Access Articles. They offer seamless access to millions of open access research papers, enrich the collected data for text-mining and provide unique services to the research community.

Credo General Reference

Credo General Reference is a completely customizable online reference solution for learners and librarians. Offering 534 highly-regarded titles from over 70 publishers, Credo General Reference covers every major subject from the world’s best publishers of reference.

CS-Structure Academic Search

CS-Structure is a new service for searching papers in CiteSeer database. Its user can start without knowing what to put in the search request. Among the features of this service are: a) Automated generation of hierarchical classification scheme for the papers. The scheme results from classification of the papers from the CiteSeer database. The EqRank algorithm did the classification. The only input for the classification is the citation graph. The number of the levels in the hierarchy and the number of the clusters is determined by the algorithm.

DART-Europe E-Theses Portal

DART-Europe is a partnership of research libraries and library consortia who are working together to improve global access to European research theses. DART-Europe is endorsed by LIBER (Ligue des Bibliothèques Européennes de Recherche), and it is the European Working Group of the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD). The DART-Europe partners help to provide researchers with a single European Portal for the discovery of Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETDs), and they participate in advocacy to influence future European e-theses developments.

DataSearch – Prototype Research Data Engine

DataSearch is a prototype research data search engine, developed by Elsevier’s Research Data Management team. They are interested in exploring what a search engine for research data would look like (as opposed to a web search engine or a document search engine), and are talking with users and data providers about their needs and interests. They are indexing images, tables and supplementary data from (Elsevier or Open Access) content sources, and are considering these to be research data components. They are also indexing a series of domain-specific repositories, as well as non-domain specific ones. As of June 2016, they are (completely or partially) indexing the following content sources: a) Tables, figures and supplementary data associated with papers in ScienceDirect, arXiv and PubMed Central; and b) NeuroElectro, Dryad, PetDB, ICPSR, Harvard Dataverse and ThemoML at NIST Thermodynamic Research Center (TRC).

David Rumsey Historical Map Collection

The collection is available over the World Wide Web using a standard Web browser such as Internet Explorer or Netscape. This Insight® Browser format has been designed for the general public. The Insight® Java client has been designed for the researcher and those desiring advanced software functionality. In order to view the Collection using the Insight® Java client, special software must be downloaded. For new users, the Insight™ Browser version is recommended.

Deep Life

Entity-Aware Search, Analytics and Exploration for Health and Life Sciences. This excellent resource has been created and updated by Max Planck Institut Informatik.

Deep Web Research and Discovery Resources 2016 Subject Tracer™ Information Blog

A Subject Tracer™ Information Blog developed and created by Internet expert, author, keynote speaker and consultant Marcus P. Zillman, M.S., A.M.H.A. for monitoring deep web research resources and sites on the Internet.

Defense Technical Information Center

The Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC®) is the premier provider of DoD technical information. DTIC serves as a vital link in the transfer of information among DoD personnel, DoD contractors and potential contractors and other U.S. Government agency personnel and their contractors. DTIC is a DoD Field Activity under the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics, reporting to the Director, Defense Research & Engineering (DDR&E).

Digital Commons Network™ – Open Access Powered By Scholars Published by Universities

The Digital Commons Network brings together free, full-text scholarly articles from hundreds of universities and colleges worldwide. Curated by university librarians and their supporting institutions, the Network includes a growing collection of peer-reviewed journal articles, book chapters, dissertations, working papers, conference proceedings, and other original scholarly work.

Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE)

DLESE supports Earth system science education by providing access to high-quality collections of educational resources and access to Earth data sets and imagery including the tools and interfaces that enable their effective use in educational settings. DLESE resources include electronic materials for both teachers and learners, such as lesson plans, maps, images, data sets, visualizations, assessment activities, curriculum, online courses, and much more.

Digital Library of the Commons (DLC)

The Digital Library of the Commons (DLC) provides free access to an archive of international literature on the commons, common-pool resources and common property. Features for authors and readers include advanced searching; browsing by region, sector, and author name; an author submission portal for uploading a variety of document formats; and a service that uses email to alert subscribers to new documents in their area of interest.

Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)

This service covers free, full text, quality controlled scientific and scholarly journals. We aim to cover all subjects and languages. There are now 1373 journals in the directory. Currently 336 journals are searchable on article level. As of today 61463 articles are included in the DOAJ service.

Discovery Hub – Exploratory Search Engine Built Upon Wikipedia

Discovery Hub is an exploratory search engine built on top of the famous encyclopedia on the web, Wikipedia. The exploratory search is a new way to search the web, not to find what you are searching, but to find what you are not searching, and might be interesting for you ! It allows performing queries in an innovative way and helps you to navigate rich results. As a hub, it proposes redirections to others platforms to make you benefit from your discoveries (Youtube, Deezer and more).

Dissertation Reviews

Doctoral dissertations include innovative scholarship, new topics of inquiry, and fresh approaches to longstanding topics in any academic discipline. However, most dissertations do not become available to the general public until the author is able to convert their dissertation into a book manuscript. Dissertation Reviews is designed to “offer readers a glimpse of each discipline’s immediate present by focusing on the window of time between dissertation defense and first book publication.” On this site, visitors can read reviews of over 1,000 dissertations in the humanities and social science fields from around the globe. In each review, an early career scholar in the field outlines the dissertatior’s main argument and sources and discusses how the dissertation fits into the field’s existing body of scholarship. Visitors to this website can search for dissertation by institution or academic subject.

Distributed Search Engines

A comprehensive listing of the most relevant distributed search engines on the Internet. An excellent starting point for advanced distributed searching with the latest search bots.

DOE Data Explorer (DDE)

Use the DOE Data Explorer (DDE) to find scientific research data – such as computer simulations, numeric data files, figures and plots, interactive maps, multimedia, and scientific images – generated in the course of DOE-sponsored research in various science disciplines. The DOE Data Explorer provides access both to collections and to individual datasets that have been submitted to OSTI by their creator, by a DOE National Laboratory, or by a DOE Data Center. OSTI became a member of and a registering agency for DataCite in 2011 and now assigns Digital Object Identifiers to individual datasets.

DOE Green Energy

Green energy-related research and development (R&D) results are now more easily accessible through a new online portal, DOE Green Energy. The free public portal was launched on the 40th Anniversary of Earth Day by the U.S. Department of Energy(DOE) Office of Scientific and Technical Information(OSTI) within the Office of Science. The site is designed to ease access to green energy R&D information for use by researchers, scientists, educators, students and the general public. Researchers can use the DOE Green Energy portal to speed scientific discovery and innovation; business and industry can use the R&D to stimulate economic growth related to renewable energy. Educators, students, and the public can discover applications of renewable energy science and energy efficiency best practices. The portal provides technical documents from thousands of R&D projects conducted at DOE National Laboratories and by DOE-funded awards at universities.

DPLA Hub Model – Content and Service Hubs

The DPLA hubs model is establishing a national network out of the over forty state/regional digital libraries and myriad large digital libraries in the US, bringing together digitized and born-digital content from across the country into a single access point for end users, and an open platform for developers. The model supports or establishes local collaborations, professional networks, metadata globalization, and long-term sustainability. It ensures that even the smallest institutions have an on-ramp to participation in DPLA. DPLA content hubs are large libraries, museums, archives, or other digital repositories that maintain a one-to-one relationship with the DPLA. Content hubs, as a general rule, provide more than 200,000 unique metadata records that resolve to digital objects (online texts, photographs, manuscript material, art work, etc.) to the DPLA, and commit to maintaining and enhancing those records as needed. DPLA service hubs are state, regional, or other collaborations that host, aggregate, or otherwise bring together digital objects from libraries, archives, museums, and other cultural heritage institutions.

EDGAR – Search Tools

Free access to more than 20 million filings. Since 1934, the SEC has required disclosure in forms and documents. In 1984, EDGAR began collecting electronic documents to help investors get information. The SEC’s new system requires data disclosure — the next step to improve how investors find and use information.


Xtra cross-searches 20 databases featuring content from 50 publishers, and facilitates access to articles, books, websites, eprints, industry news, job announcements, the latest research, technical reports and data, and more, in engineering, mathematics and computing. Essentially, its a deep-mining, subject-based meta search service of quality resources. Its a free service, and is an initiative of Heriot Watt

UniversityEEVL Xtra

EEVL Xtra cross-searches 20 databases featuring content from 50 publishers, and facilitates access to articles, books, websites, eprints, industry news, job announcements, the latest research, technical reports and data, and more, in engineering, mathematics and computing. Essentially, its a deep-mining, subject-based meta search service of quality resources. Its a free service, and is an initiative of Heriot Watt University.

eFinancialBot Meta Search Engine

eFinancialBot is a freely available custom meta search engine designed using over 72 global financial specialty search engines and sources from throughout the Internet combined and powered by Google technology and resources from the Virtual Private Library.

eGreenBot.com – Green Resources Search Engine

eGreenBot.com is your search engine for Green Resources Online and a Google powered metasearch engine created by the Virtual Private Library™. It is designed to bring together the latest metasearch engines and directories for Green Resources on an ongoing basis from the Internet. Currently eGreenBot.com searches over 93 selected online environmental and green meta search engines and sources simultaneously from the Internet.

eHealthcareBot.com – 2017 Search Engine for Healthcare Resources

eHealthcareBot.com is your 2017 search engine for healthcare resources and a Google powered metasearch engine created by the Virtual Private Library™. It is designed to bring together the latest metasearch engines for healthcare on an ongoing basis from the Internet. Currently eHealthcareBot searches over 147 selected healthcare search engines from the Internet with many of them listed in the search engine section of Healthcare Online Resources 2017.

Eigenfactor.org – Ranking and Mapping Scientific Knowledge

Eigenfactor ranks journals much as Google ranks websites. Scholarly references join journals together in a vast network of citations. Eigenfactor uses the structure of the entire network (instead of purely local citation information) to evaluate the importance of each journal. Eigenfactor contains 115,000 reference items. Eigenfactor not only ranks scholarly journals in the natural and social sciences, but also lists newsprint, PhD theses, popular magazines and more.

Electronic Environmental Resources Library (eERL) – Environmental and Energy Resources Library

The Electronic Environmental Resources Library (eERL), an Advanced Technology Environmental Education Center (ATEEC) project, is a multi-faceted clearing house of valuable electronic resources. eERL is supported by a National Science Foundation (NSF) grant. This electronic library collects STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) resources tied to environmental science and technology resource information- from classroom-ready materials to regulatory information and global environmental issues. Some of the areas include: air quality, emergency preparedness and response, energy, natural resources management, safety and health, and sustainability. Vocational areas are covered also, from agriculture, automotive, and green building to manufacturing technology. eERL’s team of expert community college educators and practitioners evaluate and recommend valid, up-to-date content.

Elephind.com – Search the World’s Historical Newspaper Archives

The goal of Elephind.com is to make it possible to search all the world’s online historic newspapers from one place. They aren’t there yet, but we are adding more newspapers every day. With Elephind.com it is now possible for family historians, genealogists, and researchers to search historic digitized newspaper archives from around the globe. Elephind.com is much like Google, Bing, or other search engines but is focused on only historical, digitized newspapers. It enables you to search, for free, across many newspaper sites simultaneously, rather than having to visit each site separately.

e-Lis – ePrints in Library and Information Science

Established in 2003, E-LIS is an international Open Archive for Library and Information Science (LIS). E-LIS has grown to include a team of volunteer editors and support for 22 languages. The development of an international LIS network has been stimulated by the extension of the OA concept to LIS works and facilitated by the dissemination of material within the LIS community. These are some of the reasons for the success of E-LIS. In a few years, E-LIS has been established as the largest international open repository in the field of library and information science

eMarketingBot 2017 Meta Search Engine

eMarketingBot is a freely available custom meta search engine designed using over 39 global marketing specialty search engines and sources from throughout the Internet combined and powered by Google technology and resources from the Virtual Private Library.

Energy Files

At this site you will find over 500 databases and Web sites containing information and resources pertaining to science and technology of interest to the Department of Energy, with an emphasis on the physical sciences. Sponsored, developed, and maintained by the Department of Energy’s Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI), EnergyFiles combines information, tools, and technologies to facilitate access to and use of scientific resources.

Engineering Village 2

Engineering Village 2 is the premier web-based discovery platform meeting the information needs of the engineering community. By coupling powerful search tools, an intuitive user interface and essential content sources, Engineering Village 2 has become the globally accepted source of choice for engineers, engineering students, researchers and information professionals. Also they have recently added RSS Feeds and Faceted Searching.

E-print Network Search

A Deep Web distributed search across E-prints on Web Sites and/or Databases is accomplished with a single query that returns results from multiple sources.  This search allows for compilation and assimilation of data to facilitate information discovery and reuse.

ERIC – Education Resources Information Center

ERIC provides free access to more than 1.2 million bibliographic records of journal articles and other education-related materials and, if available, includes links to full text. ERIC is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences (IES).

eScholarship – Open Access Scholarly Publishing

eScholarship provides a suite of open access, scholarly publishing services and research tools that enable departments, research units, publishing programs, and individual scholars associated with the University of California to have direct control over the creation and dissemination of the full range of their scholarship.

EThOS – Electronic Theses Online Service

The aim of EThOS is: a) To offer a ‘single point of access’ where researchers the world over can access ALL theses produced by UK Higher Education; b) To support Higher Education Institutions through the transition from print to e-theses; c) To help UK Higher Education Institutions expand available content by digitising paper theses; and d) To demonstrate the quality of UK research and help attract students and research investment into UK HE. To achieve this, EThOS offers a coherent and consistent interface by implementing a central ‘hub’ comprising an e-store and a digitisation suite at The British Library site in Boston Spa, Yorkshire. The hub automatically harvests e-theses from Institutional Repositories and digitises paper theses from participating institutions to offer the single point of access.


This electronic version of Ethnologue: Languages of the World presents the data used to prepare the printed volumes, along with links to the SIL Bibliography and the International Academic Bookstore. To get started using the Ethnologue, you should first read the Introduction. Then browse the Countries page, which displays the primary table of contents for the Ethnologue organized by geographical areas and countries, or use the search function.

Fields of Knowledge

Fields of Knowledge is deeply rooted in academia. Eighty-nine percent of the subject specialists who provide content to The Infography are college professors. They are dedicated to the immediate mission of better enabling librarians, students, and others to identify good information for learning. The Infography is comparable to Internet search engines, reference books, and other disparate reference resources. We believe that the pinnacle need of librarians and students is for a research threshold where scholarly specialists guide them to superlative information.

Finding Experts By Using the Internet

This is a 24 page .pdf file (225KB) and freely available from the above URL. Finding Experts on the Internet is dedicated to giving you the internet sources to discover that needed expert(s) that you have been looking for. The Internet is a vast global resource of knowledge created by experts and the ability to find and contact these experts is extremely important for both academic activities as well as business and special interest needs.


FindLaw is the highest-trafficked legal Web site, providing the most comprehensive set of legal resources on the Internet for legal professionals, businesses, students and individuals. These resources include Web search utilities, cases and codes, legal news, an online career center, and community-oriented tools, such as a secure document management utility, mailing lists, message boards and free e-mail

FindThatFile.com – Search Files from the Internet, FTP, Usenet, Emule, Educational Resources and More

A file based search engine that searches almost every major source and filetype from over 300 million urls. It also allows users to search contents, extracts, and internal metadata including file lists and more making it a very valuable resource for searching as an alternative to the traditional ‘webpage’ search.

Foreign Doctoral Dissertations from the Center for Research Libraries (CRL)

Search through CRL’s Foreign Doctoral Dissertations Database. CRL has more than 750,000 uncataloged foreign doctoral dissertations, of which approximately 20,000 are included in this database.

FT.com Search

FT, press and newswire articles from their powerful, up to the minute, news collection (and five-year archive) plus profiles and websites from the Business.com web guide. Use the one-stop search box for results from all sources, or select from the specific advanced options.

Fulltext Sources Online

Fulltext Sources Online (FSO) is a searchable directory of publications that are accessible online in full text, from 28 major aggregator products. FSO lists 22,609 periodicals, newspapers, newsletters, newswires, and TV or radio transcripts. It covers topics in science, technology, medicine, law, finance, business, industry, the popular press and more. Subscription required.

Gateway to Library Catalogs

The Library of Congress Page for gateway access to LC’s catalog and those at many other institutions. Contents include: a) Search Library of Congress Catalog, b) Search Other Catalogs, and c) About the Z39.50 Gateway.

Genamics JournalSeek

Genamics JournalSeek is the largest completely categorized database of freely available journal information available on the internet. The database presently contains 102139 titles. Journal information includes the description (aims and scope), journal abbreviation, journal homepage link, subject category and ISSN. Searching this information allows the rapid identification of potential journals to publish your research in, as well as allow you to find new journals of interest to your field.


GlobalSpec is the leading specialized vertical search, information services and e-publishing company serving the engineering, manufacturing and related scientific and technical market segments. The company provides its buy-side users with domain-expert search engines, a broad range of proprietary and aggregated Web-based content and over 55 product-area-specific e-newsletters that help engineers and related professionals perform their key job tasks with the highest levels of accuracy and productivity.


GoArticles.com is an article search engine and directory, updated daily. The staff at GoArticles are dedicated to meeting the needs of contributing authors, newsletter publishers and visitors by providing the best and largest article database on the Web.


Go-Geo! is the UK academic spatial data portal operated and maintained by EDINA National Data Centre, University of Edinburgh. The portal is a key component of the UK academic Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) and is financially supported by the Joint Information Services Committee (JISC). Go-Geo! offers access to information about all things spatial for researchers, teaching staff and students in UK further and higher education institutions. It’s principle function is as a data discovery tool, searching metadata catalogues across the UK.

Gold Rush – Database Search Tool

Gold Rush is a tool to help you find the best databases to search for information on a specific topic or from a specific journal. Gold Rush will also help to determine whether or not you have access to a particular database. If you do have access to a database, Gold Rush will provide you with a link to search that database.

Google™ Book Search

Formerly print.google.com … Search the full text of books to find ones that interest you and learn where to buy or borrow them. Each book includes an ‘About this book’ page with basic bibliographic data like title, author, publication date, length and subject. For some books you may also see additional information like key terms and phrases, references to the book from scholarly publications or other books, chapter titles and a list of related books. For every book, you’ll see links directing you to bookstores where you can buy the book and libraries where you can borrow it.

Google™ Scholar Search

Google Scholar enables you to search specifically for scholarly literature, including peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, preprints, abstracts and technical reports from all broad areas of research. Use Google Scholar to find articles from a wide variety of academic publishers, professional societies, preprint repositories and universities, as well as scholarly articles available across the web

Government Information Locator Service (GILS)

The Government Information Locator Service (GILS) is an effort to identify, locate, and describe publicly available Federal information resources, including electronic information resources. GILS records identify public information resources within the Federal Government, describe the information available in these resources, and assist in obtaining the information. GILS is a decentralized collection of agency-based information locators using network technology and international standards to direct users to relevant information resources within the Federal Government.

GPO Access – Search Across Multiple Databases

Search across multiple government databases with one query from this starting point at GPO Access.

GPO’s Federal Digital System Search (FDsys)

GPO’s Federal Digital System (FDsys) provides public access to Government information submitted by Congress and Federal agencies and preserved as technology changes. GPO’s Federal Digital System (FDsys) is an advanced digital system that will enable GPO to manage Government information from all three branches of the U.S. Government. FDsys is available as a public beta during migration of information from GPO Access. The migration of information from GPO Access into FDsys will be complete in 2009, until this time GPO Access will contain all content.

Grainger Engineering Library University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana

Search open archives initiative Information in Engineering, Computer Science and Physics. 450,000+ records from 13+ repositories.

HAL – Open Access Archive for Deposit and Dissemination of Scientific Research

HAL is a multi-disciplinary open access archive for the deposit and dissemination of scientific research papers, whether they are published or not, and for PhD dissertation. The documents may come from teaching and research institutions in France or abroad, or from public or private research centers.

Handbook of Latin American Studies (HLAS)

The Handbook is a bibliography on Latin America consisting of works selected and annotated by scholars. Edited by the Hispanic Division of the Library of Congress, the multidisciplinary Handbook alternates annually between the social sciences and the humanities. Each year, more than 130 academics from around the world choose over 5,000 works for inclusion in the Handbook.

HashDoc – The Marketplace for Professional Documents

Most people use Hashdoc to find inspiration for a work related task, learn from similar cases or find a ready to use templates. What they are building is a new kind of professional freebase and a marketplace that makes finding work-related resources easier and more meaningful. Consultants use it to find resources that help them with their project deliverables. Consultants can also share their work to demonstrate topic expertise, generate leads and build online influence. Organizations, whether they’re in the consulting business or not, can share infographics, white papers, use cases and other document types as a way for indirect marketing, lead generation and thought leadership. Their growing community of subject matter experts and the platform they are building help you find relevant business documentation, project deliverables, templates, presentations, white-papers, forms and more, all rated and improved by like-minded people.

HathiTrust Digital Library

HathiTrust is a partnership of major research institutions and libraries working to ensure that the cultural record is preserved and accessible long into the future. There are more than fifty partners in HathiTrust, and membership is open to institutions worldwide. The HathiTrust Digital Library brings together the immense collections of partner institutions in digital form, preserving them securely to be accessed and used today, and in future generations. Currently Digitized: 8,106,999 total volumes; 4,492,289 book titles; 199,836 serial titles; 2,837,449,650 pages; 363 terabytes.

HighBeam Research

Search their extensive archive of more than 32 million documents from over 2,800 sources — a vast collection of articles from leading publications, updated daily and going back as far as 20 years. Save your searches, save articles and set up alerts to save time and increase your efficiency.

Highly Cited Researchers

Search for the top researchers by name, category, country, or institutional affiliation. Track research trends through literature references using links to and through the Web of Science. Learn about or stay current on the research authorities and trends in a number of fields. Identify key individuals, departments and laboratories. Locate colleagues and experts . Discover new dimensions of a researcher’s work. Show students the development of scientific ideas.

HighWire Press — Search Multiple Journals

Search over 15 million articles from over 4,500 PubMed journals, including 780,905 free full text articles from 757 HighWire-hosted journals … the largest repository of free full-text life science articles in the world.

Hong Kong University Theses Online

The Hong Kong University Theses Collection holds 16,574 titles of theses and dissertations submitted for higher degrees to the University of Hong Kong since 1941. The first recorded thesis was dated 1928, though all theses prior to 1941 were lost during the occupation of WWII. HKUTO includes works in the arts, humanities, education and the social, medical and natural sciences. Many of them deal entirely with or focus on subjects relating to Hong Kong. The collection is primarily in English, with some in English and Chinese, and others in Chinese only. Almost all HKU theses are included in HKUTO. Missing ones might be located in HKU departmental libraries. HKUTO now includes 14,481 full-text electronic theses.

HONselect – Health on the Net Select Search

HONselect is HON’s (Health On the Net Foundation) new search integrator for strictly medical and health queries. HONselect combines five information types – MeSH® terms, authoritative scientific articles, healthcare news, Web sites and multimedia – into one service to focus and accelerate your search.

IDEAS: Economics and Finance Research

Billed as the “largest bibliographic database dedicated to economics”, the Internet Documents In Economics Access Services (IDEAS) database contains over 700,000 citations, including links to working papers, articles, chapters, and books. The database is housed at the University of Connecticut, and it is overseen by Christian Zimmermann and a number of his colleagues. A handy table on the site’s homepage gives some basic statistics on what users can find here, and they should feel free to perform a detailed search on anything from agricultural economics to supply chains.

Image Search Engines Review

This critical review concentrates on general, specialized, and meta image search engines., but also covers, briefly, collection-based and content-based image search engines.

IMF eLibrary Data

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an organization of 188 countries, working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world.

Index to Theses in Great Britain and Ireland

A comprehensive listing of theses with abstracts accepted for higher degrees by universities in Great Britain and Ireland since 1716 with 484,007 theses in the current collection.

Index to University Sponsored Open Access Repositories of Journals and Research Materials

This DSpace Wiki hosts an alphabetical listing of college and university sponsored searchable, open source repositories, from around the world. Content includes a wide range of topics: biomedical and health sciences, theses, business and economics, library science, history, education, art, architecture, and engineering.

Index Translationum Search

The searchable data base contains cumulative bibliographical information on books translated and published in about one hundred of the UNESCO Member States since 1979 and totalling more than 1,450,000 entries in all disciplines : literature, social and human sciences, natural and exact sciences, art, history and so forth. It is planned to update the work every quarter.

INFOMINE: Scholarly Internet Resource Collections

INFOMINE is a virtual library of Internet resources relevant to faculty, students, and research staff at the university level. It contains useful Internet resources such as databases, electronic journals, electronic books, bulletin boards, mailing lists, online library card catalogs, articles, directories of researchers, and many other types of information.

Information Bridge – DOE Scientific and Technical Information

The Information Bridge: DOE Scientific and Technical Information provides free public access to over 210,000 full-text documents and bibliographic citations of Department of Energy (DOE) research report literature. Documents are primarily from 1991 forward and were produced by DOE, the DOE contractor community, and/or DOE grantees. Legacy documents are added as they become available in electronic format. The Information Bridge contains documents and citations in physics, chemistry, materials, biology, environmental sciences, energy technologies, engineering, computer and information science, renewable energy, and other topics of interest related to DOE’s mission.

Information Resources Management Association (IRMA)

The Information Resources Management Association (IRMA) welcomes professionals, students, and academicians to search thousands of peer-reviewed works covering all areas of technology applied to modern organizations. Aiming to enhance knowledge of current topics in Information Resources Management, Research IRM, powered by InfoSci-OnDemand, makes thousands of proceedings papers, scholarly journal articles, and book chapters available for download. Search to discover the latest findings in IRM.


Infotopia is an academic search engine designed for “students, teachers, and especially homeschoolers.” Created by Dr. Michael Bell (former chair of the Texas Association of School Librarians) and Carole Bell (former middle school librarian and director of libraries), Infotopia uses a Google custom search to provide accesses to previously vetted websites selected by librarians, teachers, and educational professionals. Rounding out this powerful search feature, Infotopia provides tabs on a series of different topics, from Arts to Biography to Games to Health. Each tab opens up to more subject links, for instance Biography features Biography, Hispanic Bios, and African American Bios. Selecting any of these sub-topics navigates to a page of related external resources, such as African-American Odyssey, Time for Kids: Black History Month, and The Franklin Institute. Readers will also be pleased to find an excellent blog elaborating on teacher-recommended resources.

IngentaConnect – Your Gateway to Research – Article Search Interface

Search 22,322,504 articles, chapters, reports and more… Browse 30,000+ publications.


Intellisearch accesses a large database of publications and news sources such as newspapers, magazines, business publications, trade and professional journals, and wire services and more ….

International Researcher Network (Visualization 1.0)

There exist diverse services that researchers can use to stay in constant contact with colleagues that are used to identify perfect collaborators at the right time and to manage productive teams. Among them are commercial services, e.g., LinkedIn or Facebook, as well as sites that were specifically designed for scholars, e.g., Academia.edu-the LinkedIn for academics-or VIVO-the Facebook for researchers. A number of International Researcher Network (IRN) sites expose high quality institutional data via web sites and/or semantically structured RDF data. Among them, and listed in alphabetical order are: Elsevier’s Collexis, Harvard’s Catalyst Profiles, Stanford’s CAPS system, and the NIH funded VIVO system. Thanks to these systems, scholars are uniquely identified via their institutional IDs and are linked to the papers they have published, the patents they authored, the funding they received, and the courses they teach. Never before has such a comprehensive record of scholarly activity data been available in machine readable format and advanced semantic search. Intelligent recommender services, automatic resume generation, and novel science of science studies have become possible through this data.

Internet Archive

The Internet Archive is continually building a searchable digital library of Internet sites and other cultural artifacts in digital form. They provide free access to researchers, historians, scholars, and the general public.

Internet Library of Early Journals

ILEJ, the “Internet Library of Early Journals” was a joint project by the Universities of Birmingham, Leeds, Manchester and Oxford, conducted under the auspices of the eLib (Electronic Libraries) Programme. It aimed to digitize substantial runs of 18th and 19th century journals, and make these images available on the Internet, together with their associated bibliographic data IP Search Engine (Intellectual Property)

Intute – Repository Search

Making it easy to access academic and research content … There is a wealth of academic, educational and research information stored in a wide range of systems throughout the UK. Their aim is to increase the visibility of this information and make it readily accessible to academics, researchers, developers and associated organisations. As well as building on the best open-source search technology available such as Lucene, they are also exploring with leading edge search and personalisation technology providers. This is to develop a system that will allow advanced search and innovative access to the information, such as personalised alerts or repurposed content streams into other websites.


This site is a companion to The Invisible Web: Finding Hidden Internet Resources Search Engines Can’t See by Chris Sherman and Gary Price. It includes a directory of some of the best resources the Invisible Web has to offer. The directory includes resources that are informative, of high quality, and contain worthy information from reliable information providers that are not visible to general-purpose search engines.

iSeek – Targeted Search Engines for Students, Teachers, and Administrators

iSEEK Education is a targeted search engine for students, teachers, administrators, and caregivers. Features: a) Safe – Put your mind at ease with safe search technologies and editor-reviewed content; b) Authoritative – Search hundreds of thousands of trusted resources from universities, government, and established noncommercial providers; c) Intelligent – Instantly identify lesson plans, activities, school subjects, grade levels, and more with iView navigation; and d) Time-saving – Register to bookmark any URL for storage in MySEEK, your own searchable Web-based library.

Issue Crawler

Issue Crawler is a network mapping software by the Govcom.org Foundation, Amsterdam. The IssueCrawler is web network location software. It consists of a crawler, a co-link analysis engine and two visualisation modules. It is server-side software that crawls specified sites, captures the outlinks from the specified sites, performs co-link analysis on the outlinks, returns densely interlinked networks, and visualises them in circle and cluster maps.

ITHound – Business Technology Library

IThound.com is an industry-leading business technology research library providing information for technology and business professionals. IThound.com is the largest free library of IT resources containing white papers, analyst reports, case studies, product specs and web seminars.

JAIRO – Japanese Institutional Repositories Online

JAIRO is an abbreviation of Japanese Institutional Repositories Online. JAIRO is a succeeding service of JuNii+ (test version) (Japanese) in which academic information (journal articles, theses or dissertations, departmental bulletin papers, research papers, etc.) accumulated in Japanese institutional repositories* can be searched for cross-sectionally. The National Institute of Informatics (NII) collects metadata of institutional repositories, according to an application from the person in charge of the management of the institutional repository of each institution. As of October 2008, JAIRO allows about 540,000 contents in 84 institutional repositories to be searched for.

Journal TOCS

Here, you can search the latest Table of Contents (TOCs) of 12,568 journals collected from 422 publishers. More journals are added continuously. You can start by searching for TOCs by journal title or by keywords (searching 336,025 TOC articles).


JSTOR is a not-for-profit organization with a dual mission to create and maintain a trusted archive of important scholarly journals, and to provide access to these journals as widely as possible. JSTOR offers researchers the ability to retrieve high-resolution, scanned images of journal issues and pages as they were originally designed, printed, and illustrated. Content in JSTOR spans many disciplines. Subscription required.

JURN – Find Free Academic Articles and Books

JURN is a unique search tool which helps you find free academic articles and books. JURN harnesses all the power of Google, but focusses your search through a hand-crafted and curated index. Established in 2009 to comprehensively cover the arts and humanities, in 2014 JURN expanded in scope. JURN now also covers selected university fulltext repositories and many additional ejournals in science, biomedical, business and law. In 2015/6 JURN expanded again, adding over 600 ejournals on aspects of the natural world.

Kartoo Visual Meta Search Engine

KartOO is a metasearch engine with visual display interfaces. When you click on OK, KartOO launches the query to a set of search engines, gathers the results, compiles them and represents them in a series of interactive maps through a proprietary algorithm

KU ScholarWorks – Univesity of Kanasas Scholarly Work Repository

KU ScholarWorks is a digital repository for scholarly work created by the faculty and staff of the University of Kansas. KU ScholarWorks makes important research available to a wider audience and helps assure its long-term preservation.

Kyoto University Research Information Repository

Kyoto University Research Information Repository (KURENAI) contains peer-reviewed journal articles, dissertations, departmental bulletin papers and any kind of scholarly works of Kyoto University. Over 141,000 Articles (2016.3) / 200 Journals (2015) / over 3,910,000 fulltext downloads (2015)

Legislative Openness Data Explorer

Around the world, an increasing number of parliaments are embracing the principles of parliamentary openness: ensuring public access to legislative information, providing opportunities for meaningful citizen participation, and embracing the possibilities presented by new technologies. The Open Government Partnership (OGP) has provided an international platform for these parliaments to exchange experience, share good practice, and, in some cases, advance reform. OGP’s Legislative Openness Working Group compiled the data and administers this website. The website was built by the National Democratic Institute and KohoVolit.eu

Library of Congress Authorities

Using Library of Congress Authorities, you can search, browse and view authority headings for Subject, Name, Title and Name/Title combinations; and download authority records in MARC format for use in a local library system. This service is offered free of charge.

Library of Congress Catalog Search and Other Library Catalog Search

Search the Library of Congress Page for gateway access to LC’s catalog and those at many other institutions.

Library of Congress Databases and eResources

A very comprehensive listing of databases and eResources available from the United States Library of Congress. The listing is alphabetical and covers all available databases and eResources both within the Library of Congress as well as available online

Life Science Journals Archives

PubMed Central (PMC) is the U.S. National Library of Medicine’s free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature.

List of Academic Databases and Search Engines from Wikipedia

This page contains a representative list of major databases and search engines useful in an academic setting for finding and accessing articles in academic journals, or in repositories, archives, or other collections of scientific and other articles.

MagPortal.com – Magazine Article Search Engine and Directory

MagPortal.comSM helps you to find individual magazine articles from all over the web. It can be used as a research tool (try the search engine) or for keeping abreast of current articles in your field of interest (browse the categories). The value of this approach is that you can find articles on a particular topic regardless of where they were published.

Manuscript Discovery and Retrieval

Integrated Resource Discovery and Access of Manuscript Materials: the User Perspective
By Jan Roegiers. This excellent article features many resource discovery tools and sources for locating manuscripts and related information.

MedWorm – Medical RSS Filter Engine

MedWorm is a medical RSS feed provider as well as a search engine built on data collected from RSS feeds. MedWorm collects updates from over 4000 authoritative data sources (growing each day) via RSS feeds. From the data collected, MedWorm provides new outgoing RSS feeds on various medical categories that you can subscribe to, via the free MedWorm online service.

MetaLib – Federated Catalog of U.S. Government Publications Search Engine

MetaLib is a service of the Catalog of U.S. Government Publications (CGP)! MetaLib is a federated search engine that searches multiple U.S. Federal government databases, retrieving reports, articles, and citations while providing direct links to selected resources available online.

MetaPress – Scholarly Content

MetaPress provides content management and end-user access websites for e-content from the world’s leading publishers. You can access 37,823 scholarly publications from 65 leading publishers at the MetaPress reader site.

Microsoft Academic Search

Explore over 120 million publications. Microsoft Academic Search is a free academic search engine developed by Microsoft Research, which also serves as a test-bed for our object-level vertical search research. Microsoft Academic Search provides many innovative ways to explore scientific publications, authors, conferences, journals, organizations and keywords, connecting millions of scholars, students, librarians, and other users. In Microsoft Academic Search, objects in the search results are sorted based on two factors: their relevance to the query and their global importance. The relevance score of an object is computed by its attributes; and the importance score of an object is calculated by its relationships with other objects.

Microsoft Research

More than 850 Ph.D. researchers push the boundaries of computing in multiple research areas in 13 research labs around the world. Discover what they have delivered to Microsoft and to the world, such as contributions to Kinect for Xbox 360, work to develop an HIV vaccine, and advancing education techniques in rural communities.

MIT Open Access Articles

The MIT Open Access Articles collection consists of scholarly articles written by MIT-affiliated authors that are made available through DSpace@MIT under the MIT Faculty Open Access Policy, or under related publisher agreements. Articles in this collection generally reflect changes made during peer-review. Version details are supplied for each paper in the collection: a) Original manuscript: author’s manuscript prior to formal peer review; b) Author’s final manuscript: final author’s manuscript post peer review, without publisher’s formatting or copy editing; and c) Final published version: final published article, as it appeared in a journal, conference proceedings, or other formally published context (this version appears here only if allowable under publisher’s policy). Some peer-reviewed scholarly articles are available through other DSpace@MIT collections, such as those for departments, labs, and centers.

MIT Theses – 30,000+ Masters and Ph.D.

This collection of MIT Theses in DSpace contains selected theses and dissertations from all MIT departments. Please note that this is NOT a complete collection of MIT theses. To search all MIT theses, use Barton, MIT Libraries’ catalog. MIT’s DSpace contains more than 30,000 theses completed at MIT dating as far back as the mid 1800’s. Theses in this collection have been scanned by Document Services or submitted in electronic format by thesis authors. Since 2004 all new Masters and Ph.D. theses will be scanned and will be added to this collection after degrees are awarded.


my.OAI is a full-featured search engine to a selected list of metadata databases from the Open Archives Initiative project. my.OAI can be tailored by the user to suit individual interests and provides the following features: Forms based query formulation; Viewing search results either merged together, or as meta-results, or separated by database; Automatic display of summaries when viewing search results and may other excellent features listed on their home page.

NARA – Access to Archival Databases (AAD) System

Using AAD, you can search some of NARA’s holdings of electronic records. Online access to a selection of nearly 50 million historic electronic records created by more than 20 federal agencies on a wide range of topics.

NARCIS – The Gateway to Dutch Scientific Information

NARCIS provides access to 170,259 scientific publications, 3,051 data sets, and information on researchers (expertise), research projects and research institutes in the Netherlands.

National Archives – Research Their Records

Search the online catalog and other National Archives resources at once for information about their records. The advanced search is dynamic and search fields will change or become inactive based on the categories (e.g., archival descriptions, authority records, webpages) selected.

NBII Metadata Clearinghouse

The NBII Clearinghouse is a powerful resource for scientists, allowing them to share and access information about important research in natural resources. With over 88,000 records from over 70 data providers, the possibilities for collaborations and data exchange are endless.

NECTAR – Northampton Electronic Collection of Theses and Research

NECTAR, the Northampton Electronic Collection of Theses and Research, is The University of Northampton’s open access institutional repository. Its purpose is to showcase university research to the world. NECTAR will make full content available whenever possible and operates a take down policy in the event of any concern.

Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD)

The Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD) is an international organization dedicated to promoting the adoption, creation, use, dissemination and preservation of electronic analogues to the traditional paper-based theses and dissertations. This website contains information about the initiative, how to set up Electronic Thesis and Dissertation (ETD) programmes, how to create and locate ETDs, and current research in digital libraries related to NDLTD and ETDs.

New Found Press – A Digital Imprint of the University of Tennessee Libraries

The University of Tennessee Libraries is developing a framework to make scholarly and specialized works available worldwide. Newfound Press, the University Libraries digital imprint, advances the community of learning by experimenting with effective and open systems of scholarly communication. Drawing on the resources that the university has invested in digital library development, Newfound Press collaborates with authors and researchers to bring new forms of publication to an expanding scholarly universe. They consider manuscripts in all disciplines, encompassing scientific research, humanistic scholarship, and artistic creation.

New Zealand Electronic Text Centre

The New Zealand Electronic Text Centre has four aims: a) To create a digital library providing open access to significant New Zealand and Pacific Island texts and materials. This encompasses both digitized heritage material and born-digital resources; b) To effectively partner with other organizations, as a collaborator and service provider, on a variety of digitization and digital content projects; c) To build a wider community skilled in the use and creation of digital materials through teaching and training activities and by publishing and presenting the results of research; and d) To work at the intersection of computing tools with textual material and investigate how these tools may be used to make new knowledge from our cultural inheritance.

NTIS – National Technical Information Service

The National Technical Information Service (NTIS) serves our nation as the largest central resource for government-funded scientific, technical, engineering, and business related information available today. Here you will find information on more than 600,000 information products covering over 350 subject areas from over 200 federal agencies.

NTRS: NASA Technical Reports Server

Examples of NASA’s STI include research reports, journal articles, conference and meeting papers, technical videos, mission-related operational documents, and preliminary data. NASA’s technical information is available via the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) and is to provide students, educators, and the public access to NASA’s technical literature. NTRS also collects scientific and technical information from sites external to NASA to broaden the scope of information available to users

NZResearch – Kiwi Research Information Service

This website is a gateway to the open-access research documents produced at universities, polytechnics, and other research institutions throughout New Zealand. They have harvested research document metadata from around New Zealand and collected it in one place. You can use this website to search for research, look up specific subjects or authors, browse the research in various ways, and keep abreast of emerging research activity.

OAIster Search

OAIster is a project of the University of Michigan Digital Library Production Service. Our goal is to create a collection of freely available, previously difficult-to-access, academically-oriented digital resources that are easily searchable by anyone. 3,701,820 records from 363 academic institutions as of 11-02-04.

Odysci – Academic Search and Technical Collaboration

Odysci is a new and free web portal for search and rank of scientific articles published in journals and conferences worldwide, in computer sciences, electronics and related areas. Their focus is relevance of results and technical collaboration, as well as usability. They believe they have many features that set them apart from Google Scholar, MS Academic Search, DBLP, and others. They cover ACM publications, IEEE CS publications, as well as those listed by CiteSeerX, DBLP and many other databases. Besides the usual search by keywords, conferences, etc., Odysci offers new interesting ways to search and to allow the user to control and narrow the results.

Official Documents of the United Nations Search

ODS covers all types of official United Nations documentation, beginning in 1993. Older UN documents are, however, added to the system on a daily basis. ODS also provides access to the resolutions of the General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council and the Trusteeship Council from 1946 onwards. The system does not contain press releases, UN sales publications, the United Nations Treaty Series or nformation brochures issued by the Department of Public Information. The ODS is a multilingual system. Global Search is a new full text search option that uses a different type of search engine. Please note that search result may differ from full text search under the Simple Search and Advanced Search options.

OLAC – Open Language Archives Community

OLAC, the Open Language Archives Community, is an international partnership of institutions and individuals who are creating a worldwide virtual library of language resources by: (i) developing consensus on best current practice for the digital archiving of language resources, and (ii) developing a network of interoperating repositories and services for housing and accessing such resources. 30,000+ records from 24+ repositories.

Omnity – Knowledge Connected

The discovery of otherwise hidden, high-value patterns of interconnection within and between fields of knowledge as diverse as science, medicine, engineering. More than 2,500 scientific papers and 2,200 patent applications are published every day. Just the last five years of most scientific and engineering fields have produced on the scale of 100,000 documents. Reading these one an hour would take 50 years, a professional lifetime. Pair-wise comparison of these documents at three minutes per comparison would take more than 9,000 years, nearly the length of recorded human civilization. It is impossible to stay current in any field, much less the boundaries between two or more different fields, where most innovation occurs. Omnity enables research and development professionals in all fields to rapidly and efficiently detect otherwise hidden patterns of relevant document interconnections. Whether for basic research or advanced product development, Omnity allows real-time insight into complex document sets, enabling research and development professionals to efficiently and systematically answer a wide range of questions.

Online JOurnal Search Engine (OJOSE)

OJOSE (Online JOurnal Search Engine) is a free powerful scientific search engine enabling you to make search-queries in different databases by using only 1 search field. With OJOSE you can find, download or buy scientific publications (journals, articles, research reports, books, etc.) in up to 60 different databases.

Open Access Directory (OAD)

The Open Access Directory (OAD) is a compendium of simple factual lists about open access (OA) to science and scholarship, maintained by the OA community at large. By bringing many OA-related lists together in one place, OAD makes it easier for everyone to discover them and use them for reference. The easier they are to maintain and discover, the more effectively they can spread useful, accurate information about OA.

Open Academic Society

Open Academic Society is formed by a group of institutions to create a shared, open and expanding knowledge graph of research and education-focused entities and relationships. With the initial contributions from the Microsoft Academic by Microsoft Research and the AMiner graph from Tsinghua University, the reach and depth of the knowledge graph will come through the Society members’ contributions. The data set is available under a freely accessible cloud API, and the society will organize workshops, challenges, and data sharing activities for the benefit of the larger computer science community.

Open Access Theses and Dissertations

OATD aims to be the best possible resource for finding open access graduate theses and dissertations published around the world. Metadata (information about the theses) comes from over 600 colleges, universities, and research institutions. OATD currently indexes over 1.5 million theses and dissertations.

Open Archives Initiative Service Providers

A comprehensive page listing parties that provide services based on metadata that is harvested using the OAI metadata harvesting protocol.

OpenDepot.org – Worldwide Open Access Research Output

The purpose of OpenDepot.org is to ensure that all academics worldwide can share in the benefits of making their research output Open Access. For those whose universities and organizations have an online repository, OpenDepot.org makes them easy to find. For those without a local repository, including unaffilitiated researchers, the OpenDepot is a place of deposit, available for others to harvest. They have tried to make OpenDepot.org easy or researchers and authors to use. It technical terms, OpenDepot.org does the following: a) accepts deposit of e-prints from researchers at institutions that do not currently have an Institutional Repository (IR). The principal target is postprints, that is articles that have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication; b) as Institutional Repositories (IRs) are established, OpenDepot.org will support the transfer of relevant content to help populate those new IRs; c) an OAI-compliant interface, so, like other open access repositories, its contents is available for harvesting; and d) re-directs depositors to an appropriate Institutional Repository (IR).

OpenDOAR – Directory of Open Access Repositories

OpenDOAR is building a comprehensive and authoritative list of institutional and subject-based repositories, as well as archives set up by funding agencies – like the National Institutes for Health in the USA or the Wellcome Trust in the UK and Europe. Users of the service are able to analyse repositories by location, type, the material they hold and other measures. This can be of use both to users wishing to find original research papers and for third-party “service providers”, like search engines or alert services, which need easy to use tools for developing tailored search services to suit specific user communities. Over 2,000 listings!

OpenDOAR – Search Repository Contents

OpenDOAR is a trial search service for the full-text of material held in open access repositories listed in the Directory. This has been made possible through the recent launch by Google of its Custom Search Engine, which allows OpenDOAR to define a search service based on the Directory holdings. Users of this service can search through the world’s repositories of freely available research information, with the assurance that each of these repositories has been assessed by OpenDOAR staff.

Open Grey – System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe

System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe, is your open access to 700,000+ bibliographical references of grey literature (paper) produced in Europe and allows you to export records and locate the documents. The site includes preprints from the GL conferences (GreyNet International) in full text. Their focus includes the following: a) Citations: 690,211; b) Documents : 253; (total number of PDF: 545); c) Number of citations by Sciences: 833,500; d) Social Science and Humanities: 325,000; e) Biomedical Science: 116,000; f) Science: 170,000; g) Technology: 222,500; and h) Number of Partners: 14 .

Open J-Gate – World’s Largest Open Access English Language Journals Portal

Open J-Gate is an electronic gateway to global journal literature in open access domain. Launched in 2006, Open J-Gate is the contribution of Informatics (India) Ltd to promote OAI. Open J-Gate provides seamless access to millions of journal articles available online. Open J-Gate is also a database of journal literature, indexed from 4386 open access journals, with links to full text at Publisher sites. Open J-Gate Features and Benefits: a) Portal with the largest number of e-journals … Open J-Gate indexes articles from 4386 academic, research and industry journals. In that 2366 of them are peer-reviewed scholarly journals; b) Links to one million+ open access articles … This number is growing with 300000+ new articles added every year. Full-text links are regularly validated; c) Constant updating … The Open J-Gate site is updated every day, d) Well designed journal classification … All journals are classified in a three-level hierarchical system to provide for better relevancy in search results; e) Table of Content (TOC) Browsing … Users can browse the TOC of latest issue and the back issues; and f) Easy-to-Use search functionalities … Database allows various search options for the user’s convenience. The subscriber can search by Title, Author, Abstract, Author’s Address/Institution, Keywords, etc.

Open Knowledge Maps – A Visual Interface To the World’s Scientific Knowledge

An Open Knowledge Maps visualization presents you with a topical overview for your search term. It is based on the most relevant papers in the chosen library. They use text similarity to create the knowledge maps. The algorithm groups those papers together that have many words in common. The visualization is intended to give you a head start on your literature search. You can also use Open Knowledge Maps to stay up-to-date – just limit your search to the most recent papers in the options. Their Mission includes the following: a) Visual Interface – They are creating a visual interface to the world’s scientific knowledge that can be used by anyone in order to dramatically improve the discoverability of research results; b) Revolutionize Discovery – They are going to provide a large-scale system of open, interactive and interlinked knowledge maps spanning all fields of research; and c) Share. Use. Collaborate. – They will develop a space for collective knowledge organization and exploration, connecting researchers, students, librarians, journalists, practitioners and citizen

Open Science Directory

Search tool for open access journals and journals in special programs for developing countries. About 13000 scientific journals are now available in the ‘Open Science Directory’. When all the special program journals will be included, the Open Science Directory will contain more than 20000 titles. The Open Science Directory has been developed by EBSCO and the Hasselt University Library based upon a request by marine information management experts collaborating within the framework of the IOC’s IODE programe.

Open Syllabus Project

Launched in January 2016 by a group of scholars at the American Assembly at Columbia University, the Open Syllabus Project contains data from over one million university syllabi. Using publicly available syllabi along with faculty contributions, the Open Syllabus team enters every text assigned to students into a database. Faculty, librarians, and students can then search for a text using the Syllabus Explorer tool to see a list of other works assigned alongside that text and discover its “Teaching Score” – a score developed by the team to reflect how frequently a text is assigned. While this tool is useful for university instructors considering what to include on their own syllabi, it also provides insight for anyone interested in examining trends in scholarship and higher education.

OpenThesis – Upload and Search Theses and Dissertations

OpenThesis is a free repository of theses, dissertations, and other academic documents, coupled with powerful search, organization, and collaboration tools. OpenThesis is a searchable compendium of theses, dissertations and other academic documents from around the world.

Organic Eprints

Organic Eprints is an international open access archive for papers related to research in organic agriculture. The archive contains full-text papers in electronic form together with bibliographic information, abstracts and other metadata

Oxford Scholarship Online

Oxford Scholarship Online is a cross-searchable library containing the full text of over 750 Oxford books in the areas of Economics and Finance, Philosophy, Political Science, and Religion. Specially-commissioned abstracts and keywords are available at book and chapter level, and at least 200 new and recently-published books will be added each year.

Pacific Manuscripts Bureau (Pambu)

The Pacific Manuscripts Bureau, Pambu, copies archives, manuscripts and rare printed material relating to the Pacific Islands. The aim of the Bureau is to help with long-term preservation of the documentary heritage of the Pacific Islands and to make it accessible. Pambu microfilms comprise the most extensive collection of non-government primary documentation on the Pacific Islands available to researchers.

Paperity – Open Science Aggregated

Paperity is the first multi-disciplinary aggregator of Open Access journals and papers, “gold” and “hybrid”. It: a) gives readers easy and unconstrained access to thousands of journals from hundreds of disciplines, in one central location; b) helps authors reach their target audience, disseminate discoveries more effectively and maximize research impact; and c) raises exposure of journals, helps editors and publishers boost readership and encourage new submissions. Paperity is the way towards more efficient scholarly communication in all research fields, from Sciences, Technology, Medicine, to Social Sciences, to Humanities and Arts. Their ultimate goal is to aggregate 100% of Open Access literature, published in any place around the world, in any field of research.

Permanent Access to the Records of Science in Europe (PARSE)

PARSE.Insight is a two-year project co-funded by the European Union under the Seventh Framework Programme. It is concerned with the preservation of digital information in science, from primary data through analysis to the final publications resulting from the research. The problem is how to safeguard this valuable digital material over time, to ensure that it is accessible, usable and understandable in future. The rapid pace of change in information technology threatens media, file formats and software with obsolescence, and changing concepts and terminology also mean that, even if data can be read, it might not be correctly interpreted by future generations. Many initiatives are already under way in this area, and the aim of the PARSE.Insight project is to develop a roadmap and recommendations for developing the e-infrastructure in order to maintain the long-term accessibility and usability of scientific digital information in Europe.

Perseus Lookup Tool

The Perseus Project is an evolving digital library of resources for the study of the humanities. We are funded to perform research on developing tools to provide users with improved access to various types of materials. Past work has focused on building and linking together collections. Current work considers ways of developing and refining tools for presentation of the materials in the Perseus DL

Popular Science Archives Search

They have partnered with Google to offer their entire 137-year archive for free browsing. Each issue appears just as it did at its original time of publication, complete with period advertisements. It’s an amazing resource that beautifully encapsulates our ongoing fascination with the future, and science and technology’s incredible potential to improve our lives.

PQDT Open – Full Text of Open Access Dissertations and Theses

PQDT Open provides the full text of open access dissertations and theses free of charge. You can quickly and easily locate dissertations and theses relevant to your discipline, and view the complete text in PDF format. The authors of these dissertations and theses have opted to publish as open access. Open Access Publishing is a new service offered by ProQuest’s UMI Dissertation Publishing, and they expect to have many more open access dissertations and theses over time.

Prospector Academic, Public and Special Library Search Engine

Prospector is a unified catalog of twenty three academic, public and special libraries in Colorado and Wyoming. Through Prospector you have access to over 20 million books, journals, DVDs, CDs, videos and other materials held in these libraries. With a single search you can identify and borrow materials from the collections and have them delivered to your local library.


Psycoloquy is a refereed international, interdisciplinary electronic journal sponsored by the American Psychological Association (APA) and indexed by APA’s PsycINFO and by Institute for Scientific Information. Psycoloquy publishes target articles and peer commentary in all areas of psychology as well as cognitive science, neuroscience, behavioral biology, artificial intelligence, robotics/vision, linguistics and philosophy.

Pubget – Search Across BioMedicine PDFs

Pubget is the comprehensive source for science PDFs, including everything you’d find in Medline. They add 10,000 new papers each day. Pubget is the search engine for life science PDFs. Pubget makes scientific research easier by simplifying the process of finding, managing and analyzing scientific papers. The core solution at www.pubget.com provides article-level tools making content discovery, access and copyright management much easier for the user.

Publications.USA.gov – United States Publications

For more than 40 years, the Federal Citizen Information Center (FCIC) has been a trusted one-stop source for answers to questions about consumer problems and government services. FCIC, part of the General Services Administration’s Office of Citizen Services and Innovative Technologies, has traditionally provided publications to consumers via the publications distribution center in Pueblo, Colorado. The Pueblo.GSA.gov website was where consumers could go to find information and order publications on a variety of topics from the federal government. Publications.USA.gov replaces the former Pueblo.GSA.gov. The new site provides better navigation; search; shopping experience; and now some of your favorite publications in popular e-reader formats.

PublicData.eu – Europe’s Public Data

PublicData.eu is a Pan European data portal, providing access to open, freely reusable datasets from local, regional and national public bodies across Europe. PublicData.eu aims to: a) Provide a single point of access to official open datasets from across Europe (it can be difficult to find datasets buried deep in official websites); b) Overcome language barriers by aggregating datasets from official websites of public bodies in different countries, in multiple languages; c) Provide licensing information for datasets and metadata about datasets so that data users know what they can and cannot do with the data; d) Enable users to browse, explore and compare datasets by region, subject matter and format; and e) Offer users a personalised view enabling them to follow datasets, groups and users relevant to their interests.

Public Library of Science

PLoS Biology and PLoS Medicine are the current open source journals available for search and free download from the Public Library of Science. Additional journals are being developed.

PubMed Central

PubMed Central (PMC) is the U.S. National Library of Medicine’s free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature. With PubMed Central, NLM is taking the lead in preserving and maintaining unrestricted access to the electronic literature, just as it has done for decades with the printed biomedical literature. PubMed Central aims to fill the role of a world class library in the digital age. It is not a journal publisher. NLM believes that giving all users free and unrestricted access to the material in PubMed Central is the best way to ensure the durability and utility of the archive as technology changes over time.


A search engine that allows you to monitor blogs, newsgroups, SEC filings and other selected resources. It has the capability to match your keyword query against selected sources in real-time. Excellent resource discovery tool to keep you current in the academic research area of your interest on the Internet.

Q-Sensei – Searching Millions of Scholarly Articles

Q-Sensei introduces a new way of making information accessible. Their goal is to provide advanced search tools for the vast amount of information available on the Internet, in books, research articles, blogs, news, or wikis. They currently provide access to the first several million scholarly articles. Q-Sensei’s approach applies innovative search technologies to various heterogeneous data pools; their users can easily browse through a data source as well as discover cross-references between individual records. The data on the Q-Sensei web site is compiled from the Internet and from our content partners. They process the data and extract information to be displayed within a scheme of Kinds and Attributes. The results can be easily and intuitively accessed with Q-Sensei’s patented Search and Presentation engine. Their technology supports multi-dimensional searches, gives further search suggestions, and provides clear and concise overviews of the current stage of the search.

Quandl – Search Over 7,000,000 Financial, Economic and Social Datasets

Quandl has indexed millions of time-series datasets from over 400 sources. All of Quandl’s datasets are open and free. You can download any Quandl dataset in any format that you want. You can also visualize, save, share, authenticate, validate, upload, index, merge and transform data. Their long-term goal is to make all the numerical data on the internet easy to find & easy to use. New feature: Multisets – instantly combine datasets through the API. New comprehensive topic pages for India & Russia.

RADAR – Open Searchable Archive of Brookes Research

RADAR provides both an open searchable archive of Brookes research, and a flexible way to manage and share teaching materials. It forms part of the university’s strategy to support research-informed teaching.

Ranking Web of World Repositories

As in the previous edition they provide two global Rankings. One that covers all repositories (Top400) and another that focuses only on Institutional Repositories (Top 400 Institutional). They are considering to include in future editions portals of journals and papers (super repositories). The composite index (World Ranking) is computed combining normalized values instead of ranks. The visibility is calculated giving extra importance to the external inlinks not coming from generic domains (.com, .org, .net). The figures for rich files (pdf, doc, ppt, ps, and new for this edition, xls) are combined and not treated individually.

RDN – ePrints UK Projecy

ePrints-UK harvests metadata from approximately 30 institutional repositories on a daily basis. A demonstration of a simple search service based on the harvested metadata has been made available now. In future the project intends to enhance metadata available for searching by means of name authority file checks and automatic subject classification.

References and Resources for Just-in-Time Teaching

The scholars at the Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton College have created this set of Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) resources designed for the busy educator. Visitors can learn how to use these resources in a range of different disciplines, including biology, chemistry, economics, and the history of photography. Additionally, there is a list of general resources, such as newsletters and articles, that discuss how to implement these practices into the classroom. In the Complementary Pedagogies area visitors can look over helpful “how-tos” in peer instruction, reading question development, and more.

RefSeek – Academic Search Engine for Students and Researchers

RefSeek is a web search engine for students and researchers that aims to make academic information easily accessible to everyone. RefSeek searches more than one billion documents, including web pages, books, encyclopedias, journals, and newspapers. RefSeek’s unique approach offers students comprehensive subject coverage without the information overload of a general search engine—increasing the visibility of academic information and compelling ideas that are often lost in a muddle of sponsored links and commercial results.

Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR)

The aim of ROAR is to promote the development of open access by providing timely information about the growth and status of repositories throughout the world. Open access to research maximizes research access and thereby also research impact, making research more productive and effective.

Registry of U.S. Government Publication Digitization Projects

The Registry contains records for projects that include digitized copies of publications originating from the U.S. Government. The projects may or may not be Federally funded. They are from libraries, government agencies, or other non-profit institutions. The projects in the Registry are either entirely composed of digitized, U.S. Government publications or include a substantial number of them.

Regulations.gov – Search

Regulations.gov is your source for all regulations (or rulemakings) issued by U.S. government agencies. On this site, you can find: a) All Federal regulations that are open for public comment (i.e., proposed rules) and closed for comment (i.e., final rules) as published in the Federal Register; b) Many Federal agency notices published in the Federal Register; and c) Additional supporting materials, public comments, and Federal agency guidance and adjudications. When you find a document, you can also submit comments through the web site on those documents that are open for public comment.

RePEc (Research Papers in Economics)

RePEc (Research Papers in Economics) is a collaborative effort of hundreds of volunteers in 71 countries to enhance the dissemination of research in economics. Over 1,800 archives from 89 countries have contributed about 2 million research pieces from 2,300 journals and 4,300 working paper series. About 48,000 authors have registered and 75,000 email subscriptions are served every week.

Research Accelerators – Achieve Research Results Faster With These Tools, Services, and Resources

Research Accelerators are for students, computer and research scientists, and academics. These resources help you manage scholarly works, teach and explore science, analyze and visualize data, and publish the results of your research. Many of our releases are open source or have open interfaces, enabling communities to evolve and build on these solutions in collaboration with Microsoft Research engineers and researchers.

Research at Google

Research at Google is unique. Because so much of what they do hasn’t been done before, the lines between research and development are often very blurred. This hybrid approach allows their discoveries to affect the world, both through improving Google products and services, and through the broader advancement of scientific knowledge.

RLO-CETL Learning Object Repository Harvester

This search engine allows you to search the RLO-CETL’s Reusable Learning Object (RLO) repository without the need to log in to the repository. You can also get a preview of the learning objects in action, though in order to download RLOs you’ll need to login to the repository.


SAGE Open is a new open access publication from SAGE. It will publish peer-reviewed, original research and review articles in an interactive, open access format. Articles may span the full spectrum of the social and behavioral sciences and the humanities. SAGE Open seeks to be the world’s premier open access outlet for academic research. As such, unlike traditional journals, SAGE Open does not limit content due to page budgets or thematic significance. Rather, SAGE Open evaluates the scientific and research methods of each article for validity and accepts articles solely on the basis of the research. This approach allows readers greater access and gives them the power to determine the significance of each article through SAGE Open’s interactive comments feature and article-level usage metrics. Likewise, by not restricting papers to a narrow discipline, SAGE Open facilitates the discovery of the connections between papers, whether within or between disciplines.

SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) is a Digital Library portal for researchers in Astronomy and Physics, operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) under a NASA grant. The ADS maintains three bibliographic databases containing more than 9.5 million records: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Physics, and arXiv e-prints. The main body of data in the ADS consists of bibliographic records, which are searchable through highly customizable query forms, and full-text scans of much of the astronomical literature which can be browsed or searched via their full-text search interface. They currently have links to over 9.0 million records maintained by their collaborators.

Scholarpedia – Peer-Reviewed Open-Access Encyclopedia

Founded in 2005 by neuroscientist Eugene M. Izhikevich, Scholarpedia is a cross between Wikipedia and a scholarly journal. It differs from Wikipedia, however, in one significant way: it is peer reviewed and any of its articles can be sited like journal articles. Each topic page on Scholarpedia is overseen by a curator, a recognized expert in the field who must approve all revisions. (The curator’s identity and credentials appear at the top of each page). New pages must be sponsored by a curator and reviewed by at least two other scholars. As the page notes, “This hybrid model allows Scholarpedia articles to serve as a bridge between traditional peer-reviewed journals and more dynamic and up-to-date wikis without compromising quality or trustworthiness.” This peer-reviewed encyclopedia is continuing to grow, but currently hosts detailed pages related to numerous disciplines – especially science and mathematics fields.

Scholar’s Guide to WWW

A comprehensive guide to resources on the world wide web for scholars created by Richard Jensen and updated with monthly versions.

Scholar Universe – Find Scholarly Experts On Any Topic

COS Scholar Universe™ brings a world of research and scholarship to one easily searchable database. With 2 million profiles, it helps researchers and academics connect with colleagues with shared interests while expanding their networks to include previously unknown people working in related fields or in other areas of the world. Features include: a) Comprehensive – 2 million profiles of active full-time faculty—authors, researchers and scholars; b) Broad in scope – International and multidisciplinary; c) Well-rounded – data comes from multiple sources, including the scholars themselves; d) Accurate and current – Editorially controlled and regularly updated; and e) Facilitates discovery – keyword-searchable, with faceted search results to help searchers explore beyond their current spheres of knowledge. Scholar Universe™ is an essential resource for publishers, corporations, and journalists – any organization that needs to draw on external expertise.

SciELO – Scientific electronic library online

The Scientific Electronic Library Online – SciELO is a searchable electronic virtual library covering a selected collection of Brazilian scientific journals. The library is an integral part of a project being developed by FAPESP – Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, in partnership with BIREME – the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information. The FAPESP-BIREME Project envisages the development of a common methodology for the preparation, storage, dissemination and evaluation of scientific literature in electronic format.


Science.gov is a gateway to over 50 million pages of authoritative selected science information provided by U.S. government agencies, including research and development results.

Science Accelerator – Search Key Resources from DOE OSTI

Science Accelerator searches science, including R&D results, project descriptions, accomplishments, and more, via resources made available by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI), U.S. Department of Energy. Science Accelerator was developed and is made available by OSTI as a free public service.

Science Commons

Science Commons is a new project of Creative Commons and launched on January 1, 2005. The mission of Science Commons is to encourage scientific innovation by making it easier for scientists, universities, and industries to use literature, data, and other scientific intellectual property and to share their knowledge with others. Science Commons works within current copyright and patent law to promote legal and technical mechanisms that remove barriers to sharing.

ScienceDirect Full Text Scientific Database

A leading full-text scientific database offering journal articles and book chapters from over 3,500 journals and more than 34,000 books. Currently 13,859,764 articles on ScienceDirect

Science Information Network (SINET)

The Science Information Network (SINET) is a Japanese academic backbone network for more than 700 universities and research institutions. It connects many research facilities in such fields as seismology, space science, high-energy physics, nuclear fusion, computing science, and so on. It is now being used by over 2 million users and supports international research collaboration through international lines. SINET4 began operations in April 2011, and it replaces the previous SINET3. SINET4 plays an important role as the core component of the Cyber Science Infrastructure(CSI).


Launched in 2014, ScienceOpen is more than just an open access journal. Rather, this publishing network strives to facilitate open and public communication by connecting scientists, encouraging collaboration, and facilitating open-source peer review. To this end, ScienceOpen employs a unique “post-publication peer review process” that allows researchers to publish papers after a brief, one-week general review. This serves to ensure that the research meets basic ethics requirements. Once published, other researchers can provide feedback to authors. The original authors, in turn, are invited to post revised versions of their papers. ScienceOpen currently hosts almost 15,000,000 articles, which visitors may search/browse by discipline

Science Research

ScienceResearch.com is a free, publicly available Internet Web portal allowing access to numerous scientific journals and public science databases. ScienceResearch.com is designed to allow students, teachers, professors, researchers, and the general public to access information from both public and private research journals and databases via a single portal.ScienceResearch.com is a free, publicly available Internet Web portal allowing access to numerous scientific journals and public science databases. ScienceResearch.com is designed to allow students, teachers, professors, researchers, and the general public to access information from both public and private research journals and databases via a single portal.

Sci-Hub – First Pirate Website To Provide Mass and Public Access to Tens of Millions of Research Papers

A research paper is a special publication written by scientists to be read by other researchers. Papers are primary sources neccessary for research – for example, they contain detailed description of new results and experiments. Research Papers they have in their library: more than 47,000,000 and growing. At this time the widest possible distribution of research papers, as well as of other scientific or educational sources, is artificially restricted by copyright laws. Such laws effectively slow down the development of science in human society. The Sci-Hub project, running from 5th September 2011, is challenging the status quo.

Scirus – Searching for Science

Scirus is the most comprehensive science-specific search engine on the Internet. Driven by the latest search engine technology, Scirus searches over 167 million science-specific Web pages, enabling you to quickly: 1) Pinpoint scientific, scholarly, technical and medical data on the Web, 2) Find the latest reports, peer-reviewed articles and journals that other search engines miss, and 3) Offer unique functionalities designed for scientists and researchers.


Features an enhanced search engine serving only human-edited science and nature specific returns, SciSeek.com will return all your favorite features including its interactive forum communities, the latest press science news.


Discover more than one million documents from scholarly journals, magazines, conference proceedings, and other special publications from prestigious scientific societies and technical publishers.

Sciweavers – Academic Bokmasrking Network Aggregates Links to Research Papers Preprints

Sciweavers is an academic bookmarking network that aggregates links to research paper preprints then categorizes them into their respected proceedings. The preprint links of a given proceedings are sorted using different mechanisms derived from our traffic to help researchers quickly discover top ranked papers. Moreover, Sciweavers offers very useful free online academic tools. Our mission is to promote significant work and author visibility.

Sciyo.com – Where Knowledge Is Free

Sciyo.com is a fast-growing open access scientific publisher, enabling barrier-free access to the latest research developments, knowledge and ideas within the field of Science and Technology. 21 employees, 140 editors and over 300 reviewers work on delivering great service to our community members – their authors and all the other brilliant minds in pursuit of knowledge. To this date they have helped over 10,000 leading academics in making their work accessible to diverse new audiences across the world. Sciyo.com is equipped with a mix of useful tools and resources improving the quality and the speed of the publication, as well as opening up possibilities for community members to connect and share knowledge.

Scopus – World’s Largest Abstract Database of Scientific Literature

Scopus is a single Abstract and Indexing (A&I) database, which covers 18,000 scientific, technical, medical and social sciences titles from 5,000 STM publishers. Also 167+ million scientific web pages going back forty years. Scopus offers cross-discipline access to 27 million abstracts and citations, back to 1966, including cited references from 1996 onwards. Scopus is about making searching easier and research more efficient. Built over two years together with more than 300 researchers and librarians from 21 research institutions worldwide, Scopus allows researchers to focus on the outcomes of their research, rather than on operating the database to find the literature they need.


Searches all the .edu sites (20 million+ pages) on Google with your query and brings back the results inside a Google page.

Search Engines Colossus Academic Search Engines

The listing of individual selected academic search engines within the overall listings of the Search Engines Colossus site.

Search the Public Papers of the Presidents

This online service makes available material that was compiled and published by the Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration, in hardcover printed volumes entitled The Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States. Select the database(s) to be searched. Enter search terms in the space provided.

Semantic Scholar – Free Scientific Literature Search and Discovery

With millions of research papers published every year, there is a huge information overload in scientific literature search. Semantic Scholar leverages our AI expertise to help researchers find the most relevant information efficiently. We utilize methods from data mining, natural-language processing, and computer vision to create powerful new search and discovery experiences. Starting with Computer Science in 2015, we plan to scale the service to additional scientific areas over the next few years in support of AI2’s mission of “AI for the Common Good”. Semantic Scholar features: a) Ability to provide an overview or quickly find the most relevant survey papers for a topic; b) Filtering search results using automatically generated facets like authors and venues; c) Identifying “key” citations to overcome citation overload; d) Extracting and making figures and captions more easily accessible; and e) Identifying and presenting useful concepts and their relationships. How Semantic Scholar works: 1) PDF Extraction – State of the art PDF extraction mechanisms specifically targeted to scholarly articles; 2) Targeted Search Index – For serving relevant results for queries specific to the academic domain; and 3) Customized GUI – A user interface tailored to academic search with features supporting the academic community.

Serendip-o-matic Search Engine – Connects Your Sources to Digital Materials in Libraries, Museums and Archives Around the World

Serendip-o-matic connects your sources to digital materials located in libraries, museums, and archives around the world. By first examining your research interests, and then identifying related content in locations such as the Digital Public Library of America (DPLA), Europeana, and Flickr Commons, our serendipity engine helps you discover photographs, documents, maps and other primary sources. Whether you begin with text from an article, a Wikipedia page, or a full Zotero collection, Serendip-o-matic’s special algorithm extracts key terms and returns a surprising reflection of your interests. Because the tool is designed mostly for inspiration, search results aren’t meant to be exhaustive, but rather suggestive, pointing you to materials you might not have discovered.

SHared Access Research Ecosystem (SHARE)

The SHared Access Research Ecosystem (SHARE) is a higher education and research community initiative to ensure the preservation of, access to, and reuse of research outputs. SHARE will develop solutions that capitalize on the compelling interest shared by researchers, libraries, universities, funding agencies, and other key stakeholders to maximize research impact, today and in the future. SHARE aims to make the inventory of research assets more discoverable and more accessible, and to enable the research community to build upon these assets in creative and productive ways. The Association of Research Libraries (ARL), the Association of American Universities (AAU), and the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) have partnered to develop SHARE with significant input from the three associations’ member institutions and their broader stakeholder communities.

Smithsonian Research Online

Smithsonian Research Online is a set of services to the research community both within and outside the Smithsonian Institution. Managed by the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, the program assists in capturing the research output of Smithsonian scholars and making it available to Institutional management as well as scientists and historians world-wide.

Social Science Data Search

This Google Custom Search Engine (CSE) targets 800+ academic, government agency, non-profit, and other web sites that provide high quality, downloadable statistical information and data sets. Emphasis is on data pertaining to the social sciences, health, developing countries, energy, natural resources, and the environment.

Social Science Research Network – Search

Access SSRN eLibrary and search for author, title, abstract and keywords. You may also browse the SSRN Networks and eJournal Subject Areas or browse JEL Codes.

Spectrum Open Access Research Repository

Spectrum, Concordia University’s open access research repository, provides access to and preserves research created at Concordia. By depositing in Spectrum, Concordia scholars provide free and immediate access to their work and thus increase the visibility of both their own research and their university’s intellectual output. Open access leads to the increased research profile and impact of scholars by bringing about greater levels of readership and citation of their publications.

SSRN Electronic Library Abstract Search

Social Science Research Network (SSRN) is devoted to the rapid worldwide dissemination of social science research and is composed of a number of specialized research networks in each of the social sciences To search for an abstract by title or abstract body, enter one or more words in the ‘Key Word’ field and click the Search button and check the appropriate boxes. SSRN eLibrary Stats: Abstracts: 82,138 Full Text Papers: 57,265 Authors: 44,148

STICS Search Engine – Searching with Strings, Things and Cats

STICS has been developed at the Max Planck Institute for Informatics and already presented as a Demo at SIGIR 2014. By extending the Google slogan of “things, not strings” to support also entity categories, STICS provides powerful functionality for querying and analyzing news and other text corpora in terms of entities, semantic classes, and text phrases. STICS is based on state-of-the-art methods for named entity recognition and disambiguation (AIDA [1]), linking them to knowledge bases like YAGO and the Wikipedia category system. The online service currently has indexed 1,000,000 news articles since June 2013, with more than 22 million entity occurrences of 300,000 distinct entities.

STN on the Web

STN International is the online scientific and technical information service dedicated to meeting the information needs of scientists, engineers, and information professionals throughout the world. STN provides a complete collection of in-depth databases in science and technology to give you quick, direct links to the literature, patents, and chemical catalogs.

Storming Media

Storming Media provides unclassified reports and documents from the Pentagon about science, technology, strategy or policy. They provide these papers at significantly below the prices chosen by the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), a government agency that sells these items.

STORRE – Stirling Online Research Repository

STORRE holds a small, but growing, collection of the research output of University of Stirling authors. It includes published journal articles, conference papers, book chapters, working papers, etc. As a result of the mandate of September 2008 the repository will continue to develop as an important source of free full text access to Stirling’s research output. STORRE also holds the full text of all University of Stirling research theses from September 2006 onwards; covering PhDs and Masters by Research.


Swoogle is a crawler-based indexing and retrieval system for the Semantic Web — RDF and OWL documents encoded in XML or N3. Swoogle extracts metadata for each discovered document, and computes relations among them. Discovered documents are also indexed by an information retrieval system which can use either character N-Gram or URIrefs as keywords to find relevant documents and to compute the similarity among a set of documents. One of the interesting properties we compute is ontology rank, a measure of the importance of a Semantic Web document.

Symbolab – Scientific Equation Semantic Search Engine

Symbolab is a semantic web search engine for math and science. It allows users to search for equations, formulas and expressions using mathematical symbols and scientific notations as well as full text search. The stated goal of the site is to provide the most relevant search results that are theoretically and semantically similar, rather than visually. This is done, partly, by applying proprietary machine learning algorithms in order to understand the meaning and context of the search queries. Symbolab indexes the full text and equations of online encyclopedias, dictionaries, academic publications, lectures, books and more currently covering mathematics, physics and chemistry.

TalkMiner – Search Inside Video Lectures and Talks

Lecture webcasts are readily available on the Internet. These include class lectures, research seminars and product demonstrations. Webcasts routinely combine presentation slides with either a synchronized audio stream (i.e., podcast) or an audio/video stream. Conventional web search engines retrieve this content if you include “webcast” or “lecture” among your search terms, or search a website that specifically organizes lecture content. But users, particularly students, want to find the place in a lecture when an instructor covers a specific topic. Answering these queries requires a search engine that can search within the webcast to identify important keywords. TalkMiner aggregates and indexes lecture videos available across the internet.

TechXtra – Indepth Academic and Scholar Search

TechXtra is a suite of ten freely available services which simplify access to a multitude of different types of technology information from a host of different sources. TechXtra facilitates immediate access to the freely available full-text content of hundreds of thousands of eprints, technical reports, theses, articles, news items, job announcements and more. In cases where the full-text is not freely available, TechXtra provides links to vendors for pay-per-view options. TechXtra searches a combination of digital repositories, journal databases, technical reports servers, web information, news sources and more, all with a focus on technology information.

The Clearinghouse for the Open Research of the United States (CHORUS)

The Clearinghouse for the Open Research of the United States (CHORUS) is a not-for-profit public-private partnership to increase public access to peer-reviewed publications that report on federally funded research. Conceived by publishers, CHORUS: a) Provides a full solution for agencies to comply with the OSTP memo on public access to peer-reviewed scientific publications reporting on federally-funded research; b) Builds on publishers’ existing infrastructure to enhance public access to research literature, avoiding duplication of effort, minimizing cost to the government and ensuring the continued availability of the research literature; c) Serves the public by creating a streamlined, cohesive way to expand access to peer-reviewed articles reporting on federally-funded research. Reflecting the OSTP memo, CHORUS will present and preserve these as digital form, final peer-reviewed manuscripts or final published documents; d) Supports funding agencies in fulfilling the OSTP directive to provide public access, use public-private partnerships where possible and avoid extra-budgetary costs; CHORUS would require little to no federal funding, and e) Utilizes current and developing tools, resources and protocols for identification, discovery, access, preservation and compliance (such as CrossRef, FundRef and ORCID), ensuring continued innovation in the delivery of scholarly communication.

The Getty Search Gateway

The Getty Search Gateway allows users to search across several of the Getty repositories, including collections databases, library catalogs, collection inventories, and archival finding aids. This tool is designed to help researchers, scholars, and educators discover the variety of resources available across the Getty’s collections, which include collections in each the four programs: the J. Paul Getty Museum, the Getty Conservation Institute, the Getty Foundation, and the Getty Research Institute.

The Inderscience Journals Catalogue
The Inderscience Journals Catalogue is available and gives details of the 170 journals they publish in: Engineering, Computing/ICT and Technology; Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development; Management and Business Administration; Healthcare, Sport and Leisure.

The Open-Video Project

The purpose of the Open Video Project is to collect and make available a repository of digitized video content for the digital video, multimedia retrieval, digital library, and other research communities. Researchers can use the video to study a wide range of problems, such as tests of algorithms for automatic segmentation, summarization, and creation of surrogates that describe video content; the development of face recognition algorithms; or creating and evaluating interfaces that display result sets from multimedia queries.

The Scientific Article Search and Order Engine

A service provided by INstitut de l’Information Scientifique et Technique of Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. To improve your search do not hesitate to utilize foreign language equivalent for the words your initially entered.

The Virtual Learning Resources Center

The Virtual Learning Resources Center facilitates students in their search for quality information for school and college academic projects. There are many quality sites on the Web that provide actual information or links to information covering a variety of subjects. At the present time the Virtual LRC indexes approximately 9,000 quality information web pages, all selected by librarians and teachers.

Think Tank Search – Custom Search for More Than 590 Think Tanks and Research Centers

Think Tank Search is a custom Google search of more than 590 think tank websites. For the purposes of this search, think tanks are defined as institutions affiliated with universities, governments, advocacy groups, foundations, non-governmental organizations, and businesses that generate public policy research, analysis, and activity. Inclusion is based upon the relevancy of subject area to HKS coursework and scholarship, the availability of the think tank’s research in full-text on the website, and the think tank’s reputation and influence upon policy making. The list represents a mixture of partisan and non-partisan think tanks.

ThoughtMesh – Publishing and Discovering Scholarly Papers Online

ThoughtMesh is an unusual model for publishing and discovering scholarly papers online. It gives readers a tag-based navigation system that uses keywords to connect excerpts of essays published on different Web sites. Add your essay to the mesh, and ThoughtMesh gives you a traditional navigation menu plus a tag cloud that enables nonlinear access to text excerpts. You can navigate across excerpts both within the original essay and from related essays distributed across the mesh.

Trove Search – National Library of Australia

Trove is a discovery experience focused on Australia and Australians. It supplements what search engines provide. If you are researching in the fields of the social sciences, literature, local or family history, or need inspiration for your school assignment, then this is the tool for you. Find and get over 299,114,232 Australian and online resources:
books, images, historic newspapers, maps, music, archives and more.

U101 – Search Colleges and Universities in the United States and Canada

U101 has links to to help you find out about more than 4000 universities, colleges, community colleges and vocational schools in the US and Canada. Find information on admissions, courses, degree programs, online education and more.

UCL Eprints

UCL Eprints collects the work of UCL researchers and makes it freely available over the web, helping the worldwide scholarly community to discover UCL research. Institutional repositories like UCL Eprints complement the traditional academic publishing and scholarly communications processes. They raise the visibility of research and help to maximise its impact. UCL researchers are encouraged to deposit a copy of each journal article, conference paper, working paper, and any other research output, in the UCL Eprints at the earliest opportunity, ensuring that their research reaches as wide an audience as possible. UCL Eprints can also accommodate papers presented at conferences, workshops and other meetings held at UCL

UK Data Archive (UKDA)

The UK Data Archive (UKDA) is an internationally-renowned centre of expertise in data acquisition, preservation, dissemination and promotion; and is curator of the largest collection of digital data in the social sciences and humanities in the UK. The UKDA provides resource discovery and support for secondary use of quantitative and qualitative data in research, teaching and learning as a lead partner of the Economic and Social Data Service. The UKDA houses AHDS History and Census.ac.uk and supports the National Centre for e-Social Science. The UKDA promotes access to research data at an international level via membership of Council of European Social Science Data Archives and Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research, provides preservation services for other data organisations, and is a designated place of deposit for The National Archives.

University Videos Search

This new Digital Library portal contains the metadata of the YouTube Channels of the world’s Top Universities. Viewing University Videos within the Digital Library provides viewer-enhancements that will make these videos attract and keep more viewers. User Benefits: there are four main user-enhancement features to watch for: 1) Video transcript plays in sync with the playing video, enhancing the user experience; 2) Video Search – enhanced and advanced search capabilities, plus hit to hit navigation; 3) Video Clip and Share – instant and automatic sharing of important video clips; and 4) Video Transcript Navigation, allowing viewers to jump to any spot in the video.

Unplag – Plagiarism Detection

Check academic papers for plagiarism on the fly … Real-time check and Real-time web index. Unplag similarity detection engine checks academic papers literally on the fly. They perform real-time check against real-time web index ensuring you receive the most accurate similarity results. Features include: a) Check up to 5 papers online simultaneously – Choose up to 5 papers to check for plagiarism simultaneously with no decrease in speed. Should you accidentally log out, no worries, the process of checking will be finished automatically. b) View plagiarism check results in the most convenient way – It takes only 4 seconds per page to complete your plagiarism check. They keep the initial file formatting while applying “duplication mask” on top of the document. View plagiarism report online or download it in .pdf format; c) Easy-to-handle file manager supporting multiple file formats – Check .doc, .docx, .rtf, .txt, .odt, .html or .pdf files. Upload, drag and drop, remove, search, name or rename files and folders in any way you need; and d) Secure storage for your academic files – Keep your files in Unplag system and build your Personal papers Library along the way. Organize papers by course or semester and make Docs to Docs comparison to avoid self plagiarism.

Vadlo – Life Science Search Engine

VADLO is brought to you by Life in Research, LLC., a company founded by two biology scientists who wish to make it easier to locate biology research related information on the web. The FASTEST growing search engine in Biology, VADLO caters to all branches of life sciences. With more than 500,000 visitors and 1.5 million pageviews per month, VADLO allows scientists to search within four unique categories: Protocols, Products, Powerpoints, and Bioinformatics. Protocols category lets you search for methods, techniques, assays, procedures, reagent recipes, plasmid maps, etc. Products category allows searching for commericially available life sciences research reagents. Powerpoints category finds powerpoint files for presentations, seminars, lectures and talks. Bioinformatics category caters calculators, servers, prediction tools, sequence alignment and manipulation tools, primer design etc.

Vascoda – Scientific and Scholarly Information Portal

Vascoda is an interdisciplinary internet portal for scientific and scholarly information in Germany. Vascoda unites the internet services of numerous high-performance academic libraries and information institutions. Thanks to systematic grouping of different offerings in one combined portal, vascoda is able to offer an integrated scientific and scholarly information system with access to electronic full texts, document delivery services and pay-per-view options. Vascoda is now the basic module for a Digital Library Germany.

Virtual Learning Resources Center

The mission of the Virtual Learning Resources Center is to index thousands of the best academic information websites, selected by teachers and library professionals worldwide, in order to provide to students and teachers current, valid information for school and university academic projects! The Virtual LRC is both a dedicated index of over 10,000 web pages maintained by a real human being, as well as a meta-search engine that includes in its results information gleaned from many of the best research portals and university and public library Internet subject guides recommended by teachers and librarians. The VLRC includes selected sites in a growing list of subject/information areas including: full-text magazines, newspapers, electronic text archives, art history, biography, biology, career information, psychology, history, government information, literature, medical information, social sciences, legal information, American Civil War, Art, Careers, Crime, Directories, Economics, Education, English Language, Electronic Texts, Foreign Languages, Geography, Genealogy, Government Information,Health/Medical, History, Legal Information, Lesson Plans, Literature, Mathematics, Music, Reference, Science, Technology, Tutorials on the Web, and Writing Style Guides. The Virtual LRC is actually a suite of three databases. In addition to the main index/browser/subject guide, there is also VLRC MagBot, full-text magazine reference and research site offering free hot-topic magazine and journal articles, and VLRC Alphamarks, the subject-classified bookmarks of the Virtual Learning Resources Center. Both VLRC MagBot and VLRC Alphamarks are indexed through the main VLRC index/meta search engine/web directory. These three in combination offer a powerful technology to help users find the most relevant information for their academic needs. The Virtual LRC, a completely free resource, is the creation of Dr. Michael Bell, former state chair of the Texas Association of School Librarians. The Virtual LRC is in a constant state of revision.

Virtual Technical Reports Center

The Virtual Technical Reports Center – EPrints, Preprints, & Technical Reports on the Web. The Institutions listed on this site provide either full-text reports, or searchable extended abstracts of their technical reports on the World Wide Web. This site contains links to technical reports, preprints, reprints, dissertations, theses, and research reports of all kinds.

viXra.org – An Alternative Archive of 6393 e-prints in Science and Mathematics

ViXra.org is an e-print archive set up as an alternative to the popular arXiv.org service owned by Cornell University. It has been founded by scientists who find they are unable to submit their articles to arXiv.org because of Cornell University’s policy of endorsements and moderation designed to filter out e-prints that they consider inappropriate. ViXra is an open repository for new scientific articles. It does not endorse e-prints accepted on its website, neither does it review them against criteria such as correctness or author’s credentials.

VoS – Voice of the Shuttle

It has grown to over 70 pages of searchable links to humanities and humanities-related resources on the Internet. Its mission has been to provide a structured and briefly annotated guide to online resources that at once respects the established humanities disciplines in their professional organization and points toward the transformation of those disciplines as they interact with the sciences and social sciences and with new digital media.

Wanfang Data – Leading Provider of Chinese Information

An affiliate of Chinese Ministry of Science & Technology, Wanfang Data has been the leading information provider in China since 1950s. With a wide range of database resources and value-added services, Wanfang Data has become a gateway to understand Chinese culture, medicine, business, science, etc.

WolframAlpha Computational Knowledge Engine – Trillions of Pieces of Curated Data and Millions of Lines of Algorithms

The WolframAlpha Computational Knowledge Engine using one simple input field that gives access to a huge system that searches for trillions of pieces of curated data and millions of lines of algorithms. A new paradigm for using computers and the web.

WorldWideScience.org – Global Science Database Search Gateway

WorldWideScience.org is a global science gateway—accelerating scientific discovery and progress through a multilateral partnership to enable federated searching of national and international scientific databases. Subsequent versions of WorldWideScience.org will offer access to additional sources as well as enhanced features.

Xstructure – arXiv Search

arXiv ePrint Archive from Cornell University is Open access to 525,110 e-prints in Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science, Quantitative Biology, Quantitative Finance and Statistics. Among the features of Xstructure are: a) Automated generation of hierarchical classification scheme for the papers. The scheme results from classification of the papers in the arxiv database. The only input for the classification is the citation graph. The number of the levels in the hierarchy and the number of the clusters is determined by the algorithm. The algorithm creates the classification scheme, and indexes the papers by the created classification; b) The classification is used to index the new papers. We plan to rebuild the classification scheme regularly. In this way, we will take into account that appearance of new papers may lead to emergence of new themes. Detection of new themes is one of our objectives; c) A number of extra attributes (e.g. Theme name, Authority and Review Articles, etc.) for the elements (themes) of the classification (see Help); and d) Accessibility of the classification in response to search requests via display options, e.g., display as Tree of Themes, and Reference (Citation) Tree. About 10% of papers from arxiv are missed in their database.

Yovisto – Academic Video Search Engine

Yovisto is a video search engine specialized on educational video content. It is helpful for students or common interested peoples to looking for online lectures and educational video. Yovisto allows searching within videos. Furthermore, there are many other features as, e.g., tagging, adding comments, discussing uploading videos and organizing your videos, etc.

Zanran – Search the Web For Data and Statistics

Zanran helps you to find ‘semi-structured’ data on the web. This is the numerical data that people have presented as graphs and tables and charts. For example, the data could be a graph in a PDF report, or a table in an Excel spreadsheet, or a barchart shown as an image in an HTML page. This huge amount of information can be difficult to find using conventional search engines, which are focused primarily on finding text rather than graphs, tables and bar charts.

Zetoc: Monitoring and Search Service for Global Research Publications


They are one of the world’s most comprehensive research databases, giving you access to over 29,000 journals and more than 52 million article citations and conference papers through the British Library’s electronic table of contents. Keeping pace with your peers, staying up to date with new research, and expanding your field of knowledge has never been so simple. They make it easy for you to set-up personalized email Zetoc Alerts or RSS feeds to track the latest articles or journal titles related to your interests.

Source : https://www.llrx.com/2017/01/academic-and-scholar-search-engines-and-sources-2017/

Categorized in Search Engine

The internet is much more than just the publicly available, Google-able web services most online users frequent – and that’s good for free expression. Companies frequently create private networks to enable employees to use secure corporate servers, for example. And free software allows individuals to create what are called “peer-to-peer” networks, connecting directly from one machine to another.

Unable to be indexed by current search engines, and therefore less visible to the general public, subnetworks like these are often called “darknets,” or collective as the singular “darknet.” These networks typically use software, such as Tor, that anonymizes the machines connecting to them, and encrypts the data traveling through their connections.

Some of what’s on the darknet is alarming. A 2015 story from Fox News reads:

“Perusing the darknet offers a jarring jaunt through jaw-dropping depravity: Galleries of child pornography, videos of humans having sex with animals, offers for sale of illegal drugs, weapons, stolen credit card numbers and fake identifications for sale. Even human organs reportedly from Chinese execution victims are up for sale on the darknet.”

But that’s not the whole story – nor the whole content and context of the darknet. Portraying the darknet as primarily, or even solely, for criminals ignores the societal forces that push people toward these anonymous networks. Our research into the content and activity of one major darknet, called Freenet, indicates that darknets should be understood not as a crime-ridden “Wild West,” but rather as “wilderness,” spaces that by design are meant to remain unsullied by the civilizing institutions – law enforcement, governments and corporations – that have come to dominate the internet.

There is definitely illegal activity on the darknet, as there is on the open internet. However, many of the people using the darknet have a diverse range of motives and activities, linked by a common desire to reclaim what they see as major benefits of technology: privacy and free speech.

Describing Freenet

Our research explored Freenet, an anonymous peer-to-peer network accessed via a freely downloadable application. In this type of network, there are no centralized servers storing information or transferring data. Rather, each computer that joins the network takes on some of the tasks of sharing information.

When a user installs Freenet, her computer establishes a connection to a small group of existing Freenet users. Each of these is connected in turn to other Freenet users’ computers. Through these connections, the entire contents of the network are available to any user. This design allows Freenet to be decentralized, anonymous and resistant to surveillance and censorship.

Freenet’s software requires users to donate a portion of their local hard drive space to store Freenet material. That information is automatically encrypted, so the computer’s owner does not know what files are stored or the contents of those files. Files shared on the network are stored on numerous computers, ensuring they will be accessible even if some people turn off their machines.

Joining the network

As researchers, we played the role of a novice Freenet user. The network allows many different types of interaction, including social networking sites and even the ability to build direct relationships with other users. But our goal was to understand what the network had to offer to a new user just beginning to explore the system.

There are several Freenet sites that have used web crawlers to index the network, offering a sort of directory of what is available. We visited one of these sites to download their list. From the 4,286 total sites in the index we chose, we selected a random sample of 427 sites to visit and study more closely. The sites with these indexes are a part of the Freenet network, and therefore can be accessed only by users who have downloaded the software. Standard search engines cannot be used to find sites on Freenet.

An introductory page on Freenet. Roderick Graham and Brian Pitman, CC BY-ND

Finding a ‘hacker ethic’

What we found indicated that Freenet is dominated by what scholars call a “hacker ethic.” This term encompasses a group of progressive and libertarian beliefs often espoused by hackers, which are primarily concerned with these ideals:

  • Access to information should be free;
  • Technology can, and should, improve people’s lives;
  • Bureaucracy and authority are not to be trusted;
  • A resistance to conventional and mainstream lifestyles

Some of that may be because using darknet technology often requires additional technical understanding. In addition, people with technical skills may be more likely to want to find, use and even create services that have technological protections against surveillance.

Our reading of hacking literature suggests to us that the philosophical and ideological beliefs driving darknet users are not well-known. But without this context, what we observed on Freenet would be hard to make sense of.

There were Freenet sites for sharing music, e-books and video. Many sites were focused around personal self-expression, like regular internet blogs. Others were dedicated to promoting a particular ideology. For example, socialist and libertarian content was common. Still other sites shared information from whistle-blowers or government documents, including a copy of the Wikileaks website’s data, complete with its “Afghan War Diary” of classified documents about the United States military invasion of Afghanistan following the Sept. 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.

With the hacker ethic as a guide, we can understand that most of this content is from individuals who have a deep mistrust of authority, reject gross materialism and conformity, and wish to live their digital lives free of surveillance.

What about crime?

There is criminal activity on Freenet. About a quarter of the sites we observed either delivered or linked to child pornography. This is alarming, but must be seen in the proper context. Legal and ethical limits on researchers make it very hard to measure the magnitude of pornographic activity online, and specifically child pornography.

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Once we came upon a site that purported to have child pornography, we left the site immediately without investigating further. For example, we did not seek to determine whether there was just one image or an entire library or marketplace selling pornographic content. This was a good idea from the perspectives of both law and ethics, but did not allow us to gather any real data about how much pornography was actually present.

Other research suggests that the presence of child pornography is not a darknet or Freenet problem, but an internet problem. Work from the the Association for Sites Advocating Child Protection points to pervasive sharing of child pornography well beyond just Freenet or even the wider set of darknets. Evaluating the darknet should not stop just at the presence of illegal material, but should extend to its full content and context.

A pie chart shows the share of Freenet sites devoted to particular types of content. Roderick Graham and Brian Pitman, CC BY-ND

With this new information, we can look more accurately at the darknet. It contains many distinct spaces catering to a wide range of activities, from meritorious to abhorrent. In this sense, the darknet is no more dangerous than the rest of the internet.

And darknet services do provide anonymity, privacy, freedom of expression and security, even in the face of a growing surveillance state.

Author : Roderick S Graham & Brian Pitman

Source : http://www.business-standard.com/article/current-affairs/is-darknet-more-dangerous-than-rest-of-the-internet-117013100232_1.html

Categorized in Deep Web

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