Learn key insights that will help you understand how the algorithms of Instagram, YouTube, TikTok, Twitter, and Facebook work.

Here’s an old question that gets asked every year:

How do social media algorithms work?

But, you can often uncover strategic insights by looking at an old question like this one from a different perspective.

In fact, there’s a term for this effect.

It’s called the “parallax” view.


For example, marketers often look for influencers on the social media platforms with the greatest reach.

But, influencers evaluate these same platforms based on their opportunity to grow their audience and make more money.


This explains why The State of Influencer Marketing 2020: Benchmark Report found that the top five social media platforms for influencer marketing are:

  • Instagram (82%).
  • YouTube (41%).
  • TikTok (23%).
  • Twitter (23%).
  • Facebook (5%).

This list made me wonder why marketers focus on the reach of their campaign’s outputs, but influencers are focused on the growth of their program’s outcomes.

Influencers want to learn how the Instagram and YouTube algorithms work, because they want their videos discovered by more people.

And influencers are interested in learning how the TikTok and Twitter algorithms work, because they are thinking about creating content for those platforms.

Facebook’s algorithm, however, doesn’t seem quite as important to today’s influencers – unless Facebook represents a significant opportunity for them to make more money.

There are a lot of strategic insights that marketers can glean from looking at how social media algorithms work from an influencer’s point of view.

How the Instagram Algorithm Works

Back in 2016, Instagram stopped using a reverse-chronological feed.

Since then, the posts in each user’s feed on the platform has been ordered according to the Instagram algorithm’s ranking signals.

According to the Instagram Help Center:

“Instagram’s technology uses different ways, or signals, to determine the order of posts in your feed. These signals are used to help determine how your feed is ordered, and may include:

  • “Likelihood you’ll be interested in the content.
  • “Date the post was shared.
  • “Previous interactions with the person posting.”

This has a profound impact on influencers – as well as the marketers who are trying to identify the right influencers, find the right engagement tactics, and measure the performance of their programs.


The first key signal is relevance, not reach.

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Because Instagram users are more likely to be interested in an influencer’s content if it is relevant – if it’s about what interests them.

In other words, if you’re interested in football (a.k.a., soccer), then the likelihood that you’ll be interested in content by Nabaa Al Dabbagh, aka “I Speak Football Only,” is high.

But, far too many marketers are looking for celebrities and mega-influencers who have lots of Instagram followers (a.k.a., reach), instead of looking for macro-, mid-tier, micro-, or nano-influencers who are creating relevant content that their target audience is more likely to find interesting.



The second key signal is recency, or how recently a post has been shared.

This gives an advantage to influencers like Marwan Parham Al Awadhi, a.k.a., “DJ Bliss,” who post frequently.


Unfortunately, far too many marketers are engaging influencers to create a single post during a campaign instead of building a long-term relationship with brand advocates who will generate a series of posts that recommend their brand on an ongoing basis.


The third key signal is resonance.

In other words, how engaging are an influencer’s posts?

Do they prompt interactions such as comments, likes, reshares, and views with the influencer’s audience?

And, unfortunately, way too many marketers assume that an influencer’s post that mentions their brand has increased their brand awareness, using bogus metrics like Earned Media Value (EMV).

If they’d read, Why International Search Marketers Should Care About Brand Measurement, then they’d realize there are a variety of legitimate ways to measure the impact of an influencer marketing campaign on:

  • Brand awareness.
  • Brand frequency.
  • Brand familiarity.
  • Brand favorability.
  • Brand emotions.
  • Purchase consideration.
  • Brand preference.
  • Brand demand.

Using this parallax view, it’s easy to see that too many marketers mistakenly think influencer marketing is just like display advertising.

They’re buying posts from influencers the same way they would buy ads from publishers.

So, marketers who only look at an influencer’s reach shouldn’t be shocked, shocked to discover that some influencers are using bad practices such as fake followers, bots, and fraud to inflate their numbers.

If you use a one-dimensional view of an influencer’s influence, then you reap what you sow.

How Does the YouTube Algorithm Work?

Now, I’ve already written several articles on how the YouTube algorithm works, including:

But, these articles were written for marketers, not influencers.

So, what can we learn from looking at YouTube’s algorithm from an influencer’s point of view?

Well, according to YouTube Help:

“The goals of YouTube’s search and discovery system are twofold: to help viewers find the videos they want to watch, and to maximize long-term viewer engagement and satisfaction.”

So, YouTube influencers need to start by creating great content on discoverable topics.


Well, YouTube is one of the most-used search engines in the world.

People visit the site looking for videos about all sorts of subjects.

These viewers may not necessarily be looking for a specific influencer’s video, but they’ll discover it if it ranks well in YouTube search results or suggested videos.

Learn how to use Google Trends to find out what your audiences is looking for on YouTube.

The default results in Google Trends show “web search” interest in a search term or a topic.

But, if you click on the “web search” tab, the drop-down menu will show you that one of your other options is “YouTube search” interest.

YouTube influencers can then use what they see to inform their content strategies.

For example, you might learn that there was 31% more YouTube search interest worldwide in the topic, beauty, than in the topic, fashion.


Or you might discover that there was 18 times more YouTube search interest worldwide in the sport, drifting, than in the sport, motorsport.


YouTube’s algorithm can’t watch your videos, so you need to optimize your metadata, including your titles, tags, and descriptions.

Unfortunately, most marketers don’t use this approach to find the search terms and topics on YouTube that are relevant for their brand and then identify the influencers who are creating content that ranks well for these keywords and phrases.

Now, getting your YouTube video content discovered is only half the battle.


Influencers also need to build long watch-time sessions for their content by organizing and featuring content on their channel, including using series playlists.

As YouTube Help explains:

“A series playlist allows you to mark your playlist as an official set of videos that should be viewed together. Adding videos to a series playlist allows other videos in the playlist to be featured and recommended when someone is viewing a video in the series. YouTube may use this info to modify how the videos are presented or discovered.”

Fortunately, one of the guest speakers for NMA’s program was Mark Wiens, one of the most famous food vloggers in the world.

His YouTube channel has more than 1.4 billion views and almost 6.7 million subscribers.

Here are examples of the playlists that he had created, including Thai food and travel guides.

mark wien

Now, marketers could also look over the playlists on the YouTube channels of influencers when they’re evaluating which ones are “right” for a campaign.

However, I strongly suspect that this only happens once in a blue moon.


How Does the TikTok Algorithm Work?

The TikTok Newsroom posted How TikTok recommends videos #ForYou just before I was scheduled to talk about this topic.

Hey, sometimes you get lucky.


Here’s what I learned:

“When you open TikTok and land in your For You feed, you’re presented with a stream of videos curated to your interests, making it easy to find content and creators you love. This feed is powered by a recommendation system that delivers content to each user that is likely to be of interest to that particular user.”



So, how does this platform’s recommendation system work?

According to TikTok:

“Recommendations are based on a number of factors, including things like:

  • “User interactions such as the videos you like or share, accounts you follow, comments you post, and content you create.
  • “Video information, which might include details like captions, sounds, and hashtags.
  • “Device and account settings like your language preference, country setting, and device type. These factors are included to make sure the system is optimized for performance, but they receive lower weight in the recommendation system relative to other data points we measure since users don’t actively express these as preferences.”

The TikTok Newsroom adds:

“All these factors are processed by our recommendation system and weighted based on their value to a user. A strong indicator of interest, such as whether a user finishes watching a longer video from beginning to end, would receive greater weight than a weak indicator, such as whether the video’s viewer and creator are both in the same country. Videos are then ranked to determine the likelihood of a user’s interest in a piece of content, and delivered to each unique For You feed.”

TikTok cautions:

“While a video is likely to receive more views if posted by an account that has more followers, by virtue of that account having built up a larger follower base, neither follower count nor whether the account has had previous high-performing videos are direct factors in the recommendation system.”

It’s worth noting that Oracle has won the bid to acquire TikTok’s U.S. operations after ByteDance rejected a bid by Walmart and Microsoft.

Meanwhile, YouTube released YouTube Shorts, a TikTok-like feature, while Facebook recently launched Instagram Reels, which is basically a TikTok knock-off.

So, it appears that some very big players are convinced that TikTok represents a significant opportunity to make more money, or a competitive threat to the growth of their own social media platforms.

I wish that I could add more, but I’m a stranger here myself.

How Does Twitter’s Algorithm Work?

When Twitter was launched back in 2006, it had a simple timeline structure and tweets were displayed in reverse chronological order from the people you followed.



But, like other social media, Twitter started using an algorithm to show users posts that different factors indicate they’ll like.

The biggest recent change to Twitter’s algorithm took place in 2017.

According to a Twitter blog post by Nicolas Koumchatzky and Anton Andryeyev:

“Right after gathering all Tweets, each is scored by a relevance model. The model’s score predicts how interesting and engaging a Tweet would be specifically to you. A set of highest-scoring Tweets is then shown at the top of your timeline, with the remainder shown directly below.”

Their post added:

“Depending on the number of candidate Tweets we have available for you and the amount of time since your last visit, we may choose to also show you a dedicated “In case you missed it” module. This modules meant to contain only a small handful of the very most relevant Tweets ordered by their relevance score, whereas the ranked timeline contains relevant Tweets ordered by time. The intent is to let you see the best Tweets at a glance first before delving into the lengthier time-ordered sections.”

How Does Facebook’s Algorithm Work?

The biggest recent change to Facebook’s algorithm took place in January 2018.

In a Facebook post, Mark Zuckerberg announced:

“I’m changing the goal I give our product teams from focusing on helping you find relevant content to helping you have more meaningful social interactions.”

He added:

“The first changes you’ll see will be in News Feed, where you can expect to see more from your friends, family and groups. As we roll this out, you’ll see less public content like posts from businesses, brands, and media. And the public content you see more will be held to the same standard — it should encourage meaningful interactions between people.”

That same day, Adam Mosseri, who was then the head of News Feed, also wrote a Facebbok post that said:

“Today we use signals like how many people react to, comment on or share posts to determine how high they appear in News Feed. With this update, we will also prioritize posts that spark conversations and meaningful interactions between people. To do this, we will predict which posts you might want to interact with your friends about, and show these posts higher in feed. These are posts that inspire back-and-forth discussion in the comments and posts that you might want to share and react to – whether that’s a post from a friend seeking advice, a friend asking for recommendations for a trip, or a news article or video prompting lots of discussion.”

He added:

“Because space in News Feed is limited, showing more posts from friends and family and updates that spark conversation means we’ll show less public content, including videos and other posts from publishers or businesses.”

So, it isn’t surprising that influencers got the memo.

Which explains why so few believe Facebook represents a significant opportunity to make more money.

Ironically, it’s unclear that marketers got the memo.

Far too many are still cranking out Facebook posts and videos despite the fact that few people are reacting to, commenting on, or sharing them.

Or, as I wrote in Two Social Media Vanity Metrics You Need to Stop Tracking, marketers should stop tracking Facebook Page Likes and Followers because “you’re lucky if .0035% of your Fans and Followers even sees your post or tweet these days.”


The Takeaway

These are just some of the strategic insights that marketers can discover by looking at how social media algorithms work from an influencer’s point of view.

If you’re a marketer, then I suggest you move most of the people and budget that you’ve dedicated to creating branded content on Facebook into influencer marketing on Instagram and YouTube.

As for TikTok and Twitter, wait until after the dust settles later this year.

[Source: This article was published in searchenginejournal.com By Greg Jarboe - Uploaded by the Association Member: Corey Parker]

Categorized in Social

Facebook is merging Messenger chats with Instagram direct messages, giving users a way to access both inboxes from the same place.

Facebook is giving users the option to merge their Messenger inbox with Instagram Direct, which grants the ability to send messages across platforms.

Users are seeing a pop-up when opening the Instagram app informing them about this update.

“There’s a New Way to Message on Instagram,” the pop-up reads.

The notice goes on to emphasize the following benefits of merging the two chat platforms:

  • New colorful look for your chats
  • React with any emoji
  • Swipe to reply to messages
  • Chat with friends who use Facebook

Before you choose to update, be aware that it will change the entire look and feel of your Instagram direct message inbox.


Instagram Direct will suddenly look more like Facebook Messenger. Even the icon at the top right of the screen will be replaced with the Messenger icon.

Those who prefer things the way they are will be happy to know this update is completely optional.

If you enjoy the classic design of Instagram DM’s, or you want to keep the two inboxes separate, select the “Not Now” option at the very bottom of the alert.

Users who are on board with merging the two inboxes can go ahead and select “Update.”

Here’s what the alert looks like:


Note that even if you don’t update you will still be able to receive message requests on Instagram from Facebook accounts.

That appears to be the only way to message Facebook users from Instagram at this point – a Facebook user has to initiate the chat.

This may change in the future, but right now it’s not possible to start conversations with Facebook users from Instagram.

With that being the case, this update seems to be most useful for Instagram users who are not active on Facebook.

This gives non-Facebook users a way to keep in touch with friends and family who would prefer to communicate through Messenger.

Now, there’s no compromise needed on either side. Messenger users can communicate with Instagram users without having to leave their platform of choice.

This is an update that has been in the works for well over a year now, as Facebook gave the world a heads-up about this change back in 2019.

Facebook Cross-Platform Messaging

We reported back in January 2019 that Facebook was working on merging its messaging products.

As per a statement from a Facebook spokesperson:

“[We want to] build the best messaging experiences we can; and people want messaging to be fast, simple, reliable and private.

We’re working on making more of our messaging products end-to-end encrypted and considering ways to make it easier to reach friends and family across networks.”

At the time, Facebook planned to have a solution in place by early 2020.

Those plans got derailed by the pandemic, which forced Facebook to focus instead on live streaming.

The live streaming boom was triggered by COVID-19 lockdowns, which lead to increased time spent at home on Facebook.

In order to keep up with the demand for live streaming Facebook had to pause work on other projects.

Presumably, merging messaging platforms was one of the projects that got put on hold.

After successfully beefing up its live streaming capabilities, it appears Facebook is now picking up where it left off.


[Source: This article was published in searchenginejournal.com By Matt Southern - Uploaded by the Association Member: Bridget Miller]

Categorized in News & Politics

Social media monitoring is fast becoming a requirement for modern brands who looking to support their customers on social media platforms, keep an eye on competitors, and/or find relevant influencers. But it can also be a daunting task - with so much discussion happening online, you can easily get swamped by irrelevant mentions, which not only waste your time but can also impact your analytics in a negative way.

One way to address this is by utilizing a monitoring tool with Boolean search capacity, which will enable you to hone in your search terms and focus on more specific mentions. Not every social monitoring tool has Boolean capabilities - tools like Awario, TweetDeck, or Sprout Social will let you play around with Boolean before settling on a subscription plan:


  • Awario is a comprehensive social media and web monitoring tool which comes with advanced features, like Boolean search and powerful analytics
  • TweetDeck is a free Twitter tool with impressive search capabilities and scheduling options.
  • Sprout Social is an all-in-one solution for social media marketers: it’s equipped with a unified inbox, customizable reports, scheduled post publishing, and advanced social listening mode

But before we dive into the 'how' of creating more complex Boolean expressions for brand monitoring, lets start with the basics - without going into too much technical detail, Boolean search enables users to create more specific queries for more accurate results and better reporting. By using your keywords, along with Boolean operators, you can either restrict or broaden your search expressions, and improve your results. 

Here are five steps to help you nail Boolean search for social media monitoring.

1. Find out if you actually need Boolean search

Boolean logic powers up a search query and makes it more adaptable to your needs. But that said, not everyone will need it. If, for example, you don't have a brand name that can be used in multiple contexts, a regular search will likely tackle the task.

Here are some examples of when Boolean search is the only option, or at least, where it will be more helpful than a regular search mode:

  • The name of the brand is a common or ambiguous word - e.g. Apple, Slack, or Uber. Using such a name as a keyword will likely bring a ton of irrelevant mentions. Boolean search can help to narrow your results by utilizing grouping or negative keywords.
  • Combining groups of keywords - Let’s say I own a streaming platform - to find people looking for a service like mine online, I might use phrases like 'streaming service', 'streaming app', 'streaming platform', etc. Using Boolean, I can combine this group with phrases people use to ask about something, such as 'looking for', 'recommend', 'I need', etc., enabling broader, more accurate mention matching.
  • Searching for linkless mentions - With Boolean search, it’s also easier to create queries which exclude mentions that already have links to a particular website. You can also filter results by language or country, and the same operator also makes it possible to discover new backlinks as they appear.
  • Checking for plagiarism - This is probably the least obvious case for using Boolean search, but it works, and it works great. You can set up a query that will search for exact matches of pieces of your content across social media platforms and on the Web to see if someone's using your work without permission.

2. Research keywords

Before playing around with your first query, it's a good idea to get a clear understanding of what keywords should be included, because the tool will ignore lots of relevant results otherwise.

It’s extremely important to research all alternate brand spellings, common typos, and acronyms - in the example below, you can see that the most popular brand name alternatives are listed, along with relevant social media handles and a hashtag.

3. Learn Boolean operators

Major Boolean logic operators that any social monitoring tool has are 'OR', 'AND', 'AND NOT'.

In addition, platforms can go beyond these basics to fulfill more specific needs of businesses, though not all will offer each variant. Here, for example, are the operators offered by Awario:


To search for a specific word combination, or an exact phrase match, you can list the term/s in quotation marks. If you place the plus sign before the quoted phrase, the app will respect special characters and punctuation marks, while double plus before the quoted phrase will ensure the app also considers letter case. 


This operator searches for either or both listed keywords. Note that all operators can be used multiple times within a query. In this example, we'll add a social media handle, which is spelled as a single word. This will enable us to monitor conversations where people tag the company. Then we can also add the 'TBC' acronym - it's not used as often, but we’ll include it for the sake of an example.


Predictably enough, the query above will bring lots of irrelevant mentions, as 'TBC' has a huge amount of full forms. The 'AND' operator will help us make sure that the results include a specific keyword or a group of keywords together with those we already have.

I’ve added the last name of the company’s CEO - this will show us only results where 'TBC' is mentioned in the same post as Musk.


The 'AND NOT' operator is used to add negative keywords to your search. For example, let’s say you want to stop getting conversations where people discuss the fact that the company sells flamethrowers.


The next step in improving our search is grouping the keywords and assigning special keyword formats to them. It’s pretty straightforward here - to group a couple of keywords, you can list them in brackets. For example, let’s imagine we want to add more negative keywords using 'OR'. We have to be sure to group them, otherwise, the 'OR' operator will be applied to the rest of the query.

country, lang, and FROM

Within Boolean search, you can also filter your results by country, language, or social media platform with the help of 'country', 'lang', and 'FROM' respectively. The first two can be used together with the 'AND' operator, while 'FROM' is used independently.

So let’s say we need to get mentions from Australia and New Zealand in English, and we want to get mentions from Twitter, Reddit, and Facebook. The search expression would be the following:


Treating links separately in addition to your keywords is important for several purposes:

  • Getting metrics for a particular web page and interacting with users who share this page online
  • Picking up mentions where a website’s name is different from target keywords
  • Collecting mentions which link to a website but don’t contain a mention of its name
  • Excluding web pages linking to your own website for link-building purposes

The 'link' operator will help us with these tasks.


Let’s include the link to the website just to make sure we don’t lose any mentions where the anchor text is different from the URL.

Note that adding an asterisk before and after a URL makes sure that links to all subdomains and pages of a website will be found as well.


This operator specifies the closeness of your keywords to each other - this means that your search app will pull in mentions where keywords appear within a number of words away from each other.

Let’s imagine that we've decided to monitor news about 'Boring Bricks' produced by the company from the examples above. Quick research shows that, in news report, these words generally appear in a different order and the distance between them is also different. Let’s choose the safe distance of, say, 50 words and see if we get good results on Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube.

To make sure we don’t get irrelevant mentions, we'll look for those starting with capital letters only.


'UNION' helps in combining multiple Boolean expressions into one. This makes sense if you want to merge a couple of search expressions with completely different parameters and different sources into one expression, i.e. get all results into one feed.

As you can see, the last two examples above have different sources. If we want to merge both expressions, we’ll need help from the 'UNION' operator.

4. Avoid common mistakes

Capitalize AND, OR, AND NOT

This one is common. Keep in mind that a query won’t be correct until you capitalize the 'AND', 'OR', 'AND NOT', and 'FROM' operators.

Group keywords

If a query is (or seems to be) ready, but the results are completely the opposite of what you expected, the problem is most likely the grouping. Remember that if not grouped, 'AND' or 'AND NOT' are applied to the closest keyword only.

Choose suitable operators

Languages are flexible, and the same phrase may be constructed differently depending on its place in the sentence. For that purpose, the proximity operator 'near/n' will often do a better job than putting a phrase into quotes.

Don’t forget that keywords aren’t case-sensitive

They aren’t, and they ignore symbols and capital letters unless you specifically tell them not to, using such keyword formats as +“h&m” or even ++“H&M”.

5. Iterate

It’s difficult to foresee all the possible outcomes of queries, as a brand abbreviation may be also used by another company, or an initial negative keywords list might not be complete. But the good news is that queries can always be edited and extended. My advice here is iterate, blacklist, remove, add terms, and to experiment with different operators.

Summing Up

Social media is a great place to get instant feedback or content for your company. When choosing a brand monitoring tool, make sure Boolean search capability, and unlimited keywords are included in the product to maximize this capacity.

Is Boolean hard to use? It can look intimidating at first, but learning the process really is worth the effort, and you can easily find lots of educational resources for the topic.

Take advantage of Boolean search to get the most relevant results possible - and happy monitoring.

 [Source: This article was published in socialmediatoday.com By Aleh Barysevich - Uploaded by the Association Member: Jennifer Levin]

Categorized in Search Engine

This could make many Twitter users very happy, or equally lead to more confusion, depending on how it's enacted.

According to a new discovery by reverse engineering expert Jane Manchun Wong, Twitter is working on a new option that would enable users to apply for profile verification from their account settings.

Screenshot 2


This could make many Twitter users very happy, or equally lead to more confusion, depending on how it's enacted.


According to a new discovery by reverse engineering expert Jane Manchun Wong, Twitter is working on a new option that would enable users to apply for profile verification from their account settings.

Screenshot 3

Twitter hasn't provided any updates on the process since then, though it has repeatedly noted that it is working on a new system. Twitter has also continued to verify some accounts, though not via user applications. Most recently, Twitter used its verification tick to highlight authoritative voices in relation to COVID-19, but again, that was internally managed, and not open for public requests.

Twitter first enabled all users to apply for verification back in 2016, though if you try to go through that process now, you're met with this note:


Twitter product lead Kayvon Beykpour reported in July 2018 that, while work had been done on fixing its verification process, it was not a priority, and was still some way off being re-launched. The appearance of a new prompt in testing could suggest that it's now moving closer to making a comeback - though how it might function, and what qualification process Twitter will use for such, remains a mystery. And it'll likely be difficult for Twitter to manage, no matter how they go about it.

For example, part of the problem with verification was that it seemingly implied that Twitter endorsed any account with a blue tick. In 2017, Twitter verified the profile of a white supremacist leader - despite, around the same time, vowing to take more action against hate speech. That's what prompted the initial pause on verification - the confusion here was that some within Twitter saw the verification tick as a basic mark of ID confirmation, while others felt it should be reserved for approved public figures only. So some people have been verified simply by proving who they are, regardless of their public profile, while others have been rejected, despite being people of significance.

Any changes to the process will mean that Twitter will need to provide more specific clarity around exactly what qualifies someone for a blue tick, but it could also mean that Twitter will need to retrospectively remove the tick from those who currently have it, yet don't meet these updated standards.

Twitter, of course, is unlikely to do that, but if it doesn't take that step, that will mean that a level of confusion will remain around what the blue tick represents, as some people who've been approved previously will still have it, despite not matching the new requirements.

How Twitter gets around that is hard to say - just remove it for everyone then start again? That seems unlikely - but then again, with only 356k people currently holding the blue tick, Twitter could, theoretically, review all of these profiles and take the tick away from those who are no longer eligible.

Either way, it's interesting to note that Twitter does appear to be moving on this, and it'll be ineresting to see how they facilitate the process moving forward.

If Twitter leans towards making it more of an official ID confirmation, that could help to provide more accountability, with users unable to hide behind a basic account. Twitter could, for example, reduce the visibility of accounts which are not approved, limiting their capacity to interact without going through the ID process. That could make trolls think twice about their activity, given that it would be tied back to their actual identity.

If Twitter leans towards making it more of exclusive endorsement for public figures, that, as noted, could see accounts that don't qualify stripped of the tick.  

It's an interesting element, and we'll have to wait and see where Twitter decides to go with it.

[Source: This article was published in socialmediatoday.com By Andrew Hutchinson - Uploaded by the Association Member: Wushe Zhiyang]

Categorized in Social

“For me, trust has to be earned. It’s not something that can be demanded or pulled out of a drawer and handed over. And the more government or the business sector shows genuine regard and respect for peoples’ privacy in their actions, as well as in their word and policies, the more that trust will come into being.” Dr. Anita L. Allen

Dr. Anita Allen serves as Vice Provost for Faculty and Henry R. Silverman Professor of Law and Philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Allen is a renowned expert in the areas of privacy, data protection, ethics, bioethics, and higher education, having authored the first casebook on privacy law and has been awarded numerous accolades and fellowships for her work. She earned her JD from Harvard and both her Ph.D. and master’s in philosophy from the University of Michigan. I had the opportunity to speak with her recently about her illustrious career, the origins of American privacy law and her predictions about the information age.


Q: Dr. Allen, a few years ago you spoke to the Aspen Institute and offered a prediction that “our grandchildren will resurrect privacy from a shallow grave just in time to secure the freedom, fairness, democracy, and dignity we all value… a longing for solitude and independence of mind and confidentiality…” Do you still feel that way, and if so, what will be the motivating factors for reclaiming those sacred principles?


A: Yes, I believe that very hopeful prediction will come true because there’s an increasing sense in the general public of the extent to which we have perhaps unwittingly ceded our privacy controls to the corporate sector, and in addition to that, to the government. I think the Facebook problems that had been so much in the news around Cambridge Analytica have made us sensitive and aware of the fact that we are, by simply doing things we enjoy, like communicating with friends on social media, putting our lives in the hands of strangers.

And so, these kinds of disclosures, whether they’re going to be on Facebook or some other social media business, are going to drive the next generation to be more cautious. They’ll be circumspect about how they manage their personal information, leading to, I hope, eventually, a redoubled effort to ensure our laws and policies are respectful of personal privacy.

Q: Perhaps the next generation heeds the wisdom of their elders and avoids the career pitfalls and reputational consequences of exposing too much on the internet?

A: I do think that’s it as well. Your original question was about my prediction that the future would see a restoration of concern about privacy. I believe that, yes, as experience shows the younger generation just what the consequences are of living your life in the public view and there will be a turnaround to some extent. To get people to focus on what they have to lose. It’s not just that you could lose job opportunities. You could lose school admissions. You could lose relationship opportunities and the ability to find the right partner because your reputation is so horrible on social media.

All of those consequences are causing people to be a little more reserved. It may lead to a big turnaround when people finally get enough control over their understanding of those consequences that they activate their political and governmental institutions to do better by them.

Q: While our right to privacy isn’t explicitly stated in the U.S. Constitution, it’s reasonably inferred from the language in the amendments. Yet today, “the right to be forgotten” is an uphill battle. Some bad actors brazenly disregard a “right to be left alone,” as defined by Justice Brandeis in 1890. Is legislation insufficient to protect privacy in the Information Age, or is the fault on the part of law enforcement and the courts?

A: I’ve had the distinct pleasure to follow developments in privacy law pretty carefully for the last 20 years, now approaching 30, and am the author or co-author of numerous textbooks on the right to privacy in the law, and so I’m familiar with the legal landscape. I can say from that familiarity that the measures we have in place right now are not adequate. It’s because the vast majority of our privacy laws were written literally before the internet, and in some cases in the late 1980s or early 1990s or early 2000s as the world was vastly evolving. So yes, we do need to go back and refresh our electronic communications and children’s internet privacy laws. We need to rethink our health privacy laws constantly. And all of our privacy laws need to be updated to reflect existing practices and technologies.


The right to be forgotten, which is a right described today as a new right created by the power of Google, is an old right that goes back to the beginning of privacy law. Even in the early 20th century, people were concerned about whether or not dated, but true information about people could be republished. So, it’s not a new question, but it has a new shape. It would be wonderful if our laws and our common law could be rewritten so that the contemporary versions of old problems, and completely new issues brought on by global technologies, could be rethought in light of current realities.

Q: The Fourth Amendment to the Constitution was intended to protect Americans from warrantless search and seizure. However, for much of our history, citizens have observed as surveillance has become politically charged and easily abused. How would our founders balance the need for privacy, national security, and the rule of law today?

A: The fourth amendment is an amazing provision that protects persons from a warrantless search and seizure. It was designed to protect peoples’ correspondence, letters, papers, as well as business documents from disclosure without a warrant. The idea of the government collecting or disclosing sensitive personal information about us was the same then as it is now. The fact that it’s much more efficient to collect information could be described as almost a legal technicality as opposed to a fundamental shift.

I think that while the founding generation couldn’t imagine the fastest computers we all have on our wrists and our desktops today, they could understand entirely the idea that a person’s thoughts and conduct would be placed under government scrutiny. They could see that people would be punished by virtue of government taking advantage of access to documents never intended for them to see. So, I think they could very much appreciate the problem and why it’s so important that we do something to restore some sense of balance between the state and the individual.

Q: Then, those amendments perhaps anticipated some of today’s challenges?

A: Sure. Not in the abstract, but think of it in the concrete. If we go back to the 18th and 19th centuries, you will find some theorists speculating that someday there will be new inventions that will raise these types of issues. Warren and Brandeis talked specifically about new inventions and business methods. So, it’s never been far from the imagination of our legal minds that more opportunities would come through technology. They anticipated technologies that would do the kinds of things once only done with pen and paper, things that can now be done in cars and with computers. It’s a structurally identical problem. And so, while I do think our laws could be easily updated, including our constitutional laws, the constitutional principles are beautiful in part because fundamentally they do continue to apply even though times have changed quite a bit.

Some of the constitutional languages we find in other countries around ideas like human dignity, which is now applied to privacy regulations, shows that, to some extent, very general constitutional language can be put to other purposes.

Q: In a speech to the 40th International Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners Conference, you posited that “Every person in every professional relationship, every financial transaction and every democratic institution thrives on trust. Openly embracing ethical standards and consistently living up to them remains the most reliable ways individuals and businesses can earn the respect upon which all else depends.” How do you facilitate trust, ethics, and morality in societies that have lost confidence in the authority of their institutions and have even begun to question their legitimacy?

A: For me, trust has to be earned. It’s not something that can be demanded or pulled out of a drawer and handed over. Unfortunately, the more draconian and unreasonable state actors behave respecting people’s privacy, the less people will be able to generate the kind of trust that’s needed. And the more government or the business sector shows genuine regard and respect for peoples’ privacy in their actions, as well as in their word and policies, the more that trust will come into being.

I think that people have to begin to act in ways that make trust possible. I have to act in ways that make trust possible by behaving respectfully towards my neighbors, my family members, and my colleagues at work, and they the same toward me. The businesses that we deal with have to act in ways that are suggestive of respect for their customers and their vendors. Up and down the chain. That’s what I think. There’s no magic formula, but I do think there’s some room for conversation for education in schools, in religious organizations, in NGOs, and policy bodies. There is room for conversations that enable people to find discourses about privacy, confidentiality, data protection that can be used when people demonstrate that they want to begin to talk together about the importance of respect for these standards.

It’s surprising to me how often I’m asked to define privacy or define data protection. When we’re at the point where experts in the field have to be asked to give definitions of key concepts, we’re, of course, at a point where it’s going to be hard to have conversations that can develop trust around these ideas. That’s because people are not always even talking about the same thing. Or they don’t even know what to talk about under the rubric. We’re in the very early days of being able to generate trust around data protection, artificial intelligence, and the like because it’s just too new.

Q: The technology is new, but the principles are almost ancient, aren’t they?

A: Exactly. If we have clear conceptions about what we’re concerned about, whether its data protection or what we mean by artificial intelligence, then those ancient principles can be applied to new situations effectively.

Q: In a world where people have a little less shame about conduct, doesn’t that somehow impact the general population’s view of the exploitation of our data?

A: It seems to me we have entered a phase where there’s less shame, but a lot of that’s OK because I think we can all agree that maybe in the past, we were a bit too ashamed of our sexuality, of our opinions. Being able to express ourselves freely is a good thing. I guess I’m not sure yet on where we are going because I’m thinking about, even like 50 years ago, when it would have been seen as uncouth to go out in public without your hat and gloves. We have to be careful that we don’t think that everything that happens that’s revealing is necessarily wrong in some absolute sense.


It’s different to be sure. But what’s a matter of not wearing your hat and gloves, and what’s a matter of demeaning yourself? I certainly have been a strong advocate for moralizing about privacy and trying to get people to be more reserved and less willing to disclose when it comes to demeaning oneself. And I constantly use the example of Anthony Weiner as someone who, in public life, went too far, and not only disclosed but demeaned himself in the process. We do want to take precautions against that. But if it’s just a matter of, “we used to wear white gloves to Sunday school, and now we don’t…” If that’s what we’re talking about, then it’s not that important.

Q: You studied dance in college and then practiced law after graduating from Harvard, but ultimately decided to dedicate your career to higher education, writing, and consulting. What inspired you to pursue an academic career, and what would you say are the lasting rewards?

A: I think a love of reading and ideas guided my career. Reading, writing, and ideas, and independence governed my choices. As an academic, I get to be far freer than many employees are. I get to write what I want to write, to think about what I want to think, and to teach and to engage people in ideas, in university, and outside the university. Those things governed my choices.

I loved being a practicing lawyer, but you have to think about and deal with whatever problems the clients bring to you. You don’t always have that freedom of choice of topic to focus on. Then when it comes to things like dance or the arts, well, I love the arts, but I think I’ve always felt a little frustrated about the inability to make writing and debate sort of central to those activities. I think I am more of a person of the mind than a person of the body ultimately.


[Source: This article was published in cpomagazine.com By RAFAEL MOSCATEL - Uploaded by the Association Member: Grace Irwin]

Categorized in Internet Ethics

Social media and search engine marketing (SEM) are the two predominant forms of advertising that dominate the online marketing space. To succeed in marketing, it’s important for your business to grasp these marketing channels.

As companies invest more and more into their marketing efforts, the question naturally arises: Which is better?

Before I dive into that question, it is important to understand that the question itself is faulty. Neither social media nor SEM is better than the other. One medium may be better based on the needs of the individual business/industry; however, neither is inherently better than the other.


I am not going to clarify which one is better. Instead, I will seek to increase understanding of each medium so that your business can best utilize each tactic.

Strategy For Social Media

For the purpose of this article, social media encompasses the entire umbrella of organic social media marketing and paid social media advertising. Social media marketing offers businesses the opportunity to market to specific demographics and groups of people.

Here are the typical factors that can be leveraged in your social media marketing efforts:

  •  Demographics.
  •  Interests.
  •  Behavior.
  •  Connections.

If you take a closer look at the factors above, you will see that social media marketing offers companies a more traditional approach to marketing, one that they may have learned in college or business school.

Just like the days of old — when advertising dominated TVs, magazines and radio — social media offers much of the same. Companies try to engage with consumers, who are not there to look at their ads, in the hopes that the creative and messaging of the advertising is so good that it will stop consumers midscroll.

Therefore, social media works much more effectively for those businesses that have a strong understanding of their current customer base and/or have a strong understanding of the market they want to target. The caveat is that the market you are targeting has not shown interest or intent on a service like yours, so you must convince them otherwise with compelling ads.

Strategy For SEM/SEO

SEM, which encompasses paid search and search engine optimization (SEO), presents a much different marketing engagement opportunity than traditional advertising methods. As opposed to TV, radio and social media, where companies can target their ads and marketing to a target market based on demographics, interests and what they are currently engaging with, SEM focuses strictly on intent and psychographics.


The factors to leverage are:

  •  Search query.
  •  Location.
  •  Behavior.

This list looks smaller than that of social media marketing, but don’t assume that that means SEM is weaker. If you dig deeper into these factors, you will see that search engine marketing revolves much more around intent.

Let’s put it this way: In social media marketing, you know what your potential market looks like, what they are interested in and where they might be. On the search side, it’s flipped on its head. You know that the market is interested in your service/product because they Googled a keyword that is directly related to your product. However, you have no idea what their attributes are.

So, in SEM you are working in the reverse. You know that the person typing in a search term has shown interest; you now need to convince them that you are the one to go with and you need to verify that they fit the type of customer you serve.


The nature of online marketing becomes more and more sophisticated by the day. Companies need to go beyond just having a profile or website somewhere online; instead, they must understand how to be effective on any and all of the marketing channels they decide to pursue.

To understand which strategy to take, it not only depends on your business, but also the resources you have at your disposal. Social media offers the traditional target market approach with an attention, interest, desire and action strategy. SEM offers an intent approach where your target market doesn’t drive the market; it merely acts as a filter.

It bears repeating: Neither strategy is inherently better than the other. SEM and social media offer marketing mediums that are two sides of the same coin. The approaches may be different, but their efficacy and purpose are one and the same.

[Source: This article was published in forbes.com By Jason Khoo - Uploaded by the Association Member: Dorothy Allen]

Categorized in Social

Researchers point out social media and search engines have encouraged greater and more diverse news consumption, thus challenging the concept of filter bubbles and echo chambers on the Internet

Digital media have fundamentally changed the way we consume news. It is often assumed that the use of social networks and search engines has had a negative impact on the diversity of news that people access. This is often attributed to the algorithmic filtering used by these intermediaries, which only displays information that corresponds to the individual users' interests and preferences. However, a recent study undertaken by researchers from Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), the University of Hohenheim, and GESIS - the Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences in Cologne contradicts this widespread conjecture. Based on an innovative analysis of the web browsing behavior of more than 5,000 German Internet users, the results show that the use of intermediaries such as Facebook, Twitter, Google, or portals like GMX actually results in more visits to news sites and a greater variety of news sites visited. This runs counter to what has been postulated to date.


"Anyone visiting Facebook or Google is much more likely to come into contact with news items. Therefore the use of these intermediaries is an important mechanism in the consumption of news on the Internet," said Dr. Frank Mangold of the University of Hohenheim. The research team attributes this to the concept of incidental exposure to news. In the case of traditional media such as television and newspapers, people often only see the news if they deliberately choose to do so. On intermediary platforms they can also come into contact with news by chance, if, for example, their contacts share news content with them or they happen upon interesting articles when checking their emails. According to the researchers, the study's findings could have significant political and social implications, as they disprove the notion of the formation of filter bubbles and echo chambers. "Previous debates have, in many respects, revolved around the fear that online media would lead to new social barriers," said Professor Michael Scharkow of Mainz University. "However, our findings show that social media and search engines in fact have great potential to break down existing barriers."

"From previous studies undertaken by the University of Oxford in particular, we know that although access to news often happens partly by chance, it is also partly down to conscious choice. Some users even visit sites like Facebook and Twitter in order to consume news content," added Dr. Johannes Breuer of GESIS. For their study, the researchers used a statistical model to calculate the estimated daily usage of news content in order to isolate the extent of incidental or unplanned contact with news items. "Regardless of whether a user usually consumed a little or a lot of online news, on days on which someone spent more time on Facebook, Twitter, or Google than usual, they also came into contact with more news as well as more news from different sources than usual," stated Dr. Sebastian Stier from GESIS in the light of the findings.

Last but not least, the researchers also point out that further studies and more detailed insights into the algorithms of intermediaries are necessary in order to understand more precisely how these intermediaries promote unintended, incidental news consumption.

[Source: This article was published in eurekalert.org By JOHANNES GUTENBERG - Uploaded by the Association Member: Deborah Tannen]

Categorized in News & Politics

A report on the digital news industry finds Instagram is set to become a more popular source than Twitter, with younger demographics leading the charge.

Instagram is quickly becoming a popular popular source of news for users ages 18-24 and is set to overtake Twitter, according to new research.

The 2020 Reuters Institute Digital News report finds the amount of users turning to Instagram for news has doubled since 2018.

Younger people are behind the shift toward Instagram as a news source, with two-thirds of people under 25 saying they use it for that purpose.

Users aged 18-24 are more considerably likely to access news via social media than a website or dedicated news app, the report finds.


“Access to news continues to become more distributed. Across all countries, just over a quarter (28%) prefer to start their news journeys with a website or app.

Those aged 18–24 (so-called Generation Z) have an even weaker connection with websites and apps and are more than twice as likely to prefer to access news via social media.”

Across all demographics 11% of people use Instagram for news, which is just one point behind Twitter.


This is notable as Instagram hasn’t traditionally been thought of as a destination for the latest news.

Real-time news updates have always been Twitter’s forte, while Instagram has been more of a platform where people share photos and videos for entertainment.

However, Instagram’s specialization in visual content is precisely what makes it appealing as a news source to younger people.

Nic Newman, lead author of the Reuters report, states:

“Instagram’s become very popular with younger people. They really respond well to stories that are told simply and well with visual images.”

Instagram still has a ways to go before it catches up to Facebook, which is currently the most popular social network for news use.

YouTube is the second-most popular social network for news, followed by WhatsApp, Twitter, and then Instagram.

If Instagram continues to double its news usage year-over-year then it won’t be long before it overtakes Twitter and approaches Facebook & YouTube territory.

Social Media Not a Trusted Source of News Overall

Despite the uptick in use as a news source, Reuters finds that social media is the least trusted source of digital news.

In the United States, only 14% of people trust news they see in social media compared to 22% who trust news they find in search engines.

Of those who trust social media for news, Instagram ranks second-to-last as a trusted source. Facebook is tops again in this area, followed by YouTube and Twitter.


Trust in news in the United States is low overall, however, as only 29% of people say they trust any news.

Online – including social media, websites, and apps – is by far the most popular medium for consuming news in the United States

Social media represents the greatest area for growth when it comes to news consumption. As you can see in the graphic below, social media is the only source that has grown in popularity at all in recent years.


Print news continues its decline, while TV news appears to be seeing a resurgence after a sharp drop in 2017-2018.

For more on the state of the digital news industry in 2020, see the full report here (PDF link).


[Source: This article was published in searchenginejournal.com By Matt Southern - Uploaded by the Association Member: Anthony Frank]

Categorized in Social

Brands need to be active on social media – but having your own voice doesn't mean you can post recklessly. Know 25 things NOT to do on social media.

Social media has the power to grow your brand into a massive empire.

But if you aren’t careful, it can do just the opposite.

Take Snapchat, for example.

In 2018, Snapchat ran an ad game called “Would You Rather?”

One of the questions asked was if users would rather “Slap Rihanna” or “Punch Chris Brown.”


The result?

Worldwide outrage and an $800 million loss for Snapchat.

Sure, the ad’s bad taste is pretty obvious. No one wants to play a game based on domestic violence.

But did you know there are other less-noticeable social media blunders that lead to a bad reputation and failure to grow your brand?

Here are some you should never do.

25 Social Media Blunders You Should Stay Away From

Stay away from these 25 mistakes, and your social media campaign will flourish.

1. Not Being Up-to-Date with Current Trends

In 2016, Wendy’s posted a meme of Pepe the Frog dressed up as their mascot.

What they didn’t know was that the cute cartoon frog had recently become an image of racism and white supremacy.

It’s not hard to imagine the response.

To avoid a mistake like Wendy’s, do a little research before posting anything on social media.

2. Posting Insensitive Content

Be humorous, but stay away from insensitive jokes.

We all remember the Yanny vs. Laurel audio clip that tore the web apart.

To jump into this trend, the U.S. Air Force’s Twitter manager posted this social media gaffe.


3. Confusing Your Business Account with Your Personal Account

It’s important to be entertaining and engaging, but don’t forget to distinguish between business posts and personal posts.

For instance, don’t post a photo of what you had for lunch on your business account (unless you run an organic diet-in-a-box food service).


4. Getting Angry When You Get Negative Comments

As your brand grows, you’ll get both positive and negative comments.

Remember, negative comments are there to help you improve.

Deal with them open-mindedly and try to solve the problem instead of lashing back.

Here’s an example from a buyer who complained at Toblerone’s Facebook Page.


Toblerone’s response?

25 Things You Should Never Do on Social Media

When you put genuine effort into helping customers with their problems, you both appease customers and gain input for your brand’s improvement.

5. Skipping the Editing Process

Before posting anything on social media, edit it viciously.

Typos and grammar mistakes will be noticed, and they won’t do your brand any good.


6. Failing to Address Mistakes

No matter how strict you are with your rules and guidelines, mistakes will pop up now and then (because we’re all human, right?).

When they do, address them tactfully. You can even be a little humorous.

Take this example from The Red Cross addressing their social media specialist Gloria Huang’s mistake as inspiration.

7. Posting Only When Inspiration Strikes

On your personal social media account, you can post any time the mood strikes you. Or not at all.

Not so with your business account. In fact, the more you post, the more exposure you’ll gain.

Here’s a quick guideline from Volusion on how often to post on different social media platforms.

  • Facebook and Instagram: Once or twice daily.
  • Twitter: 5-10 tweets daily.
  • Pinterest: 5-30 pins daily.
  • Linkedin: 20 posts a month.

8. Forgetting Your Mission to Enrich Your Followers’ Lives

Starting a business isn’t all about boosting your earning potential. It’s about developing a product or service that’ll enrich people’s lives.

So when you take to social media, make it your goal to reflect that mission.

Share content that’s useful, relevant, and helpful to people. Enrich their lives.

Look how Great Escape Publishing does it on their Facebook page.


9. Sounding Too Salesy

While it’s a good practice to promote new products on social media, don’t overdo it.

No one will keep following a brand that constantly pushes them to buy something.

10. Ignoring Comments on Your Posts

Engagement is of top priority on social media. So when your followers comment on your posts, comment back.

Here are some tips on responding to comments:


[Source: This article was published in searchenginejournal.com By Julia McCoy - Uploaded by the Association Member: Logan Hochstetler]

Categorized in Social

As we all know, YouTube is the second largest search engine which provides a platform for sharing videos. Currently, it has 1.9 billion users per month, and with every passing minute, over 300 hours of video gets uploaded in it. Besides, YouTube has elevated the concept of video blogging into a whole nother level.

There are a lot of video makers for beginners which are easy to use. It is completely natural for teenagers or young adults to look at YouTube as a stage for them to make a mark.

YouTube can bring you a wider reach than other social media platforms. Regular posting of videos can get you the attention of MNCs, which can provide you with more opportunities and help you earn an impressive amount from YouTube.


Here are a few tips that you would need to follow as a beginner while setting up your channel on YouTube:

Table of Contents

1. Purpose of your channel

It is easy to create an account and post your video on YouTube. But nine times out of ten that would get you negative results. The first thing that you need to determine is what kind of content you are going to put forward for the YouTubers.

interesting reading:  "Teaching people about climate change is the first step in fighting it." - Interview With Pakistani Activist Iqbal Badruddin

By doing so, you would be able to set your goals and achieve them one at a time.

2. Keywords

Just like other SEOs, you should provide your keywords, which would vividly describe your content. Make sure that you do your research on the keyword that you are going to use and look up the analytics of the keywords you want to use.

Keywords help the viewers to find your content on your channel. Don’t be entirely dependent on online tools that help you search for keywords. Use variations in common phrases. This would differentiate your content from others providing content based on similar ideology.

As video search results also appear in Google Ads, do use the keyword searcher in Google Ads while doing your research on keywords.

Adding keywords to your channel would help you to get more viewers and subscribers quickly.

3. Building up your content

Once you get an idea regarding what kind of videos you want to upload and what keywords you will use, start collecting and recording videos for your content.

Use video editing software like VideoCreek. These kinds of software help you to create your content very quickly.

interesting reading:  Ahmad Shah Becomes Youngest Pakistani YouTuber Who Bags Gold Button From YouTube

Moreover, don’t make your video too long. Trim off the unnecessary parts. Use transitions to maintain continuity in your videos.

I would suggest that you create enough content (approx. 2 weeks worth). This will help you to upload videos at regular intervals.

Consistently uploading videos on your channel increases the engagement on your channel, and in turn, you get more viewers and subscribers.

4. Creating an account on YouTube

A Gmail account is more than enough for you to sign into YouTube since YouTube is one of the most significant subsidiaries of Google. Once you are signed in on YouTube, you need to select the kind of account you want: business or professional. The difference between the two is that business accounts allow you to create an alternate name for your channel and share it with other Gmail users.

Once you follow the steps that YouTube asks you to follow to get a verified account, you can describe your channel.

Also, you can add a profile picture and a picture as a banner that can be of a maximum of 2560×1440 pixels.


5. Organizing and creating Playlists

When you upload videos on YouTube, they would appear under the videos section. A good content provider also keeps in mind the order in which the videos should look to the YouTubers when then go to your page.

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You should set the order of your videos in the decreasing order of the number of views. On the other hand, if you upload your videos in parts, do maintain then order in the way you want the viewers to watch the videos.

Create playlists on your channel. It would help you to provide a collection of videos that you want your viewers to watch. Give the name of the playlist based upon the type of content it has.

6. Optimizing your channel

This is a crucial aspect that every content provider on YouTube must focus on. By Optimization, I mean you need to keep an idea about the watch time, engagement, average watch time, viewer retention, and the number of re-watches.

This would help you make the necessary changes in the videos you upload in the future so that you get better results.


By following the steps mentioned above, I am confident that you will be able to achieve fruitful results from your channel. I hope this will make your work a bit easier, and you will enjoy your time as a content provider on YouTube. Make sure you include YouTube ends screen to your videos. It will help you widen your reach faster.

[Source: This article was published in technologytimes.pk By Raja Hamid - Uploaded by the Association Member: Issac Avila]

Categorized in Social
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